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Clinical anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637308/three-dimensional-right-ventricular-regional-deformation-and-survival-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#1
Pamela Moceri, Nicolas Duchateau, Delphine Baudouy, Elie-Dan Schouver, Sylvie Leroy, Fabien Squara, Emile Ferrari, Maxime Sermesant
Aims: Survival in pulmonary hypertension (PH) relates to right ventricular (RV) function. However, the RV unique anatomy and structure limit 2D analysis and its regional 3D function has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to assess the implications of global and regional 3D RV deformation on clinical condition and survival in adults with PH and healthy controls. Methods and results: We collected a prospective longitudinal cohort of 104 consecutive PH patients and 34 healthy controls between September 2014 and December 2015...
June 15, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635614/advanced-treatment-planning-using-direct-4d-optimisation-for-pencil-beam-scanned-particle-therapy
#2
Kinga Bernatowicz, Ye Zhang, Rosalind Lucy Perrin, Damien Charles Weber, Antony John Lomax
We report on development of a new four-dimensional (4D) optimisation approach for scanned proton beams, which incorporates both irregular motion patterns and the delivery dynamics of the treatment machine into the plan optimiser. Furthermore, we assess the effectiveness of this technique to reduce dose to critical structures in proximity to moving targets, while maintaining effective target dose homogeneity and coverage. The proposed approach has been tested using both a simulated phantom and a clinical liver cancer case, and allows for realistic 4D calculations and optimisation using irregular breathing patterns extracted from e...
June 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635100/a-new-system-for-classifying-accessory-canal-morphology
#3
REVIEW
H M A Ahmed, P Neelakantan, P M H Dummer
Thorough knowledge of the anatomical complexities of the root canal system has a direct impact on the effectiveness of canal preparation and filling, and is an essential prerequisite for successful root canal treatment. A wide range of complex variations in root canal anatomy exists, including root canal configuration type, developmental anomalies and more minor canal morphology such as accessory canals and apical deltas. Accessory canals and apical deltas have been associated with pulp disease, primary canal infection, canal reinfection and post-treatment disease...
June 21, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633225/patient-specific-simulation-of-endovascular-thoracic-aortic-repair-initial-experience
#4
Liesbeth M Desender, Isabelle Van Herzeele, Zoran Rancic, Colin Bicknell, Ignatios Zairis, Frank E Vermassen, John H Rundback
PURPOSE: Endovascular thoracic aortic repair (TEVAR) has become the treatment modality of diverse aortic pathology. We report the use of patient-specific simulation using a dedicated PROcedure Rehearsal Studio (PRS) platform (Simbionix USA Corp, Cleveland, OH) before TEVAR and evaluate the feasibility and realism of this technology. DESCRIPTION: Virtual three-dimensional models of the patient's relevant anatomy were reconstructed from computed tomography data. PRS was used in 2 patients before TEVAR...
July 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633121/biomaterials-based-strategies-for-rotator-cuff-repair
#5
REVIEW
Song Zhao, Wei Su, Vishva Shah, Divia Hobson, Lara Yildirimer, Kelvin W K Yeung, Jinzhong Zhao, Wenguo Cui, Xin Zhao
Tearing of the rotator cuff commonly occurs as among one of the most frequently experienced tendon disorders. While treatment typically involves surgical repair, failure rates to achieve or sustain healing range from 20 to 90%. The insufficient capacity to recover damaged tendon to heal to the bone, especially at the enthesis, is primarily responsible for the failure rates reported. Various types of biomaterials with special structures have been developed to improve tendon-bone healing and tendon regeneration, and have received considerable attention for replacement, reconstruction, or reinforcement of tendon defects...
