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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451497/automated-skeletal-tissue-quantification-in-the-lower-leg-using-pqct
#1
Sokratis Makrogiannis, Fatima Boukari, Luigi Ferrucci
In this paper we introduce a methodology for hard and soft tissue quantification at proximal, intermediate and distal tibia sites using peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) scans. Quantification of bone properties is crucial for estimating bone structure resistance to mechanical stress and adaptations to loading. Soft tissue variables can be computed to investigate muscle volume and density, muscle-bone relationship, and fat infiltration.
 Approach: We employed implicit active contour models and clustering techniques for automated segmentation and identification of bone, muscle and fat at 4%, 38%, and 66% tibia length...
February 15, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451141/associations-between-body-composition-indices-and-metabolic-disorders-in-chinese-adults-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#2
Rong Zhang, Sheng-Yong Dong, Fei Wang, Cong Ma, Xiao-Lan Zhao, Qiang Zeng, Ao Fei
Background: Obesity induces dyslipidemia, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and inflammatory state, which results in atherogenic processes, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We usually use body composition indices, such as body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), waist circumference-height ratio (WHtR), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) to reflect the obesity. The aim of this large population-based cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults...
February 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450852/major-pancreatic-resections-normal-postoperative-findings-and-complications
#3
Marco Chincarini, Giulia A Zamboni, Roberto Pozzi Mucelli
OBJECTIVES: (1) To illustrate and describe the main types of pancreatic surgery; (2) to discuss the normal findings after pancreatic surgery; (3) to review the main complications and their radiological findings. BACKGROUND: Despite the decreased postoperative mortality, morbidity still remains high resulting in longer hospitalisations and greater costs. Imaging findings following major pancreatic resections can be broadly divided into "normal postoperative alterations" and real complications...
February 15, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450814/improving-the-catalytic-activity-and-thermostability-of-mas1-lipase-by-alanine-substitution
#4
REVIEW
Ge Zhao, Jianrong Wang, Qingyun Tang, Dongming Lan, Yonghua Wang
MAS1 is a lipase isolated from Streptomyces sp. strain W007 with potential application in biotechnology. Structural analysis of MAS1 lipase showed that eight amino acids with bulkier side located in the substrate-binding pocket may be involved in affecting catalytic performance. Alanine substitutions of those residues were conducted to reduce steric clash of catalyzed pocket and probe their functional roles. The k cat /K m of mutants H108A, F153A, and V233A increased to 2.3-, 2.1-, and 1.4-fold, respectively...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450671/short-term-treatment-with-metformin-reduces-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-but-induces-liver-inflammation-in-obese-mice
#5
Alexandre Abilio de Souza Teixeira, Camila O Souza, Luana A Biondo, Loreana Sanches Silveira, Edson A Lima, Helena A Batatinha, Adriane Pereira Araujo, Michele Joana Alves, Sandro Massao Hirabara, Rui Curi, José Cesar Rosa Neto
The study aimed to evaluate the metabolic and inflammatory effects of short-term treatments (10 days) with metformin (MET) on the NAFLD caused by a high-fat diet (HFD) in C57BL/6 mice. After the treatment, histological liver slices were obtained, hepatocytes and macrophages were extracted and cultured with phosphate buffered saline, LPS (2.5 µg/mL) and MET (1 µM) for 24 h. Cytokine levels were determined by ELISA. NAFLD caused by the HFD was partially reduced by MET. The lipid accumulation induced by the HFD was not associated with liver inflammation; however, MET seemed to promote pro-inflammatory effects in liver, since it increased hepatic concentration of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1 and IFN-γ...
February 15, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450200/nutritional-compositions-and-phytochemical-properties-of-the-edible-flowers-from-selected-zingiberaceae-found-in-thailand
#6
Apinya Rachkeeree, Kuttiga Kantadoung, Ratchuporn Suksathan, Ratchadawan Puangpradab, Paul Alexander Page, Sarana Rose Sommano
The nutritional compositions and phytochemical properties of eight edible flowers of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) commonly found in Thailand are reported herein. The plant genera investigated were Zingiber (Ginger, Phlai Dam, Krathue), Hedychium (two morphological filament forms), Curcuma (Ao), Etlingera (Torch ginger), Amomum (Chi Kuk), and Alpinia (Galangal), which are eaten fresh or cooked as ingredients in the preparation of many Thai dishes. The proximate compositions (moisture, ash, fiber, protein, fat, and carbohydrate contents) varied among the different genera...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449935/pleomorphic-liposarcoma-of-bone-a-rare-primary-malignant-bone-tumour
#7
G L Tiemeier, J M Brown, S E Pratap, C McCarthy, A Kastrenopoulou, K Bradley, S Wilson, Z Orosz, C L M H Gibbons, U Oppermann, N A Athanasou
Background: Liposarcoma is an extremely rare primary bone sarcoma. Case presentation: We report a case of primary pleomorphic liposarcoma that arose in an 18 year old male in the metaphysis of the left tibia. Plain radiographs showed a partly sclerotic lesion and MR imaging a heterogeneous tumour predominantly isointense on T1- and high-signal on T2-weighted sequences with focal areas of increased T1 signal that suppressed with fat saturation. PET/CT showed marked FDG uptake (SUV = 17...
