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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714073/sex-differences-in-angii-stimulated-fluid-intake
#1
Jessica Santollo
Sex has a clear effect on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. While sex differences in the pressor response to angiotensin II (AngII) are well established, understanding sex differences in the fluid intake response to AngII are clouded by conflicting reports. Here we suggest that accounting for differences in body weights contribute to the discrepancies in the literature. Our recent findings demonstrate that body weight influences AngII-stimulated water intake under certain conditions in males, but not females...
July 17, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709954/modulation-of-itch-by-conditioning-itch-and-pain-stimulation-in-healthy-humans
#2
H H Andersen, A I M van Laarhoven, J Elberling, L Arendt-Nielsen
Little is known about endogenous descending control of itch. In chronic pain, descending pain inhibition is reduced as signified by lowered conditioned pain modulation (CPM). There are indications that patients with chronic itch may also exhibit reduced endogenous descending inhibition of itch and pain. This study aimed to investigate whether and the extent to which itch can be modulated by conditioning itch and pain stimuli. Twenty-six healthy volunteers participated. The study consisted of 5 conditions designed to systematically assess endogenous modulation of itch or pain: 1) itch-induced modulation of contralateral itch, 2) pain-induced modulation of contralateral itch, 3) pain-induced modulation of ipsilateral itch, 4) pain-induced modulation of contralateral pain, and 5) itch-induced modulation of contralateral pain...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706000/absence-of-compensatory-vasodilation-with-perfusion-pressure-challenge-in-exercise-evidence-for-and-implications-of-the-non-compensator-phenotype
#3
Robert F Bentley, Jeremy J Walsh, Patrick J Drouin, Aleksandra Velickovic, Sarah J Kitner, Alyssa M Fenuta, Michael E Tschakovsky
Compromising oxygen delivery (O2D) during exercise requires compensatory vasodilatory and/or pressor responses to protect O2D : demand matching. The purpose of the study was to determine whether compensatory vasodilation is absent in some healthy, young individuals in the face of a sudden reduction in exercising forearm perfusion pressure, and whether this affects the exercise pressor response. 21 healthy, young males (21.6±2.0yrs) completed rhythmic forearm exercise at a work rate equivalent to 70% of their own maximal exercise vasodilation...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701490/correction-to-sympathetic-neural-and-hemodynamic-responses-during-cold-pressor-test-in-elderly-blacks-and-whites
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695320/at1-and-at2-receptors-in-the-prelimbic-cortex-modulate-the-cardiovascular-response-evoked-by-acute-exposure-to-restraint-stress-in-rats
#5
Taíz F S Brasil, Aline Fassini, Fernando M Corrêa
The prelimbic cortex (PL) is an important structure in the neural pathway integrating stress responses. Brain angiotensin is involved in cardiovascular control and modulation of stress responses. Blockade of angiotensin receptors has been reported to reduce stress responses. Acute restraint stress (ARS) is a stress model, which evokes sustained blood pressure increase, tachycardia, and reduction in tail temperature. We therefore hypothesized that PL locally generated angiotensin and angiotensin receptors modulate stress autonomic responses...
July 10, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695272/cardiovascular-effects-of-histamine-in-three-widely-diverse-species-of-reptiles
#6
Nini Skovgaard, Augusto S Abe, Edwin W Taylor, Tobias Wang
The cardiovascular system of vertebrates is regulated by a vast number of regulatory factors, including histamine. In pythons, histamine induces a strong tachycardia and dilates the systemic vasculature, which resembles the cardiovascular response to the elevated metabolic rate during digestion. In fact, there is an important role of increased histaminergic tone on the heart during the initial 24 h of digestion in pythons. Whilst the cardiovascular effects of histamine are well studied in pythons, little is known about the effects in other groups of reptiles...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691402/osmolality-and-blood-pressure-stability-during-hemodialysis
#7
Anika T Singh, Finnian R Mc Causland
Homeostatic regulation of plasma osmolality (POsm) is critical for normal cellular function in humans. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is the major hormone responsible for the maintenance of POsm and acts to promote renal water retention in conditions of increased POsm. However, AVP also exerts pressor effects, and its release can be stimulated by the development of effective arterial blood volume depletion. Patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis, particularly those with minimal or no residual renal function, have impaired ability to regulate water retention in response to AVP...
July 9, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688296/effects-of-ibudilast-on-oxycodone-induced-analgesia-and-subjective-effects-in-opioid-dependent-volunteers
#8
Z D Cooper, K W Johnson, S K Vosburg, M A Sullivan, J Manubay, D Martinez, J D Jones, P A Saccone, S D Comer
Opioid-induced glial activation is hypothesized to contribute to the development of tolerance to opioid-induced analgesia. This inpatient, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject and between-groups pilot study investigated the dose-dependent effects of ibudilast, a glial cell modulator, on oxycodone-induced analgesia. Opioid-dependent volunteers were maintained on morphine (30mg, PO, QID) for two weeks and received placebo ibudilast (0mg, PO, BID) during the 1st week (days 1-7). On day 8, participants (N=10/group) were randomized to receive ibudilast (20 or 40mg, PO, BID) or placebo for the remainder of the study...