June 6, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632658/the-retrograde-antegrade-retrograde-technique-for-successful-placement-of-a-retrograde-superior-ramus-screw
#6
David J Weatherby, Milton L Chip Routt, Jonathan G Eastman
Stabilization of pelvic ring injuries and certain acetabular fractures using percutaneous techniques is becoming increasingly more common. Intramedullary superior ramus screw fixation is beneficial in both injury types. While implants can be placed in an antegrade or retrograde direction, parasymphyseal ramus fractures benefit from retrograde implant insertion. In some patients, the parabolic osseous anatomy or obstructing soft tissues of the anterior pelvis or thigh can prevent appropriate hand and instrumentation positioning for appropriate retrograde ramus screw insertion through the entire osseous fixation pathway...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632654/an-overview-of-cardiac-computed-tomography-in-adults-with-congenital-heart-disease
#7
Pal Suranyi, Akos Varga-Szemes, Anthony M Hlavacek
Familiarity with congenital heart disease (CHD) and its manifestations in adults is becoming increasingly important for the practicing cardiothoracic imager. The use of computed tomographic angiography is becoming commonplace not only in adults with a history and subsequent interventions for CHD as a child but also in de novo detection of-typically-milder, survivable forms of CHD, which are clinically suspected because of declining cardiac performance, cardiac events, or murmurs. Occasionally, adult CHD (ACHD) is found incidentally on scans performed for other indications (eg, trauma or neoplasm staging) because of improvements in computed tomographic technology and advanced visualization...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632651/imaging-in-adult-congenital-heart-disease
#8
Stephanie S Gaydos, Akos Varga-Szemes, Rochelle N Judd, Pal Suranyi, David Gregg
There has been tremendous growth in the population of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) over the last few decades because of advances in medical care. Whereas some cases are cured during childhood, most patients instead undergo palliation, which leaves them at risk for late complications. Lifelong clinical follow-up involving serial multimodality imaging is helpful to monitor and guide the treatment of late complications. Imaging of these individuals is challenging because of their unique anatomy and therefore requires careful consideration on a case-by-case basis...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632265/3d-printed-conformal-microfluidics-for-isolation-and-profiling-of-biomarkers-from-whole-organs
#9
Manjot Singh, Yuxin Tong, Kelly Webster, Ellen Cesewski, Alexander P Haring, Sahil Laheri, Bill Carswell, Timothy J O'Brien, Charles H Aardema, Ryan S Senger, John L Robertson, Blake N Johnson
The ability to interface microfluidic devices with native complex biological architectures, such as whole organs, has the potential to shift the paradigm for the study and analysis of biological tissue. Here, we show 3D printing can be used to fabricate bio-inspired conformal microfluidic devices that directly interface with the surface of whole organs. Structured-light scanning techniques enabled the 3D topographical matching of microfluidic device geometry to porcine kidney anatomy. Our studies show molecular species are spontaneously transferred from the organ cortex to the conformal microfluidic device in the presence of fluid flow through the organ-conforming microchannel...
June 20, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631052/anatomic-variations-of-the-spleen-current-state-of-terminology-classification-and-embryological-background
#10
REVIEW
Ivan Varga, Jozef Babala, David Kachlik
A thorough understanding of the anatomy, physiology, and development of the spleen is essential for determining the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning splenic diseases and congenital variations. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize current knowledge regarding the normal development of the spleen, and to provide an overview of clinically relevant congenital splenic variations. These include such variations as asplenia, polysplenia, hyposplenia, lobulation of spleen, accessory spleens, accessory splenic nodules, wandering spleen, splenogonadal and splenopancreatic fusion, splenic cysts, and cavernous haemangioma of the spleen...
June 19, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628732/understanding-neurophobia-reasons-behind-impaired-understanding-and-learning-of-neuroanatomy-in-cross-disciplinary-healthcare-students
#11
Muhammad Asim Javaid, Shelly Chakraborty, John F Cryan, Harriët Schellekens, André Toulouse
Recent studies have highlighted a fear or difficulty with the study and understanding of neuroanatomy among medical and healthcare students. This has been linked with a diminished confidence of clinical practitioners and students to manage patients with neurological conditions. The underlying reasons for this difficulty have been queried among a broad cohort of medical, dental, occupational therapy, and speech and language sciences students. Direct evidence of the students' perception regarding specific difficulties associated with learning neuroanatomy has been provided and some of the measures required to address these issues have been identified...
June 19, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628720/cost-effective-teaching-of-radiology-with-preclinical-anatomy
#12
James S Wilson, Jacqueline Alvarez, Bonnie C Davis, Andre J Duerinckx
Graduating physicians in all subspecialties have an increased need for competency in radiology, particularly since the use of diagnostic imaging continues to grow. To integrate the teaching of radiology with anatomy during the first year of medical school at Howard University, a novel approach was developed to overcome the limitations of resources including funding, faculty, and curricular time. The resulting program relies on self-study and peer-to-peer interactions to develop proficiency at manipulating free versions of medical image viewer software (using the DICOM standard), identifying normal anatomy in medical images, and applying critical thinking skills to understand common clinical conditions...
June 19, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626939/technical-note-a-3-d-rendering-algorithm-for-electromechanical-wave-imaging-of-a-beating-heart
#13
Pierre Nauleau, Lea Melki, Elaine Wan, Elisa Konofagou
PURPOSE: Arrhythmias can be treated by ablating the heart tissue in the regions of abnormal contraction. The current clinical standard provides electroanatomic 3- D maps to visualize the elec-trical activation and locate the arrhythmogenic sources. However, the procedure is time-consuming and invasive. Electromechanical Wave Imaging is an ultrasound- based non-invasive technique that can provide 2-D maps of the electromechanical activation of the heart. In order to fully visualize the complex 3-D pattern of activation, several 2-D views are acquired and processed separately They are then manually registered with a 3-D rendering software to generate a pseudo-3-D map However, this last step is operator-dependent and time-consuming...
