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Bow Tie

Diala Abd-Rabbo, Stephen W Michnick
BACKGROUND: Kinases and phosphatases (KP) form complex self-regulating networks essential for cellular signal processing. In spite of having a wealth of data about interactions among KPs and their substrates, we have very limited models of the structures of the directed networks they form and consequently our ability to formulate hypotheses about how their structure determines the flow of information in these networks is restricted. RESULTS: We assembled and studied the largest bona fide kinase-phosphatase network (KP-Net) known to date for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
March 16, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
Jacek Wojtas, Aleksander Gluszek, Arkadiusz Hudzikowski, Frank K Tittel
The application of compact inexpensive trace gas sensor technology to a mid-infrared nitric oxide (NO) detectoion using intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (I-QEPAS) is reported. A minimum detection limit of 4.8 ppbv within a 30 ms integration time was demonstrated by using a room-temperature, continuous-wave, distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 5.263 µm (1900.08 cm(-1)) and a new compact design of a high-finesse bow-tie optical cavity with an integrated resonant quartz tuning fork (QTF)...
March 4, 2017: Sensors
G Timár, A V Goltsev, S N Dorogovtsev, J F F Mendes
We reveal a hierarchical, multilayer organization of finite components-i.e., tendrils and tubes-around the giant connected components in directed networks and propose efficient algorithms allowing one to uncover the entire organization of key real-world directed networks, such as the World Wide Web, the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, and others. With increasing damage, the giant components decrease in size while the number and size of tendril layers increase, enhancing the susceptibility of the networks to damage...
February 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Boris I Gramatikov, David L Guyton
Polarised near-infra-red light is reflected from the foveal area in a detectable bow-tie pattern of polarisation states, offering the opportunity for eye tracking. A coaxial optical transducer was developed, consisting of a laser diode, a polariser, a filter, and a photodetector. Several such transducers may be used to interrogate different spots on the retina, thus eliminating the requirement for scanning systems with moving parts. To test the signal quality obtainable, using just one transducer, a test subject was asked to fixate successively on twelve targets located on a circle around the transducer, to simulate the retina's being interrogated by twelve sensors placed on a 3(0) diameter circle surrounding the projection of the fovea...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Bin Ni, Bhaswar Ghosh, Ferencz S Paldy, Remy Colin, Thomas Heimerl, Victor Sourjik
Regulatory networks play a central role in the relationship between genotype and phenotype in all organisms. However, the mechanisms that underpin the evolutionary plasticity of these networks remain poorly understood. Here, we used experimental selection for enhanced bacterial motility in a porous environment to explore the adaptability of one of the most complex networks known in bacteria. We found that the resulting phenotypic changes are mediated by adaptive mutations in several functionally different proteins, including multiple components of the flagellar motor...
January 24, 2017: Cell Reports
M M Shafiei, Mahmoud Moghavvemi, Wan Nor Liza Wan Mahadi
A printed Bow-Tie slot antenna with loaded stub is proposed and the effects of changing the dimensions of the slot area, the stub and load sizes are considered in this paper. These parameters have a considerable effect on the antenna characteristics as well as its performance. An in-depth parametric study of these dimensions is presented. This paper proposes the necessary conditions for initial approximation of dimensions needed to design this antenna. In order to achieve the desired performance of the antenna fine tuning of all sizes of these parameters is required...
2017: PloS One
Pegah Takook, Mikael Persson, Johanna Gellermann, Hana Dobšíček Trefná
Using UWB hyperthermia systems has the potential to improve the heat delivery to deep seated tumours. In this paper, we present a novel self-grounded Bow-Tie antenna design which is to serve as the basis element in a phased-array applicator. The UWB operation in the frequency range of 0.43-1 GHz is achieved by immersing the antenna in a water bolus. The radiation characteristics are improved by appropriate shaping the water bolus and by inclusion of dielectric layers on the top of the radiating arms of the antenna...
