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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342769/a-laboratory-study-on-attentional-bias-as-an-underlying-mechanism-affecting-the-link-between-cortisol-and-performance-leading-to-a-discussion-on-the-nature-of-the-stressor-artificial-vs-psychosocial
#1
Franziska Lautenbach
Although cortisol is assumed to influence performance by affecting cognition during stressful and competitive situations, to date this assumption has not been tested empirically. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the influence of cortisol on performance is mediated by attentional processing of emotional information. Forty-six male golfers were tested in a mixed design. The cold pressor task (CPT) was used to artificially increase cortisol levels in the experimental group relative to the control group, who had to put their forearm in warm water...
March 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342768/role-of-the-lateral-preoptic-area-in-cardiovascular-and-neuroendocrine-responses-to-acute-restraint-stress-in-rats
#2
Josiane O Duarte, Karina S Gomes, Ricardo L Nunes-de-Souza, Carlos C Crestani
The lateral preoptic area (LPO) is connected with limbic structures involved in physiological and behavioral responses to stress. Accordingly, exposure to stressors stimuli activates neurons within the LPO. In spite of these evidence, an involvement of the LPO on cardiovascular and neuroendocrine adjustments during aversive threats has not yet been investigated. Therefore, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that the LPO is involved in the control of cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress in rats...
March 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338362/the-effects-of-caffeine-taurine-or-caffeine-taurine-co-ingestion-on-repeat-sprint-cycling-performance-and-physiological-responses
#3
Rory Warnock, Owen Jeffries, Stephen Patterson, Mark Waldron
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine (C), taurine (T), caffeine and taurine co-ingestion (C+T) or placebo (P) on repeated Wingate cycling performance and associated physiological responses. METHODS: Seven male team sports players participated in a randomised, single-blind, cross-over study, where they completed three Wingate tests, each separated by 2-min, an hour after ingesting: C (5 mg/kg BM), T (50 mg/kg BM), C+T (5 mg/kg BM + 50 mg/kg BM) or P (5 mg/kg BM) in a gelatine capsule...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332876/evaluation-and-management-of-adrenal-insufficiency-in-critically-ill-patientsdisease-state-review
#4
Amir H Hamrahian, Maria Fleseriu
Definition of normal adrenal function in critically ill patients remains controversial, despite a large body of literature. Furthermore, evaluation of adrenal function in these patients is complex. A decrease in cortisol breakdown rather than an increase in cortisol production has been suggested as the main contributor to elevated cortisol levels in critically ill patients. The concept of relative adrenal insufficiency has multiple pathophysiological flaws and is not supported by current evidence. Patients with septic shock who are pressor-dependent or refractory to fluid resuscitation should receive a short course of hydrocortisone regardless of their serum cortisol levels or their response to a Cosyntropin stimulation test (CST)...
March 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332029/brief-submaximal-isometric-exercise-improves-cold-pressor-pain-tolerance
#5
Emily Foxen-Craft, Lynnda M Dahlquist
Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), or the inhibition of pain following physical exercise, has been demonstrated in adults, but its mechanisms have remained unclear due to variations in methodology. This study aimed to address methodological imitations of past studies and contribute to the literature demonstrating the generalizability of EIH to brief submaximal isometric exercise and cold pressor pain. Young adults (n = 134) completed a baseline cold pressor trial, maximal voluntary contraction (hand grip strength) assessment, 10-min rest, and either a 2-min submaximal isometric handgrip exercise or a sham exercise in which no force was exerted, followed by a cold pressor posttest...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331064/maternal-separation-diminishes-alpha-adrenergic-receptors-density-and-function-in-renal-vasculature-from-male-wistar-kyoto-rats
#6
Analia S Loria, Jeffrey L Osborn
Adult rats exposed to maternal separation (MatSep) are normotensive but display lower glomerular filtration rate and increased renal neuroadrenergic drive. The aim of this study was to determine the renal alpha-adrenergic receptor density and the renal vascular responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation in male rats exposed to MatSep. In addition, baroreflex sensitivity was assessed to determine a component of neural control of the vasculature. Using tissue collected from 4-month-old MatSep and control rats, alpha 1-adrenergic receptors (α1-ARs) were measured in renal cortex and isolated renal vasculature using receptor binding assay, and the α-AR subtype gene expression was determined by RT-PCR...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319954/comparison-of-initial-vasopressors-used-for-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#7
Bhaskar Roy, Louise D McCullough, Rajat Dhar, James Grady, Yu-Bo Wang, Robert J Brown
BACKGROUND: The main reason for morbidity after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). The mainstay of medical therapy for treating DCI is induced hypertension with vasopressors to restore cerebral perfusion. Both phenylephrine (PE) and norepinephrine (NE) are commonly used for induced hypertension, but the impact of the initial choice of vasopressor on the efficacy, adverse effects, or outcome after hemodynamic therapy for DCI is unknown. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with aSAH between January 2012 and October 2014, who developed DCI (defined as new focal deficit or decline in Glasgow Coma Score) and in which PE (n = 45) or NE (n = 18) treatment was initiated were evaluated in this retrospective study...
