Read by QxMD icon Read


Seth W Holwerda, Rachel E Luehrs, Allene L Gremaud, Nealy A Wooldridge, Amy K Stroud, Jess G Fiedorowicz, Francois M Abboud, Gary L Pierce
Relative burst amplitude of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is an indicator of augmented sympathetic outflow and contributes to greater vasoconstrictor responses. Evidence suggests anxiety-induced augmentation of relative MSNA burst amplitude in patients with panic disorder, thus we hypothesized that acute stress would result in augmented relative MSNA burst amplitude and vasoconstriction in individuals with chronic anxiety. Eighteen participants with chronic anxiety (ANX, 8 men/10 women, 32{plus minus}2 years) and 18 healthy controls with low/no anxiety (CON, 8 men/10 women, 39{plus minus}3 years) were studied...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Shin Ishikane, Fumi Takahashi-Yanaga
Hypertension, which often exists as a comorbid condition in cancer patients, is considered as a factor affecting cancer progression. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in theregulation of blood pressure, and angiotensin II (Ang II) is a well-known pressor peptide in RAS. There is also accumulated evidence indicating that Ang II plays a critical role in the metastasis of various cancers by modulating adhesion, migration invasion, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Consistent with this, large epidemiological studies have reported the potential beneficial effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and Ang II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) against cancer metastasis; however, some of the results remain controversial...
March 10, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Nicholas T Kruse, Kenichi Ueda, William E Hughes, Darren P Casey
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by a reduced blood flow (BF) and elevated blood pressure (pressor) response during lower extremity exercise. Although PAD is evident in the upper extremities no studies have determined BF and pressor responses during upper extremity exercise in PAD. Emerging evidence suggests that inorganic nitrate (NO3 ) supplementation may serve as an alternative dietary strategy to boost nitric oxide bioavailability, improving exercising BF and pressor responses during exercise...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Jason R Carter, Daniela Grimaldi, Ida T Fonkoue, Lisa Medalie, Babak Mokhlesi, Eve Van Cauter
Study Objectives: Chronic insomnia affects up to 15% of adults. Recent cross-sectional and prospective epidemiological studies report an association between insomnia and hypertension, including incident hypertension, yet mechanisms underlying the association remain unknown. We hypothesized that subjects with chronic insomnia would have elevated sympathetic neural outflow, blunted baroreflex sensitivity, and augmented sympathetic neural and cardiovascular reactivity to stress when compared to good-sleeper controls...
March 7, 2018: Sleep
Peter Athanasos, Walter Ling, Felix Bochner, Jason M White, Andrew A Somogyi
Objective: Acute pain management in opioid-dependent persons is complicated because of tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Very high doses of morphine are ineffective in overcoming opioid-induced hyperalgesia and providing antinociception to methadone-maintained patients in an experimental setting. Whether the same occurs in buprenorphine-maintained subjects is unknown. Design: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled. Subjects were tested on two occasions, at least five days apart, once with intravenous morphine and once with intravenous saline...