January 8, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
K Usui, T Inoue, C Kurokawa, S Sugimoto, K Sasai, K Ogawa
PURPOSE: If a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image can be used for adaptive radiotherapy (ART), an irradiated actual dose distribution can be verified on every treatment day. However, a CBCT image is commonly degraded by scattered photons and thus cannot be directly used for dose calculation. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate whether a cross-type carbon fiber antiscatter grid improves CBCT image quality using a Monte Carlo (MC) method for achieving CBCT-based ART. METHODS: We designed a new carbon fiber (C6 H10 O5 ) interspaced grid, which allows the grid ratio to be increased while maintaining the transmission of primary photons...
June 2016: Medical Physics
A Andersen, Y Park, O Casares-Magaz, U Elstroem, J Petersen, B Winey, L Muren
PURPOSE: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging may enable image- and dose-guided proton therapy, but is challenged by image artefacts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the general applicability of a previously developed a priori scatter correction algorithm to allow CBCT-based proton dose calculations. METHODS: The a priori scatter correction algorithm used a plan CT (pCT) and raw cone-beam projections acquired with the Varian On-Board Imager. The projections were initially corrected for bow-tie filtering and beam hardening and subsequently reconstructed using the Feldkamp-Davis-Kress algorithm (rawCBCT)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
E Gershkevitsh, D Zolotuhhin
PURPOSE: IGRT has become an indispensable tool in modern radiotherapy with kV imaging used in many departments due to superior image quality and lower dose when compared to MV imaging. Many departments use manufacturer supplied protocols for imaging which are not always optimised between image quality and radiation dose (ALARA). METHODS: Whole body phantom PBU-50 (Kyoto Kagaku ltd., Japan) for imaging in radiology has been imaged on Varian iX accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, USA) with OBI 1...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Mohammadi Gh Fallal, Alam N Riyahi, Gh Graily, R Paydar
PURPOSE: Clinical use of multi detector computed tomography(MDCT) in diagnosis of diseases due to high speed in data acquisition and high spatial resolution is significantly increased. Regarding to the high radiation dose in CT and necessity of patient specific radiation risk assessment, the adoption of new method in the calculation of organ dose is completely required and necessary. In this study by introducing a conversion factor, patient organ dose in thorax region based on CT image data using MC system was calculated...
June 2016: Medical Physics
K Yang, X Li, B Liu
PURPOSE: To accurately measure CT bow-tie profiles from various manufacturers and to provide non-proprietary information for CT system modeling. METHODS: A GOS-based linear detector (0.8 mm per pixel and 51.2 cm in length) with a fast data sampling speed (0.24 ms/sample) was used to measure the relative profiles of bow-tie filters from a collection of eight CT scanners by three different vendors, GE (LS Xtra, LS VCT, Discovery HD750), Siemens (Sensation 64, Edge, Flash, Force), and Philips (iBrilliance 256)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
K Son, H Lee, C Kim, J Kim, S Cho
PURPOSE: To reduce radiation dose to the patients, tube current modulation (TCM) method has been actively used in diagnostic CT systems. However, TCM method has not yet been applied to a kV-CBCT system on a LINAC machine. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the use of TCM method is desirable in kV-CBCT system for IGRT. We have developed an attenuation-based tube current modulation (a-TCM) method using the prior knowledge of treatment CT image of a patient. METHODS: Patients go through a diagnostic CT scan for RT planning; therefore, using this prior information of CT images, one can estimate the total attenuation of an x-ray through the patient body in a CBCT setting for radiation therapy...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Thotreithem Hongray, Janaki Balakrishnan
A detailed study is performed on the parameter space of the mechanical system of a driven pendulum with damping and constant torque under feedback control. We report an interesting bow-tie shaped bursting oscillatory behaviour, which is exhibited for small driving frequencies, in a certain parameter regime, which has not been reported earlier in this forced system with dynamic feedback. We show that the bursting oscillations are caused because of a transition of the quiescent state to the spiking state by a saddle-focus bifurcation, and because of another saddle-focus bifurcation, which leads to cessation of spiking, bringing the system back to the quiescent state...