June 17, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687588/the-carotid-baroreflex-modifies-the-pressor-threshold-of-the-muscle-metaboreflex-in-humans
#9
Masashi Ichinose, Tomoko K Ichinose-Kuwahara, Kazuhito Watanabe, Narihiko Kondo, Takeshi Nishiyasu
The purpose of present study was to test our hypothesis that unloading the carotid baroreceptors alters the threshold and gain of the muscle metaboreflex in humans. Ten healthy subjects performed a static handgrip exercise at 50% of maximum voluntary contraction. Contraction was sustained for 15, 30, 45 and 60 s, and was followed by 3 min of forearm circulatory arrest, during which forearm muscular pH is known to decrease linearly with increasing contraction time. The carotid baroreceptors were unloaded by applying 0...
July 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684639/comparative-effects-of-glucose-and-water-drinks-on-blood-pressure-and-cardiac-function-in-older-subjects-with-and-without-postprandial-hypotension
#10
Laurence G Trahair, Sharmalar Rajendran, Renuka Visvanathan, Matthew Chapman, Daniel Stadler, Michael Horowitz, Karen L Jones
Postprandial hypotension (PPH) occurs frequently and is thought to reflect an inadequate increase in cardiac output to compensate for the rise in splanchnic blood flow after a meal. Gastric distension by water attenuates the postprandial fall in blood pressure (BP). Cardiac hemodynamics (stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and global longitudinal strain (GLS)) have hitherto not been measured in PPH We sought to determine the comparative effects of water and glucose drinks on cardiac hemodynamics in healthy older subjects and individuals with PPH Eight healthy older subjects (age 71...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677340/rapid-onset-pressor-response-to-exercise-in-young-women-with-a-family-history-of-hypertension
#11
Evan L Matthews, Jody L Greaney, Megan M Wenner
Hypertensive adults demonstrate atypical increases in blood pressure (BP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at the immediate onset of static muscle contraction. However, it is unknown whether these abnormal responses occur in young, otherwise healthy adults at risk for developing future disease, such as those with a family history of hypertension (+FH). We tested the hypothesis that +FH young women have exaggerated increases in BP and MSNA at the onset of static muscle contraction compared to those without a family history of hypertension (-FH)...
July 5, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677303/glial-eaat2-regulation-of-extracellular-nts-glutamate-critically-controls-neuronal-activity-and-cardiorespiratory-reflexes
#12
Michael P Matott, David D Kline, Eileen M Hasser
Glutamatergic signalling is critical in the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) for cardiorespiratory homeostasis and initiation of sensory reflexes, including the chemoreflex activated during hypoxia. Maintenance of nTS glutamate concentration occurs in part through astrocytic excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). We previously established the importance of EAATs in the nTS by demonstrating their inhibition produced neuronal excitation to alter basal cardiorespiratory function. Since EAAT2 is the most expressed EAAT in the nTS, this study specifically determined EAAT2's role in nTS astrocytes, their influence on neuronal and synaptic properties, and ultimately on basal and reflex cardiorespiratory function...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674263/pharmacological-profiles-of-a-highly-potent-and-long-acting-angiotensin-ii-receptor-antagonist-fimasartan-in-rats-and-dogs-after-oral-administration
#13
Soo Heui Paik, Yong Ha Chi, Joo Han Lee, Hee-Soo Han, Kyung-Tae Lee
The pharmacological profile of fimasartan, [2-n-butyl-5-dimethylamino-thiocarbonyl-methyl-6-methyl-3-{[2-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl}-pyrimidin-4(3H)-one, a new non-peptide angiotensin type 1 (AT1)-selective angiotensin receptor antagonist, has been investigated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo experimental models. In the present study, fimasartan showed slow dissociation and irreversible binding to AT1 subtype receptors in membrane fractions of HEK-293 cells with a Kd of 0.03 nM and a T1/2 of 63...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666804/cardiovascular-responses-associated-with-the-moving-beans-task-influence-of-psychological-characteristics
#14
Kazuaki Iokawa, Masanori Munakata, Tomomi Hattori, Shuko Saiki, Toshimasa Sone, Masahiro Kohzuki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure (BP) after stroke is associated with a poor outcome. However, exercise training or speech therapy for patients with stroke can raise the BP. The aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular responses during the moving beans task (MBT) used in occupational therapy and to study the influence of psychological characteristics on cardiovascular responses during this task in healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 34 healthy volunteers, the BP and the heart rate (HR) were continuously measured during the baseline period, the 5-minute MBT, and the 1-minute cold pressor test (CPT)...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663630/a-comparative-study-of-clonidine-and-lignocaine-for-attenuating-pressor-responses-to-laryngoscopy-and-endotracheal-intubation-in-neurosurgical-cases
#15
Vinay Marulasiddappa, H N Nethra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation are associated with reflex sympathetic stimulation, known as pressor response and can cause major complications. We compared the attenuating effect of time-tested lignocaine versus clonidine on the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation in neurosurgical cases. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, comparative, double-blind study with a sample size of sixty patients. METHODS: Sixty patients undergoing elective neurosurgery were randomly allocated into one of the two groups: Group L (n = 30) received lignocaine 1...