June 19, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626075/sex-differences-in-vascular-physiology-and-pathophysiology-estrogen-and-androgen-signaling-in-health-and-disease
#14
Austin C Boese, Seong Chul Kim, Ke-Jie Yin, Jean-Pyo Lee, Milton H Hamblin
Sex differences between women and men are often overlooked and underappreciated when studying the cardiovascular system. It has been long assumed that men and women are physiologically similar, and this notion has resulted in females being clinically evaluated and treated for cardiovascular pathophysiological complications as males. Currently, there is increased recognition of fundamental sex differences in cardiovascular function, anatomy, cell signaling, and pathophysiology. NIH has enacted guidelines expressly to gain knowledge about ways the sexes differ in both normal function and diseases at the various research levels (molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system)...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625588/intraventricular-mass-lesions-still-a-question-of-surgical-approach
#15
Marvin Darkwah Oppong, Oliver Müller, Ramazan Jabbarli, Philipp Dammann, Ulrich Sure, Nicolai El Hindy
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular mass lesions represent a small subgroup of intracranial neoplasms with various entities. The anatomy of the ventricular system is complex. Hence multiple surgical approaches are used. We sought to present a single center algorithm regarding surgical approach for intraventricular mass lesion. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of all patients operated in our institution due to a primary intraventricular tumor between 2011 and 2014...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624916/interethnic-variation-in-pelvic-floor-morphology-in-women-with-symptomatic-pelvic-organ-prolapse
#16
Zeelha Abdool, Hans Peter Dietz, Barend Gerhardus Lindeque
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: There is a lack of epidemiological studies evaluating female pelvic organ prolapse in developing countries. Current studies have largely focused on women of white ethnicity. This study was designed to determine interethnic variation in pelvic floor functional anatomy, namely, levator hiatal distensibility and pelvic organ descent, in women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse in a multi-ethnic South African population. METHODS: This prospective observational study included 258 consecutive women referred for pelvic organ prolapse assessment and management at a tertiary urogynaecological clinic...
June 17, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624855/ct-arthrography-visualizes-tissue-growth-of-osteochondral-defects-of-the-talus-after-microfracture
#17
Hong-Geun Jung, Na-Ra Kim, Ji-Young Jeon, Dong-Oh Lee, Jun-Sang Eom, Jong-Soo Lee, Sung-Wook Kim
PURPOSE: Little is known about the arthroscopic or radiographic outcomes after arthroscopic microfracture of osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs). The purpose of this study was to investigate tissue growth after arthroscopic microfracture of OLTs using computed tomography arthrography (CTA) and to identify the relationship between CTA findings and clinical outcomes. We hypothesized that the morphology of the repaired tissue would be similar to that of normal anatomy and correlate with the clinical outcomes...
June 17, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624011/peroneal-tendon-pathology-pre-and-post-operative-high-resolution-us-and-mr-imaging
#18
REVIEW
Yogesh Kumar, Ali Alian, Shivani Ahlawat, Dane K Wukich, Avneesh Chhabra
Peroneal tendon pathology is an important cause of lateral ankle pain and instability. Typical peroneal tendon disorders include tendinitis, tenosynovitis, partial and full thickness tendon tears, peroneal retinacular injuries, and tendon subluxations and dislocations. Surgery is usually indicated when conservative treatment fails. Familiarity with the peroneal tendon surgeries and expected postoperative imaging findings is essential for accurate assessment and to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. Cross-sectional imaging, especially ultrasound and MRI provide accurate pre-operative and post-operative evaluation of the peroneal tendon pathology...
July 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623996/functional-polymorphism-rs1024611-in-the-mcp1-gene-is-associated-with-the-risk-of-varicose-veins-of-lower-extremities
#19
Alexandra S Shadrina, Mariya A Smetanina, Kseniya S Sevost'ianova, Evgenii I Seliverstov, Evgeny A Ilyukhin, Elena N Voronina, Igor A Zolotukhin, Maxim L Filipenko
OBJECTIVE: Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine responsible for monocyte, basophil, and T-lymphocyte attraction. Polymorphism rs1024611 located in the regulatory region of the MCP1 gene has previously been shown to be associated with increased MCP-1 production. In our study, we aimed to examine the association of rs1024611 with the risk of primary varicose veins (PVVs) of lower extremities. METHODS: The case group comprised 470 patients with PVVs, and the control group included 269 individuals without a history of chronic venous disease...
July 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623990/incidence-of-venous-leg-ulcer-healing-and-recurrence-after-treatment-with-endovenous-laser-ablation
#20
William A Marston, Jason Crowner, Ana Kouri, Corey A Kalbaugh
BACKGROUND: The Effect of Surgery and Compression on Healing and Recurrence (ESCHAR) trial previously reported that patients with venous leg ulcers treated with saphenous stripping experienced a significantly reduced incidence of ulcer recurrence compared with patients treated with compression therapy. Most patients with leg ulcers and saphenous insufficiency are currently treated with endovenous thermal ablation (EVTA), but little information is available on the long-term results after EVTA in Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, and Pathophysiology (CEAP) clinical class 5 (C5) and class 6 (C6) patients...
July 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
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