March 21, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292881/evidence-for-a-histaminergic-input-from-the-ventral-tuberomammillary-nucleus-to-the-solitary-tract-nucleus-involved-in-arterial-pressure-regulation
#8
Ko Yamanaka, Sabine S Gouraud, Miwa Takagishi, Akira Kohsaka, Masanobu Maeda, Hidefumi Waki
The tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) of the posterior hypothalamus has a high density of histaminergic neurons, the projection fibers of which are present in many areas of the brain, including the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), which controls arterial pressure (AP). In this study, we investigated whether the TMN-NTS pathway is involved in central cardiovascular regulation. Bicuculline, a gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor antagonist, was microinjected into the ventral TMN of anesthetized rats and its effects on AP and heart rate (HR) were observed...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285131/retrieval-under-stress-decreases-the-long-term-expression-of-a-human-declarative-memory-via-reconsolidation
#9
Pablo Nicolás Fernández Larrosa, Alejandro Ojea, Ignacio Ojea, Victor Alejandro Molina, María Aurelia Zorrilla-Zubilete, Alejandro Delorenzi
Acute stress impairs memory retrieval of several types of memories. An increase in glucocorticoids, several minutes after stressful events, is described as essential to the impairing retrieval-effects of stressors. Moreover, memory retrieval under stress can have long-term consequences. Through what process does the reactivated memory under stress, despite the disrupting retrieval effects, modify long-term memories? The reconsolidation hypothesis proposes that a previously consolidated memory reactivated by a reminder enters a vulnerability phase (labilization) during which it is transiently sensitive to modulation, followed by a re-stabilization phase...
March 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279704/beliefs-about-pharmaceutical-medicines-and-natural-remedies-explain-individual-variation-in-placebo-analgesia
#10
Andrew Watkinson, Sarah C E Chapman, Rob Horne
This study examined whether placebo responses were predicted by a theoretical model of specific and general treatment beliefs. Using a randomised cross-over, experimental design (168 healthy individuals) we assessed whether responses to a cold pressor task were influenced by two placebo creams described as Pharmaceutical vs Natural origin. We assessed whether placebo responses were predicted by pre-treatment beliefs about the treatments (placebo) and by beliefs about the pain. The efficacy of both Pharmaceutical and Natural Placebos in reducing Pain Intensity was predicted by aspects of pain catastrophizing including Feelings of Helplessness (Pharmaceutical: B=0...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279620/asystole-during-direct-laryngoscopy-for-vocal-fold-injection-in-a-healthy-patient
#11
Zahrah Taufique, Gregory R Dion, Milan R Amin
OBJECTIVES: This study aims (1) to present a case of asystole during direct laryngoscopy in an otherwise healthy patient at an outpatient surgery center and (2) to review literature on cardiac complications, specifically asystole and bradycardia, during direct laryngoscopy. METHODS: A 67-year-old woman with no prior cardiac history underwent induction with succinylcholine and remifentanil for direct laryngoscopy and vocal fold augmentation. During suspension laryngoscopy, the patient became asystolic, and advanced care life support measures were started...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277383/the-use-of-vasopressors-during-spinal-anaesthesia-for-caesarean-section
#12
Warwick D Ngan Kee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypotension remains one of the most researched subjects in obstetric anaesthesia. The purpose of this study is to review the most recent published articles on the use of vasopressors during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite continued research indicating advantages of phenylephrine over ephedrine, practitioners in some countries continue to favour ephedrine. Recent research has continued to compare the two drugs with some work emerging on high-risk patients...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274927/endothelial-dysfunction-correlates-with-exaggerated-exercise-pressor-response-during-whole-body-maximal-exercise-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Ryan M Downey, Peizhou Liao, Erin C Millson, Arshed A Quyyumi, Salman Sher, Jeanie Park
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have exercise intolerance associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Previous studies demonstrate that blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic nerve responses to handgrip exercise are exaggerated in CKD. These patients also have decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and endothelial dysfunction which could potentially lead to an impaired ability to vasodilate during exercise. We hypothesized that CKD patients have exaggerated BP responses during maximal whole body exercise and that endothelial dysfunction correlates with greater exercise pressor responses in these patients...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274698/effects-of-short-term-oxycodone-maintenance-on-experimental-pain-responses-in-physically-dependent-opioid-abusers
#14
Marion A Coe, Paul N Nuzzo, Michelle R Lofwall, Sharon L Walsh