March 5, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Clare Minahan, Hailey O'Neill, Nelie Sikkema, Sarah Joyce, Brianna Larsen, Surendran Sabapathy
We sought to determine whether oral contraception alters the gender-related differences observed in the exercise pressor reflex during isometric handgrip exercise. Fifteen men, fifteen normally menstruating women (WomenNM), and fifteen women taking monophasic oral contraceptives (WomenOC) completed two trials of a 3-min isometric handgrip exercise protocol performed at 30% of their maximal voluntary contraction: (1) where arterial occlusion was applied to the previously exercising arm during a 3-min recovery period (Occlusion trial); (2) where no arterial occlusion was applied during recovery (Control trial)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Louise Prestipino, Jaimie W Polson, Elisabeth Brolin, Helen E Ritchie
A slow embryonic heart rate in early-mid gestation is associated with increased risk of embryonic death and malformation, however, the long-term consequences remain unknown. We administered Dofetilide (Dof, 2.5 mg/kg), a drug that produces embryo-specific bradycardia, to pregnant rats from gestational days 11-14. Embryonic heart rate and rhythm were determined using embryo culture. Cardiovascular function was assessed in surviving adult offspring at rest, during acute psychological stress (air jet stress, AJS), and after 7 days of repeated AJS...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Phillip G Kopf, Laura E Phelps, Chad D Schupbach, Alan K Johnson, Jacob D Peuler
Vascular reactivity was evaluated in three separate arteries isolated from rats after angiotensin II (Ang II) was infused chronically in two separate experiments, one using a 14-day high, slow-pressor dose known to produce hypertension and the other using a 7-day low, subpressor but hypertensive-sensitizing dose. There were three new findings. First, there was no evidence of altered vascular reactivity in resistance arteries that might otherwise explain the hypertension due to the high Ang II or the hypertensive-sensitizing effect of the low Ang II dose...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Kaori Takahashi, Daisuke Nishizawa, Shinya Kasai, Yoshihiko Koukita, Ken-Ichi Fukuda, Tatsuya Ichinohe, Kazutaka Ikeda
Opioid analgesics are widely used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. The analgesic effects of opioids are well known to vary among individuals. The present study focused on the genetic factors that are associated with interindividual differences in pain and opioid sensitivity. We conducted a multistage genome-wide association study in subjects who were scheduled to undergo mandibular sagittal split ramus osteotomy and were not medicated until they received fentanyl for the induction of anesthesia...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Natalie G Ormshaw, Rehan T Junejo, Janice M Marshall
PURPOSE: Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is greater in South Asians (SAs) than White Europeans (WEs). Endothelial dysfunction and blunted forearm vasodilatation to environmental stressors have been implicated in CVD. We investigated whether these features are present in young SA men. METHODS: In 15 SA and 16 WE men (19-23 years), we compared changes in forearm blood flow, arterial blood pressure (ABP), forearm vascular conductance (FVC), heart rate, and electrodermal resistance (EDR; sweating) following release of arterial occlusion (reactive hyperaemia endothelium-dependent) and 5 single sounds at 5-10 min intervals (stressors)...
March 3, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Bailin Liu, Yanping Liu, Ruixiu Shi, Xueqin Feng, Xiang Li, Wenna Zhang, Jue Wu, Na Li, Xiuwen Zhou, Miao Sun, Zhice Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic hypoxia in utero could impair vascular functions in the offspring, underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study investigated functional alteration in large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels in offspring mesenteric arteries following prenatal hypoxia. METHODS: Pregnant rats were exposed to normoxic control (21% O2, Con) or hypoxic (10.5% O2, Hy) conditions from gestational day 5 to 21, their 7-month-old adult male offspring were tested for blood pressure, vascular BK channel functions and expression using patch clamp and wire myograh technique, western blotting, and qRT-PCR...
February 21, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Gregory M Taylor, David V Hess
Fournier's gangrene, a rare polymicrobial infection that affects the genitals and perineum, can present as an insidious onset to a rapid and fulminant course. Early recognition, diagnosis, initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics and prompt surgical treatment remain the foundation of management. If treatment is not initiated aggressively, the patient will likely rapidly deteriorate, leading to organ failure and death. We present the case of a 58-year-old diabetic female presenting febrile, hypoxic, with severe respiratory distress and evidence of septic shock, found to have necrotizing fasciitis of the entire right hemi-pelvis...
February 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Derek C Monroe, Jianchun Yin, Kevin K McCully, Rodney K Dishman
Context • Hypotension that occurs after a single bout of aerobic exercise also attenuates the vascular response to discrete stressors, an effect that can last for hours. It is unknown whether the hypotensive benefits of traditional exercise extend to alternative forms of mindful exercise, such as yoga, to confer transient protection against neurovascular challenges that increase blood pressure (BP). Objectives • The study intended to examine the effects of acute exercise on neurovascular responses to exposure of the forehead of female yoga practitioners to vasoconstrictive cold (ie, to cold pressor stress)...
