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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943248/the-medial-preoptic-area-modulates-autonomic-function-under-resting-and-stress-conditions
#1
Aline Fassini, América A Scopinho, Fernando H F Alves, Eduardo A T Fortaleza, Fernando M A Corrêa
The medial preoptic area (mPOA) participates in the temperature and cardiovascular control. The mPOA receives inputs from limbic structures and sends projections to hypothalamus and brainstem. Moreover, stress elicits pronounced neuronal activation in mPOA, suggesting its involvement in central neural pathway mediating stress responses. In the present study, we report the effect of acute mPOA neurotransmission inhibition using cobalt chloride (CoCl2-nonselective synapse blocker) on the mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), body and tail temperature (Tbody and Ttail, respectively), as well as on the HR component of baroreflex...
September 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942003/inhalation-exposure-to-three-dimensional-printer-emissions-stimulates-acute-hypertension-and-microvascular-dysfunction
#2
A B Stefaniak, R F LeBouf, M G Duling, J Yi, A B Abukabda, C R McBride, T R Nurkiewicz
Fused deposition modeling (FDM™), or three-dimensional (3D) printing has become routine in industrial, occupational and domestic environments. We have recently reported that 3D printing emissions (3DPE) are complex mixtures, with a large ultrafine particulate matter component. We and others have reported that inhalation of xenobiotic particles in this size range is associated with an array of cardiovascular dysfunctions. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3DPE aerosols via nose-only exposure for ~3h. Twenty-four hours later, intravital microscopy was performed to assess microvascular function in the spinotrapezius muscle...
September 20, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939649/muscle-metaboreflex-induced-vasoconstriction-in-the-ischemic-active-muscle-is-exaggerated-in-heart-failure
#3
Jasdeep Kaur, Danielle Senador, Abhinav C Krishnan, Hanna W Hanna, Alberto Alvarez, Tiago M Machado, Donal S O'Leary
When oxygen delivery to active muscle is insufficient to meet the metabolic demand during exercise, metabolites accumulate and stimulate skeletal muscle afferents inducing a reflex increase in blood pressure, termed the muscle metaboreflex. In healthy individuals, muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA) during submaximal exercise increases arterial pressure primarily via an increase in cardiac output (CO), as little peripheral vasoconstriction occurs. This increase in CO partially restores blood flow to ischemic muscle...
September 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936905/microwave-diathermy-and-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-effects-in-primary-dysmenorrhea-clinical-trial-protocol
#4
Aline Fernanda Perez Machado, Monica Rodrigues Perracini, Ariane da Cruz Saraiva de Morais, Bruna Oliveira da Silva, Patricia Driusso, Richard Eloin Liebano
The aim of this study will be to analyze the effects of microwave diathermy (MWD) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on primary dysmenorrhea. Eighty eight women, age range 18-44 years, with no previous pregnancy, no practice physical activities, a BMI of ≤29.9 kg/m(2), a regular menstrual cycle and a diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea, with menstrual pain ranging from mild to severe, will be selected. The participants will be randomized into four groups: MWD and TENS, MWD and placebo TENS, placebo MWD and TENS, and placebo MWD and placebo TENS...
September 22, 2017: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936072/alleviating-stress-response-to-tracheal-extubation-in-neurosurgical-patients-a-comparative-study-of-two-infusion-doses-of-dexmedetomidine
#5
Ankur Luthra, Hemanshu Prabhakar, Girija Prasad Rath
BACKGROUND: Tracheal extubation is almost always associated with increase in sympathoadrenal activity may result in hypertension, tachycardia, and arrhythmias. Attempts have been made to oppose the pressor response by the use of various drugs. Dexmedetomidine decreases norepinephrine which reduces the blood pressure and the heart rate (HR). We hypothesize that the infusion of dexmedetomidine may produce more stable hemodynamics during extubation as compared to boluses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety adult patients aged 18-65 years, the American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I-II undergoing intracranial surgeries for various neurologic problem at All India Institute of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932370/clinical-evaluation-of-vasomotor-system-functionality-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#6
Mehdi Maghbooli, Hossein Chiti, Sakineh Taheri, Masoud Asadi-Khiavi
BACKGROUND: Autonomic neuropathy and vital organ dysfunctions are the known complications in type 2 diabetes Mellitus (DM). Genetic endowments involving individuals make subtle differences in physiological systems, particularly at the time of sickness. Hence, the presented study was designed to evaluate the vasomotor system in healthy people and type 2 DM cases for determining any functionality differences between the mentioned groups. METHODS: Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes (case group) and sixty healthy subjects (control group) matched for age and sex were enrolled in the study...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928600/erratum-comparative-study-of-oral-gabapentin-pregabalin-and-clonidine-as-premedication-for-anxiolysis-sedation-and-attenuation-of-pressor-response-to-endotracheal-intubation
#7
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 558 in vol. 11.].