2018: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449746/high-quality-carbohydrates-and-physical-performance-expert-panel-report
#8
Mitch Kanter
While all experts agreed that protein needs for performance are likely greater than believed in past generations, particularly for strength training athletes, and that dietary fat could sustain an active person through lower-intensity training bouts, current research still points to carbohydrate as an indispensable energy source for high-intensity performance.
January 2018: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449577/neutralization-of-il-15-abrogates-experimental-immune-mediated-cholangitis-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#9
José L Reyes, Danielle T Vannan, Tina Vo, Aliya Gulamhusein, Paul L Beck, Raylene A Reimer, Bertus Eksteen
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting chronic inflammatory diseases. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease that can occur as an extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Previously we reported that patients with PSC who are obese have a higher risk of advanced liver disease. Currently it is unknown how obesity accelerates or worsens PSC. We evaluated the progression of PSC in an antigen-driven cholangitis mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Obesity was induced in our murine model of immune-mediated cholangitis (OVAbil)...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449533/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-severity-is-modulated-by-transglutaminase-type-2
#10
Mauro Piacentini, Andrea Baiocchini, Franca Del Nonno, Gerry Melino, Nickolai A Barlev, Federica Rossin, Manuela D'Eletto, Laura Falasca
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most important liver diseases worldwide. Currently, no effective treatment is available, and NAFLD pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Transglutaminase type 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitous enzyme whose dysregulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. Here we examined the impact of TG2 on NAFLD progression using the high-fat-diet-induced model in both wild-type and TG2-deficient mice. Animals were fed with a standard chow diet or a high-fat diet (42% of the energy from fat) for 16 weeks...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449335/bempedoic-acid-lowers-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-and-attenuates-atherosclerosis-in-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-deficient-ldlr-and-ldlr-yucatan-miniature-pigs
#11
Amy C Burke, Dawn E Telford, Brian G Sutherland, Jane Y Edwards, Cynthia G Sawyez, P Hugh R Barrett, Roger S Newton, J Geoffrey Pickering, Murray W Huff
OBJECTIVE: Bempedoic acid (BemA; ETC-1002) is a novel drug that targets hepatic ATP-citrate lyase to reduce cholesterol biosynthesis. In phase 2 studies, BemA lowers elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in hypercholesterolemic patients. In the present study, we tested the ability of BemA to decrease plasma cholesterol and LDL-C and attenuate atherosclerosis in a large animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Gene targeting has been used to generate Yucatan miniature pigs heterozygous ( LDLR +/- ) or homozygous ( LDLR -/- ) for LDL receptor deficiency (ExeGen)...
February 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449334/rgc-32-response-gene-to-complement-32-protein-deficiency-protects-endothelial-cells-from-inflammation-and-attenuates-atherosclerosis
#12
Xiao-Bing Cui, Jun-Na Luan, Kun Dong, Sisi Chen, Yongyi Wang, Wendy T Watford, Shi-You Chen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the role and underlying mechanisms of RGC-32 (response gene to complement 32 protein) in atherogenesis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: RGC-32 was mainly expressed in endothelial cells of atherosclerotic lesions in both ApoE -/- (apolipoprotein E deficient) mice and human patients. RGC-32 deficiency (Rgc32 -/- ) attenuated the high-fat diet-induced and spontaneously developed atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE -/- mice without affecting serum cholesterol concentration...
February 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448104/aim2-regulates-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-migration-in-atherosclerosis
#13
Jinyu Pan, Lu Lu, Xuyang Wang, Dian Liu, Jingjing Tian, Hui Liu, Mingjun Zhang, Fengqin Xu, Fengshuang An
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis (AS) is a common pathological basis of various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Plaque formation is initiated and triggered by vascular smooth musclecells (VSMCs) migration in vascular wall, which gradually aggravates atherosclerosis progression. Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), a member of HIN-200 family, plays an important role in activating inflammasome. However, the role of AIM2 in atherosclerotic plaque progression outside of the inflammasome has not yet been reported...
February 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447996/sleep-food-cravings-and-taste
#14
Wen Lv, Graham Findlayson, Robin Dando
OBJECTIVE: Taste is influenced by factors from our environment, psychology, and from our own physiological state. The objective of the study was to determine whether sleep influences our sense of taste or our cravings for food. METHOD: 57 healthy panelists, predominantly of college age, submitted to sleep tracking, and subsequently underwent a series of sensory tests, using basic prototypic tastants as well as real foods. Panelists were also evaluated to quantify food cravings, using both the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire, and the Control of Eating Questionnaire...