February 24, 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
O Kambur, M A Kaunisto, B S Winsvold, T Wilsgaard, A Stubhaug, J A Zwart, E Kalso, C S Nielsen
P2X7 is a non-selective cation channel activated by extracellular ATP. P2X7 activation contributes to the pro-inflammatory response to injury or bacterial invasion and mediates apoptosis. Recently, P2X7 function has been linked to chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. P2X7 may contribute to pain modulation both by effects on peripheral tissue injury underlying clinical pain states, and through alterations in central nervous system processing, as suggested by animal models. To further test its role in pain sensitivity, we examined whether variation within the P2RX7 gene, which encodes the P2X7 receptor, was associated with experimentally induced pain in human patients...
February 20, 2018: Pain
Jonathan E Harms, Audrey J Stone, Marc P Kaufman
Patients with peripheral artery disease show an exaggerated pressor response to mild exercise, an effect attributable to the exercise pressor reflex, whose afferent arm is comprised of the thinly myelinated group III and unmyelinated group IV afferents. Previously, we found that DAMGO, a μ opioid agonist injected into the femoral artery, attenuated the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in rats with ligated femoral arteries, a preparation which simulates the blood flow patterns to muscle that is seen in patients with PAD...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Ziva D Cooper, Gillinder Bedi, Divya Ramesh, Rebecca Balter, Sandra D Comer, Margaret Haney
Cannabinoids combined with opioids produce synergistic antinociceptive effects, decreasing the lowest effective antinociceptive opioid dose (i.e., opioid-sparing effects) in laboratory animals. Although pain patients report greater analgesia when cannabis is used with opioids, no placebo-controlled studies have assessed the direct effects of opioids combined with cannabis in humans or the impact of the combination on abuse liability. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study determined if cannabis enhances the analgesic effects of low dose oxycodone using a validated experimental model of pain and its effects on abuse liability...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Michael S Koeckert, Deane E Smith, Patrick F Vining, Neel K Ranganath, Thomas Beaulieu, Didier F Loulmet, Elias Zias, Aubrey C Galloway, Eugene A Grossi
BACKGROUND: We analyzed the impact and safety of del Nido Cardioplegia (DNC) in patients undergoing minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR). METHODS: We analyzed all isolated MIAVR replacements from 5/2013-6/2015 excluding re-operative patients. The approach was a hemi-median sternotomy in all patients. Patients were divided into two cohorts, those who received 4:1 crystalloid:blood DNC solution and those in whom standard 1:4 Buckberg-based cardioplegia (WBC) was used...
February 2018: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Qian Wang, Hui Wang, Jintao Wang, Jessica Venugopal, Kyle Kleiman, Chiao Guo, Yingxian Sun, Daniel T Eitzman
Identification of inflammatory mediators that regulate the vascular response to vasopressor molecules may aid in the development of novel therapeutic agents to treat or prevent hypertensive vascular diseases. Leukocytes have recently been shown to be capable of modifying blood pressure responses to vasopressor molecules. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that deficiency of the leukocyte ligand, Psgl-1, would reduce the pressor response to angiotensin II (Ang II). Mice deficient in Psgl-1 (Psgl-1-/- ) along with wild-type (WT) controls were treated for 2 weeks with a continuous infusion of Ang II...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jihong Xing, Jian Lu, Jiahao Liu, Jianhua Li
The exercise pressor reflex is amplified in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and in an experimental PAD model of rats induced by femoral artery occlusion. Heightened blood pressure worsens the restricted blood flow directed to the limbs in this disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the role played by muscle oxidative stress in regulating the augmented pressor response to static exercise in PAD. We hypothesized that limb ischemia impairs muscle superoxide dismutase (SOD) thereby leading to abnormal autonomic responsiveness observed in PAD animals, and a chronic compensation of SOD for anti-oxidation improves the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hadeel A Alsufyani, James R Docherty
We have investigated the cardiac and pressor responses to (±)-ephedrine and (-)-ephedrine in pentobarbitone anaesthetised male wistar rats. The tachycardiac responses to (±)- and (-)-ephedrine were similar, but pressor responses to (-)-ephedrine (10mg/kg) were significantly greater than those to (±)-ephedrine, and for both, the pressor response was followed by a small depressor response. Sympathectomy did not affect pressor responses, but significantly increased the later depressor response to both compounds...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"