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928547/comparative-study-of-oral-gabapentin-pregabalin-and-clonidine-as-premedication-for-anxiolysis-sedation-and-attenuation-of-pressor-response-to-endotracheal-intubation
#8
Chandrakant Waikar, Jaideep Singh, Deepesh Gupta, Aditya Agrawal
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effect of clonidine 200 μg and gabapentin 900 mg and pregabalin 150 mg in attenuation of the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation in normotensive patients undergoing elective surgery. METHODS: Ninety adult patients between 18 and 60 years are enrolled in the study. Patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade-I and Grade-II are included which are posted for elective surgery under general anesthesia...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925529/cerebrovascular-response-to-the-cold-pressor-test-the-critical-role-of-carbon-dioxide
#9
Michael M Tymko, Thijs P Kerstens, Kevin W Wildfong, Philip N Ainslie
In addition to increasing sympathetic nervous activity, blood pressure, and cerebral blood flow (CBF), the cold pressor test (CPT) stimulates pain receptors, which may increase ventilation above metabolic demand; this response likely reduces the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PET CO2 ), and will attenuate elevations in CBF. We hypothesized: (1) CPT would elicit hyperventilation, effectively lowering PET CO2 ; (2) the CBF response will be elevated during an isocapnic (controlled PET CO2 ), compared to a poikilocapnic CPT (uncontrolled PET CO2 ); (3) In response to CPT, the common carotid artery (CCA) will vasodilatate, while the internal carotid artery (ICA) will remain unchanged to help regulate CBF...
September 19, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922338/does-the-%C3%AE-receptor-antagonist-esmolol-have-analgesic-effects-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-cross-over-study-on-healthy-volunteers-undergoing-the-cold-pressor-test
#10
Fredrik Ander, Anders Magnuson, Alex de Leon, Rebecca Ahlstrand
BACKGROUND: Esmolol may attenuate the sympathetic response to pain and reduce postoperative opioid consumption. It is not clear whether esmolol has an analgesic effect per se. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of esmolol in the absence of anaesthetics and opioids. We tested the hypothesis that esmolol would reduce the maximum pain intensity perceived during the cold pressor test (CPT) by 2 points on a 0 to 10 numeric pain rating scale (NRS) compared to placebo...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892884/effect-of-metaboreflex-on-cardiovascular-system-in-subjects-of-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Pramita Dubey, Sunita Tiwari, Manish Bajpai, Kalpana Singh, Praveen Jha
INTRODUCTION: Metaboreflex is a reflex in which muscle receptors send signals regarding metabolic (metabolites accumulation like lactic acid, potassium, adenosine) conditions of the muscles to nucleus tractus solitarius via afferent III and IV fibres to cause haemodynamic adjustments in order to regulate blood flow on the basis of the status of contracting muscle. Dysregulation in its mechanism in metabolic syndrome is demonstrated. AIM: To study the effect of metaboreflex by both isometric and rhythmic handgrip exercise on CVS parameters {Blood Pressure (BP), Cardiac Output (CO) and Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)} in subjects of metabolic syndrome...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890527/microvascular-angina%C3%A3-long-term-exercise-stress-test-follow-up
#12
Gaetano A Lanza, Monica Filice, Antonio De Vita, Angelo Villano, Laura Manfredonia, Priscilla Lamendola, Filippo Crea
BACKGROUND: A sizeable proportion of patients with primary stable microvascular angina (MVA; exercise-induced angina, positive exercise stress test [EST], normal coronary arteries) have recurrent symptoms during follow-up. There have been no previous studies, however, on the long-term results of EST and their correlation with symptom outcome.Methods and Results:Follow-up EST was performed in 71 MVA patients at an average of 16.2 years (range, 5-25 years) from the first EST. Angina status was assessed on weekly frequency of angina episodes and nitroglycerin consumption and by whether symptoms had worsened, improved, or remained unchanged over time...