February 12, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447215/maternal-high-fat-diet-associated-with-altered-gene-expression-dna-methylation-and-obesity-risk-in-mouse-offspring
#15
Madeline Rose Keleher, Rabab Zaidi, Shyam Shah, M Elsa Oakley, Cassondra Pavlatos, Samir El Idrissi, Xiaoyun Xing, Daofeng Li, Ting Wang, James M Cheverud
We investigated maternal obesity in inbred SM/J mice by assigning females to a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet at weaning, mating them to low-fat-fed males, cross-fostering the offspring to low-fat-fed SM/J nurses at birth, and weaning the offspring onto a high-fat or low-fat diet. A maternal high-fat diet exacerbated obesity in the high-fat-fed daughters, causing them to weigh more, have more fat, and have higher serum levels of leptin as adults, accompanied by dozens of gene expression changes and thousands of DNA methylation changes in their livers and hearts...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446938/hypoglycemic-effect-of-pyrodextrins-with-different-molecular-weights-and-digestibilities-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#16
Yan Cao, Xiaoli Chen, Ying Sun, Jialiang Shi, Xiaojuan Xu, Yong-Cheng Shi
Pyrodextrin shares some properties of resistant starch which is metabolically beneficial, and has potential applications as a functional food. In this study, we report that oral administration of pyrodextrin (50 mg/kg/d for 7 weeks) decreased the blood glucose (from 9.18±1.47 to 7.67±0.42 mmol/L), serum HbA1c, triglycerides, adipocyte size, and body weights (from 24.4±1.2 to 22.5±1.2 g) in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. The Western blotting analysis suggested that pyrodextrins decreased the intestinal SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 expression to ~70% and ~60% of the obese control to slow down glucose transportation from gut into blood, and improved the hepatic metabolism tentatively...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446437/effects-of-total-fat-intake-on-bodyweight-in-children
#17
REVIEW
Celeste E Naude, Marianne E Visser, Kim A Nguyen, Solange Durao, Anel Schoonees
BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to prevent childhood overweight and obesity, we need to understand the relationship between total fat intake and body fatness in generally healthy children. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of total fat intake on measures of weight and body fatness in children and young people not aiming to lose weight. SEARCH METHODS: For this update we revised the previous search strategy and ran it over all years in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid), MEDLINE (PubMed), and Embase (Ovid) (current to 23 May 2017)...
February 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446339/the-rs1527483-but-not-rs3212018-cd36-polymorphism-associates-with-linoleic-acid-detection-and-obesity-in-czech-young-adults
#18
Jiří Plesník, Omar Šerý, Amira S Khan, Peter Bielik, Naim A Khan
Recent evidence has raised the possibility of the existence of a sixth taste modality - that is, taste for fat - which is mediated by lingual CD36 and plays a role in obesity. Consequently, the genetic polymorphism of CD36 has been shown to be associated with altered oro-sensory detection of dietary lipids. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between oro-sensory perception of linoleic acid (LA), two CD36 polymorphisms (rs1527483 and rs3212018), obesity parameters and craving habits for dietary lipids in young Czech adults...
February 15, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446263/pulsed-terahertz-imaging-of-breast-cancer-in-freshly-excised-murine-tumors
#19
Tyler Bowman, Tanny Chavez, Kamrul Khan, Jingxian Wu, Avishek Chakraborty, Narasimhan Rajaram, Keith Bailey, Magda El-Shenawee
This paper investigates terahertz (THz) imaging and classification of freshly excised murine xenograft breast cancer tumors. These tumors are grown via injection of E0771 breast adenocarcinoma cells into the flank of mice maintained on high-fat diet. Within 1 h of excision, the tumor and adjacent tissues are imaged using a pulsed THz system in the reflection mode. The THz images are classified using a statistical Bayesian mixture model with unsupervised and supervised approaches. Correlation with digitized pathology images is conducted using classification images assigned by a modal class decision rule...
February 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446245/differential-metabolic-effects-of-constant-moderate-versus-high-intensity-interval-training-in-high-fat-fed-mice-possible-role-of-muscle-adiponectin
#20
Sergio F Martinez-Huenchullan, Babu Raja Maharjan, Paul F Williams, Charmaine S Tam, Susan V Mclennan, Stephen M Twigg
Exercise regimens may have differing effects in the presence of obesity. In addition to being fat derived, adiponectin has recently been described as a myokine that regulates insulin sensitivity, which may link to exercise-related metabolic benefits in obesity. Whether skeletal muscle adiponectin varies in different exercise modalities is unclear. This study investigated the comparative effects of 10 weeks of endurance constant-moderate intensity exercise (END) with high intensity interval training (HIIT), on metabolic outcomes, including muscle adiponectin in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
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