April 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663374/extra-and-intra-cranial-blood-flow-regulation-during-the-cold-pressor-test-influence-of-age
#16
Daniela Flück, Philip N Ainslie, Anthony R Bain, Kevin W Wildfong, Laura Emily Morris, James P Fisher
We determined how the extra- and intra-cranial circulations respond to generalized sympathetic activation evoked by a cold pressor test (CPT) and whether this was affected by healthy aging. Ten young (23±2 yr; mean±SD) and nine older (66±3 yr) individuals performed a 3-min CPT by immersing the left foot into 0.8±0.3°C water. Common carotid artery (CCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) diameter, velocity and flow were simultaneously measured (duplex ultrasound), along with middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCAvmean and PCAvmean), and cardiorespiratory variables...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659719/somatic-mutation-analyses-in-studies-of-the-clonal-evolution-and-diagnostic-targets-of-prostate-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Dmitry S Mikhaylenko, Gennady D Efremov, Vladimir V Strelnikov, Dmitry V Zaletaev, Boris Y Alekseev
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common uro-oncological disease in the global population and still requires a more efficient laboratory diagnosis. Point mutations of oncogenes and tumor sup-pressor genes are the most frequent molecular genetic events in carcinogenesis. The mutations are re-sponsible, to a great extent, for the clonal evolution of cancer and can be considered as primary candi-date molecular markers of PC. Using next-generation sequencing to analyze the mutations in PC, the main molecular PC subtypes were identified, which depended on the presence of fusion genes and FOXA1, CHD1, and SPOP point mutations; other driver mutations responsible for the progression of PC subclones were also characterized...
June 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659507/pressor-response-to-angiotensin-ii-is-enhanced-in-aged-mice-and-associated-with-inflammation-vasoconstriction-and-oxidative-stress
#18
Quynh Nhu Dinh, Grant R Drummond, Barbara K Kemp-Harper, Henry Diep, T Michael De Silva, Hyun Ah Kim, Antony Vinh, Avril A B Robertson, Matthew A Cooper, Ashley Mansell, Sophocles Chrissobolis, Christopher G Sobey
Aging is commonly associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and hypertension but it is unknown whether a cause-effect relationship exists between them. We compared the sensitivity of young adult (8-12 w) and aged (23-31 mo) male C57Bl6J mice to develop hypertension in response to a slow-pressor dose of angiotensin II (Ang II; 0.28 mg/kg/d; 28 d). In young mice, the pressor response to Ang II was gradual and increased to 142±8 mmHg over 28 d. However, in aged mice, Ang II promptly increased SBP and reached 155±12 mmHg by 28 d...
June 28, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652806/characterization-of-cortical-source-generators-based-on-electroencephalography-during-tonic-pain
#19
Tine Maria Hansen, Esben Bolvig Mark, Søren Schou Olesen, Mikkel Gram, Jens Brøndum Frøkjær, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to characterize the cortical source generators evoked by experimental tonic pain. METHODS: Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded on two separate days during rest and with immersion of the hand in ice water for 2 minutes (cold pressor test). Exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography source localization was performed in 31 healthy volunteers to characterize the cortical source generators. RESULTS: Reliability was high in all eight frequency bands during rest and cold pressor conditions (intraclass coefficients =0...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650915/the-brainstem-network-controlling-blood-pressure-an-important-role-for-pressor-sites-in-the-caudal-medulla-and-cervical-spinal-cord
#20
Michael G Z Ghali
: Although medullary control of blood pressure (BP) has been extensively studied, the contribution of critical regions, such as pressor sites in the caudal medulla and upper cervical spinal cord and the lateral tegmental field, remains controversial and underappreciated. A series of pressor sites caudal to the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM), including the caudal pressor area (CPA) and medullocervical pressor area, play an important role in control of BP. Activation and inhibition of these sites elicits pressor and depressor responses, respectively...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
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