September 9, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886406/an-investigation-of-potential-neural-correlates-of-intrusive-retrieval-of-distressing-memories
#13
Eva Battaglini, Belinda J Liddell, Pritha Das, Gin S Malhi, Kim Felmingham, Richard A Bryant
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the prevalence of intrusive memories across psychological disorders, little is known about the neural networks that underpin this form of memory. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural circuits associated with the retrieval of intrusive memories. METHODS: Participants with moderate levels of anxiety (N = 30) underwent a cold pressor task to induce a physiological stress response, after which they viewed 10 neutral and 10 negative film clips...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864843/pupillary-autonomic-dysfunction-in-patients-with-anca-associated-vasculitis
#14
Philipp Moog, O Eren, S Kossegg, K Valda, A Straube, M Grünke, H Schulze-Koops, M Witt
OBJECTIVE: To assess autonomic function by infrared dynamic pupillometry in patients with ANCA-vasculitis (AAV) in correlation to autonomic symptoms, disease specific clinical parameters and cardiovascular reflex tests. METHODS: Patients with AAV and healthy controls underwent pupillometry at rest and after sympathetic stimulation (cold pressor test). Three parasympathetic parameters (amplitude, relative amplitude, maximum constriction velocity) and one sympathetic parameter (late dilatation velocity) were assessed...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857365/functional-haemodynamic-testing-in-pregnancy-recommendations-of-the-international-working-group-on-maternal-haemodynamics
#15
Victoria L Meah, Karianne Backx, Margie H Davenport
In the general population, functional haemodynamic testing, such as submaximal aerobic exercise, isometric handgrip, and the cold pressor test, has long been utilised to unmask abnormalities in cardiovascular function. During pregnancy, functional haemodynamic testing places additional demands on an already stressed maternal cardiovascular system. Dysfunctional responses to such tests in early pregnancy may predict the development of hypertensive disorders that develop later in gestation. These recommendations cover a description, an overview of the current understanding of clinical application, test protocol, equipment and considerations of each of the above functional haemodynamic tests during pregnancy...
August 30, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855178/baroreflex-and-neurovascular-responses-to-skeletal-muscle-mechanoreflex-activation-in-humans-an-exercise-in-integrative-physiology
#16
Rachel C Drew
Cardiovascular adjustments to exercise, resulting in increased blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), occur in response to activation of several neural mechanisms - the exercise pressor reflex, central command, and the arterial baroreflex. Neural inputs from these feedback and feedforward mechanisms integrate in the cardiovascular control centers in the brain stem, and modulate sympathetic and parasympathetic neural outflow, resulting in the increased BP and HR observed during exercise. Another specific consequence of the central neural integration of these inputs during exercise is increased sympathetic neural outflow directed to the kidneys, causing renal vasoconstriction, a key reflex mechanism involved in blood flow redistribution during increased skeletal muscle work...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852231/cardiovascular-response-to-mental-stress-tests-and-the-prediction-of-blood-pressure
#17
Kornanong Yuenyongchaiwat
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that increased physiological responses (i.e., cardiovascular reactivity) to a stressor or stressors may increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) including increased blood pressure (BP) or hypertension. However, many prospective studies have examined the hemodynamic reactions to laboratory stress tests and CVD in Western countries and only a few studies have examined with varying durations of follow-up in the same sample studies. In addition, still relatively little is known about cardiovascular reactivity in Asian populations...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844852/temperament-as-a-modulating-factor-of-pain-sensitivity-in-combat-sport-athletes
#18
Katarzyna Leźnicka, Anna Starkowska, Maciej Tomczak, Paweł Cięszczyk, Monika Białecka, Maria Ligocka, Piotr Żmijewski, Maciej Pawlak
The aim of this study was to characterise the temperament of combat athletes in comparison to that of individuals who do not practise any sports with regard to pain sensitivity measured with the cold pressor test (CPT) and pressure pain threshold (PPT). The study involved 284 healthy men, aged 18 to 43years. The first group consisted of 198 combat athletes, including boxing (n=19), mixed martial arts (MMA) (n=97) and karate (n=82), aged from 18 to 43years. The control group consisted of 86 subjects between the ages of 18 and 26years, academic students not practising any sport professionally...
August 26, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835448/cyclical-blood-flow-restriction-resistance-exercise-a-potential-parallel-to-remote-ischemic-preconditioning
#19
Justin Daniel Sprick, Caroline A Rickards
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is characterized by the cyclical application of limb blood flow restriction and reperfusion, and has been shown to protect vital organs during a subsequent ischemic insult. Blood flow restriction exercise (BFRE) similarly combines bouts of blood flow restriction with low-intensity exercise and thus could potentially emulate the protection demonstrated by RIPC. One concern with BFRE, however, is the potential for an augmented rise in sympathetic outflow, due to greater activation of the exercise pressor reflex...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835447/combining-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-and-aerobic-exercise-a-novel-adaptation-of-blood-flow-restriction-exercise
#20
Justin Daniel Sprick, Caroline A Rickards
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) can attenuate tissue damage sustained by ischemia-reperfusion injury. Blood flow restriction exercise (BFRE) restricts blood flow to exercising muscles. We implemented a novel approach to BFRE with cyclical bouts of blood flow restriction-reperfusion, reflecting the RIPC model. A concern about BFRE, however, is potential amplification of the exercise pressor reflex, which could be unsafe in at-risk populations. We hypothesized that cyclical BFRE would elicit greater increases in sympathetic outflow and arterial pressure than conventional exercise (CE), performed at the same relative intensity...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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