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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679925/tocotrienol-rich-fraction-supplementation-reduces-hyperglycemia-induced-skeletal-muscle-damage-through-regulation-of-insulin-signaling-and-oxidative-stress-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#1
Heaji Lee, Yunsook Lim
Chronic hyperglycemia induces impairment of muscle growth and development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Since skeletal muscle is the major site for disposal of ingested glucose, impaired glucose metabolism causes imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation which adversely affects physical mobility. In this study, we investigated the effect of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation on skeletal muscle damage in diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet with streptozotocin (STZ) injection (100 mg/kg) in male C57BL/6J mice...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679742/adaptive-thermogenesis-by-dietary-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-emerging-evidence-and-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Rong Fan, Karsten Koehler, Soonkyu Chung
Brown/beige fat plays a crucial role in maintaining energy homeostasis through non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold temperature and excess nutrition (adaptive thermogenesis). Although numerous molecular and genetic regulators have been identified, relatively little information is available regarding thermogenic dietary molecules. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests that high consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or activation of GPR120, a membrane receptor of n-3 PUFA, stimulate adaptive thermogenesis...
April 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678976/fostering-active-living-and-healthy-eating-through-understanding-physical-activity-and-dietary-behaviours-of-arabic-speaking-adults-a-cross-sectional-study-from-the-middle-east
#3
Tam Truong Donnelly, Tak Shing Fung, Al-Anoud Bint Mohammad Al-Thani
OBJECTIVES: Physical inactivity and unhealthy diets increase the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Many people in Qatar are sedentary and consume diets high in fats, salt and sugar. The purpose of this study was to determine physical activity levels, food habits and understand the variables that might predict physical activity and healthy eating behaviours among Arabic-speaking adults living in the State of Qatar. SETTING: A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted with 1606 Arab adults ≥18 years of age from March 2013 to June 2015...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678598/the-benefits-of-defining-snacks
#4
Julie M Hess, Joanne L Slavin
Whether eating a "snack" is considered a beneficial or detrimental behavior is largely based on how "snack" is defined. The term "snack food" tends to connote energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods high in nutrients to limit (sugar, sodium, and/or saturated fat) like cakes, cookies, chips and other salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Eating a "snack food" is often conflated with eating a "snack," however, leading to an overall perception of snacks as a dietary negative...
April 17, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678570/overexpression-of-nrk1-ameliorates-diet-and-age-induced-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance
#5
Rui Fan, Jing Cui, Feng Ren, Qingzhi Wang, Yanmei Huang, Bin Zhao, Lai Wei, Xinlai Qian, Xiwen Xiong
NAD+ is a co-enzyme in redox reactions and a substrate required for activity of various enzyme families, including Sirtuins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. Dietary supplementation of NAD+ precursors nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or nicotinamide riboside (NR) protects against metabolic disease, neurodegenerative disorders and age-related physiological decline in mammals. Here we sought to identify the roles of nicotinamide riboside kinase 1 (NRK1) plays in regulating hepatic NAD+ biosynthesis and lipid metabolism...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678475/both-oophorectomy-and-obesity-impaired-solely-hippocampal-dependent-memory-via-increased-hippocampal-dysfunction
#6
Duangkamol Mantor, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Wanitchaya Minta, Wissuta Sutham, Siripong Palee, Jirapas Sripetchwandee, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Thidarat Jaiwongkum, Sirawit Sriwichaiin, Warunsorn Krintratun, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Our previous study demonstrated that obesity aggravated peripheral insulin resistance and brain dysfunction in the ovariectomized condition. Conversely, the effect of obesity followed by oophorectomy on brain oxidative stress, brain apoptosis, synaptic function and cognitive function, particularly in hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory, has not been investigated. Our hypothesis was that oophorectomy aggravated metabolic impairment, brain dysfunction and cognitive impairment in obese rats...
April 17, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678181/a20-deubiquitinase-controls-pgc-1%C3%AE-expression-in-the-adipose-tissue
#7
Bruna Bombassaro, Leticia M Ignacio-Souza, Carla E Nunez, Daniela S Razolli, Rafael M Pedro, Andressa Coope, Eliana P Araujo, Elinton A Chaim, Licio A Velloso
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator- 1alpha (PGC-1α) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and, particularly in glucose homeostasis. Its expression is highly regulated and, small variations in tissue levels can have a major impact in a number of physiological and pathological conditions. Recent studies have shown that the ubiquitin/proteasome system plays a role in the control of PGC-1α degradation. METHODS: Here we evaluated the interaction of PGC-1α with the protein A20, which plays a dual-role in the control of the ubiquitin/proteasome system acting as a deubiquitinase and as an E3 ligase...