A common clinical problem with opioid analgesics is the loss of analgesic efficacy after repeated dosing; when this occurs, it is not clear what principles should guide providing effective analgesia among opioid-dependent individuals. This within-subject inpatient study aimed to determine if physically dependent opioid abusers (n=11) experience changes in oxycodone-induced analgesia during two oxycodone maintenance (30mg p.o./q.i.d.) phases: Initial Stabilization (Days 1 - 3) and after 6 weeks of Chronic Dosing...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272794/rumination-induces-a-pattern-of-attention-characterized-by-increased-vigilance-followed-by-avoidance-of-affective-pain-words
#15
M L Brookes, L Sharpe, B F Dear
BACKGROUND: This study examined the effects of rumination on attentional processes in relation to an acute experimental pain task. In keeping with recent theory and research, it was hypothesized that we would identify a pattern of attentional bias characterized by enhanced initial vigilance followed by avoidance of pain-related stimuli. METHOD: Undergraduate students were randomized to a rumination condition, which received threat-inducing information about the cold pressor task, or a distraction condition...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263427/body-mass-index-and-distribution-of-body-fat-can-influence-sensory-detection-and-pain-sensitivity
#16
O A Tashani, R Astita, D Sharp, M I Johnson
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of body fat percentage and its distribution on sensory detection and pain sensitivity responses to experimentally induced noxious stimuli in otherwise pain-free individuals. METHODS: Seventy-two participants were divided into three equal groups according to their body mass index (BMI: normal, overweight and obese). Percentage body fat was estimated using a four-site skinfold method. Measurements of cold pressor pain threshold, tolerance and intensity; contact thermal sensory detection and heat pain threshold and tolerance (TSA-II - NeuroSensory Analyzer, Medoc); and blunt pressure pain threshold (algometer, Somedic SenseLab AB) were taken at the waist and thenar eminence...
March 6, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255983/vasopressin-v1a-receptors-mediate-the-hypertensive-effects-of-pyrnan-apelin-13-in-the-rat-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla
#17
Philip R Griffiths, Stephen J Lolait, Louise E Harris, Julian Fr Paton, Anne-Marie O'Carroll
Apelin is a ubiquitous peptide that can elevate arterial blood pressure (ABP) yet understanding of the mechanisms involved remain incomplete. Bilateral microinjection of [Pyr(1) ]apelin-13 into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a major source of sympathoexcitatory neurones, increases ABP and sympathetic nerve activity. We sought to investigate the potential involvement of neurotransmitter systems through which the apelin pressor response may occur within the RVLM. Adult male Wistar rats were anaesthetised and ABP was monitored via a femoral arterial catheter...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254464/adra2b-deletion-variant-influences-time-dependent-effects-of-pre-learning-stress-on-long-term-memory
#18
Phillip R Zoladz, Alison M Dailey, Hannah E Nagle, Miranda K Fiely, Brianne E Mosley, Callie M Brown, Tessa J Duffy, Amanda R Scharf, McKenna B Earley, Boyd R Rorabaugh
Extensive work over the past few decades has shown that certain genetic variations interact with life events to confer increased susceptibility for the development of psychological disorders. The deletion variant of the ADRA2B gene, which has been associated with enhanced emotional memory and heightened amygdala responses to emotional stimuli, might confer increased susceptibility for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or related phenotypes by increasing the likelihood of traumatic memory formation...
February 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253012/does-self-enhancement-facilitate-task-performance
#19
Erin M O'Mara, Lowell Gaertner
Self-enhancement is a pervasive motivation that manifests broadly to promote and protect the positivity of the self. Research suggests that self-enhancement is associated with improved task performance. Untested, however, is whether that association is causal. The present research experimentally manipulated self-enhancement to examine its causal effect on task performance. Participants in 5 experiments were randomly assigned to self-enhance or not before completing a creativity task (Experiments 1-4) or pain-inducing cold-pressor task (Experiment 5)...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252574/abcb1-polymorphisms-and-cold-pressor-pain-responses-opioid-dependent-patients-on-methadone-maintenance-therapy
#20
Zalina Zahari, Chee Siong Lee, Muslih Abdulkarim Ibrahim, Nurfadhlina Musa, Mohd Azhar Mohd Yasin, Yeong Yeh Lee, Soo Choon Tan, Nasir Mohamad, Rusli Ismail
BACKGROUND: Methadone is a substrate of the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter, which is encoded by ABCB1 (MDR1), and thus, ABCB1 polymorphisms may influence the transport of methadone at the blood-brain barrier, affecting its adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association between ABCB1 polymorphisms and cold pressor pain responses among opioid-dependent patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). METHODS: Malay male opioid-dependent patients receiving MMT (n = 148) were recruited...
March 2017: Nursing Research
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