December 2016: Chaos
Geoffrey D Hugo, Elisabeth Weiss, William C Sleeman, Salim Balik, Paul J Keall, Jun Lu, Jeffrey F Williamson
PURPOSE: To describe in detail a dataset consisting of serial four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and 4D cone beam CT (4DCBCT) images acquired during chemoradiotherapy of 20 locally advanced, nonsmall cell lung cancer patients we have collected at our institution and shared publicly with the research community. ACQUISITION AND VALIDATION METHODS: As part of an NCI-sponsored research study 82 4DCT and 507 4DCBCT images were acquired in a population of 20 locally advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy...
February 2017: Medical Physics
I Chaikovska, K Cassou, R Chiche, R Cizeron, P Cornebise, N Delerue, D Jehanno, F Labaye, R Marie, A Martens, Y Peinaud, V Soskov, A Variola, F Zomer, E Cormier, J Lhermite, V Dolique, R Flaminio, C Michel, L Pinard, B Sassolas, T Akagi, S Araki, Y Honda, T Omori, N Terunuma, J Urakawa, S Miyoshi, T Takahashi, H Yoshitama
We report and discuss high-flux generation of circularly polarized γ-rays by means of Compton scattering. The γ-ray beam results from the collision of an external-cavity-enhanced infrared laser beam and a low emittance relativistic electron beam. By operating a non-planar bow-tie high-finesse optical Fabry-Perot cavity coupled to a storage ring, we have recorded a flux of up to (3.5 ± 0.3) × 10(8) photons per second with a mean measured energy of 24 MeV. The γ-ray flux has been sustained for several hours...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Eva Oberacker, Katharina Paul, Till Huelnhagen, Celal Oezerdem, Lukas Winter, Andreas Pohlmann, Laura Boehmert, Oliver Stachs, Jens Heufelder, Andreas Weber, Matus Rehak, Ira Seibel, Thoralf Niendorf
PURPOSE: Proton radiation therapy (PRT) is a standard treatment of uveal melanoma. PRT patients undergo implantation of ocular tantalum markers (OTMs) for treatment planning. Ultra-high-field MRI is a promising technique for 3D tumor visualization and PRT planning. This work examines MR safety and compatibility of OTMs at 7.0 Tesla. METHODS: MR safety assessment included deflection angle measurements (DAMs), electromagnetic field (EMF) simulations for specific absorption rate (SAR) estimation, and temperature simulations for examining radiofrequency heating using a bow-tie dipole antenna for transmission...
November 10, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
M D Culwick, A F Merry, D M Clarke, K J Taraporewalla, N M Gibbs
Bow-tie analysis is a risk analysis and management tool that has been readily adopted into routine practice in many high reliability industries such as engineering, aviation and emergency services. However, it has received little exposure so far in healthcare. Nevertheless, its simplicity, versatility, and pictorial display may have benefits for the analysis of a range of healthcare risks, including complex and multiple risks and their interactions. Bow-tie diagrams are a combination of a fault tree and an event tree, which when combined take the shape of a bow tie...
November 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Hans-Erik Källman, Rickard Holmberg, Jonas Andersson, Love Kull, Erik Tranéus, Anders Ahnesjö
PURPOSE: Radiation dose to patients undergoing examinations with Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT) as well as Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is a matter of concern. Risk management could benefit from efficient replace rational dose calculation tools. The paper aims to verify MSCT dose calculations using a Treatment Planning System (TPS) for radiotherapy and to evaluate four different variations of bow-tie filter characterizations for the beam model used in the dose calculations...
November 2016: Medical Physics
Esmaeil Zarei, Ali Azadeh, Nima Khakzad, Iraj Mohammadfam
Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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