April 20, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678007/an-mhealth-application-for-educating-and-monitoring-patients-treated-with-a-ketogenic-diet-regimen
#8
Elisa Maria Zini, Anna Tagliabue, Claudia Trentani, Cinzia Ferraris, Rosangela Boninsegna, Silvana Quaglini, Giordano Lanzola
Ketogenic Diet (KD) is a high-fat diet used to treat refractory epilepsy in patients, also including children. Because of the inherent differences with a balanced diet, patients starting KD face an abrupt switch of dietary habits. Moreover, KD is associated with several side effects that should be closely monitored. In this paper, we propose an mHealth application for training and empowering patients in managing KD. The application also acts as a bridge connecting patients with the health care staff for coaching and monitoring purposes...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677540/ameliorating-effect-of-berbamine-on-hepatic-key-enzymes-of-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-and-streptozotocin-induced-type-2-diabetic-rats
#9
Sankaranarayanan Chandrasekaran, Nishanthi Ramajayam, Pugalendi Pachaiappan
BACKGROUND: Aberrations in the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism is well documented in diabetes mellitus. Previous studies have shown that active ingredients in the extracts of Berberis aristata exhibits diverse pharmacological activities in animal models. OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to investigate whether berbamine (BBM), an alkaloid from the roots of Berberis aristata can ameliorate the altered activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in high fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677453/l-carnitine-induced-amelioration-of-hdf-induced-hepatic-dysfunction-is-accompanied-by-a-reduction-in-hepatic-tnf-%C3%AE-and-tgf%C3%AE-1
#10
Mabrouk Attia Abd Eldaim, Fatma Mohamed Ibrahim, Sahar H Orabi, Azza Hassan Morsi, Hesham Saad ElSabbagh
In this study the possible mechanisms through which L-carnitine ameliorates the adverse effects of high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity on rats was evaluated. 56 Wister albino rats were randomly assigned into seven groups. Control rats fed basal diet. 2nd group fed basal diet and injected with L-carnitine 200 mg/kg i.p. 3rd group fed HFD. 4th group fed HFD and injected with L-Carnitine 200 mg/kg i.p for 8 weeks. 5th group fed HFD for 10 weeks. 6th group fed HFD for 10 weeks and injected with L-Carnitine 200 mg/kg i...
April 20, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677203/how-does-food-addiction-influence-dietary-intake-profile
#11
Aylin Ayaz, Reyhan Nergiz-Unal, Damla Dedebayraktar, Asli Akyol, A Gulden Pekcan, Halit Tanju Besler, Zehra Buyuktuncer
This study aimed to investigate whether there was any difference in eating pattern, abnormal eating behaviour, obesity and the number of food addiction symptoms according to food addiction presence. A total sample of 851 healthy subjects living in Ankara (n = 360 male, n = 491 female) aged 19-65 years were included in this cross-sectional survey. Data on demographic information, 24-hour dietary recalls, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and anthropometric measurements were collected through face-to-face interviews...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677191/type-2-diabetic-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-mutant-mice-aldh-2-2-exhibiting-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-phenotype-can-be-determined-by-exercise-stress-echocardiography
#12
Guodong Pan, Srikar Munukutla, Ananya Kar, Joseph Gardinier, Rajarajan A Thandavarayan, Suresh Selvaraj Palaniyandi
E487K point mutation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 (ALDH2*2) in East Asians intrinsically lowers ALDH2 activity. ALDH2*2 is associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetic patients exhibit heart failure of preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) i.e. while the systolic heart function is preserved in them, they may exhibit diastolic dysfunction, implying a jeopardized myocardial health. Currently, it is challenging to detect cardiac functional deterioration in diabetic mice. Stress echocardiography (echo) in the clinical set-up is a procedure used to measure cardiac reserve and impaired cardiac function in coronary artery diseases...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677190/a-haplotype-of-three-snps-in-fto-had-a-strong-association-with-body-composition-and-bmi-in-iranian-male-adolescents
#13
Naser Kalantari, Nastaran Keshavarz Mohammadi, Pantea Izadi, Saeid Doaei, Maryam Gholamalizadeh, Hassan Eini-Zinab, Tuire Salonurmi, Shahram Rafieifar, Reza Janipoor, Ghasem Azizi Tabesh
BACKGROUND: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are located in the first intron of the FTO gene, are reported to be associated with body weight and the body mass index (BMI). However, their effects on anthropometric measurements in adolescents are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association of three adjacent polymorphisms (rs9930506, rs9930501, & rs9932754) in the FTO gene with anthropometric indices in Iranian adolescent males...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677105/the-chemical-composition-and-metabolic-effects-of-attalea-phalerata-nut-oil-in-hyperlipidemic-rats-induced-by-a-high-fructose-diet
#14
Débora da Silva Baldivia, Eliana Janet Sanjinez-Argandonã, Kátia Ávila Antunes, Izabel Cristina Freitas Moraes, Edson Lucas Dos Santos, Kely de Picoli Souza
The fatty acids found in nuts are important regulators of the metabolism. These acids are frequently associated with a reduction of serum cholesterol and body fat and a lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In this context, the aim of this study was to identify and quantify the nut oil fatty acids from Attalea phalerata and investigate their metabolic effects in rats with hyperlipidemia induced by a diet rich in fructose. Oleic and lauric acids were the major compounds found in the A. phalerata nut oil (APNO)...
April 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677013/low-carbohydrate-diets-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#15
Kevin D Hall, Stephanie T Chung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Summarize the physiological effects of low-carbohydrate diets as they relate to weight loss, glycemic control, and metabolic health. RECENT FINDINGS: Low-carbohydrate diets are at least as effective for weight loss as other diets, but claims about increased energy expenditure and preferential loss of body fat are unsubstantiated. Glycemic control and hyperinsulinemia are improved by low-carbohydrate diets, but insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion may be impaired, especially in the absence of weight loss...
April 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676784/expression-and-characterisation-of-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-5-integrin-on-intestinal-macrophages
#16
Ashok K Kumawat, Chen Yu, Elizabeth A Mann, Anika Schridde, Silvia C Finnemann, Allan McI Mowat
Macrophages play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis in the intestine, but the underlying mechanisms have not yet been elucidated fully. Here we show for the first time that mature intestinal macrophages in mouse colon and small intestine express high levels of αvβ5 integrin, which acts as a receptor for the uptake of apoptotic cells and can activate molecules involved in several aspects of tissue homeostasis such as angiogenesis and remodelling of the extracellular matrix. αvβ5 is not expressed by other immune cells in the intestine, is already present on intestinal macrophages soon after birth, and its expression is not dependent on the microbiota...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676403/combined-endoscopic-transorbital-and-endonasal-repair-of-high-flow-orbital-apex-middle-fossa-cerebrospinal-fluid-leak-with-a-nasoseptal-flap
#17
Brandon Lucke-Wold, Gustavo Mendez, David Cua, Paul Akins, Haley Gillham, Jeremy Ciporen
Background and importance: High flow orbital apex or middle fossa cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks can be life threatening and complex to repair. These leaks associated with large dural defects are most commonly repaired with an open temporalis muscle patch or free flaps, but these flaps do not always stop the leak. Clinical Presentation: A 65-year-old patient presented two years after orbital exenteration and radiation for squamous cell carcinoma. He developed multi-organism meningitis and pneumocephalus secondary to a large high-flow orbital apex/middle fossa CSF leak...
2018: Journal of neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676049/moderate-weight-loss-improves-body-composition-and-metabolic-function-in-metabolically-unhealthy-lean-subjects
#18
Yu Chung Chooi, Cherlyn Ding, Zhiling Chan, John Choo, Suresh Anand Sadananthan, Navin Michael, Yijun Lee, S Sendhil Velan, Faidon Magkos
OBJECTIVE: Individuals who have "metabolically obese normal weight" (MONW) have an increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. Moderate weight loss has multiple benefits in people with obesity, but its effects in lean people are unknown. Thus, the effects of diet-induced 5% weight loss on body composition and metabolic function in MONW subjects were evaluated. METHODS: Total body fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) volumes, intrahepatic and intramyocellular lipid contents, insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), glucose tolerance, and postprandial insulin secretion and clearance rates (mixed meal with minimal modeling) were measured before and after 4...
April 19, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675984/associations-of-pre-existing-co-morbidities-with-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-radiodensity-in-patients-with-non-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#19
Jingjie Xiao, Bette J Caan, Erin Weltzien, Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Candyce H Kroenke, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Vickie E Baracos, Marilyn L Kwan, Adrienne L Castillo, Carla M Prado
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Co-morbidities and computerized tomography-measured muscle abnormalities are both common in cancer patients and independently adversely influence clinical outcomes. Muscle abnormalities are also evident in other diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. This study examined for the first time the association between co-morbidities and muscle abnormalities in patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 3051 non-metastatic patients with Stages I-III CRC...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675927/tributyltin-reduces-the-levels-of-serum-adiponectin-and-activity-of-akt-and-induces-metabolic-syndrome-in-male-mice
#20
Haotian Yan, Hao Guo, Dong Cheng, Ruirui Kou, Cuili Zhang, Jiliang Si
Tributyltin (TBT), a proven environmental obesogen, functions as a nanomolar agonist of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). However, the adverse effects of TBT on metabolism are incompletely understood. In this study, male ICR mice were administered TBT (5 and 50 μg·kg- 1 ) by an intraperitoneal injection once every 3 days for 30 days from 28 days of age and bred for another 30 days after the last administration of TBT. We analyzed the effects of these exposures on the fat depot weights, serum lipid profile, serum leptin and adiponectin, hepatic lipid accumulation, and activity of AKT in the liver and skeletal muscle isolated from mice 8 mins after receiving an insulin injection...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
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