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Laura Perea-Sanz, Rebeca Montero, Carmela Belloch, Mónica Flores
Slow fermented sausages with reduced ingoing amounts of sodium nitrate were manufactured: control (250 ppm), 15% (212.5 ppm) and 25% (187.5 ppm) reduction. The effect of nitrate reduction on microbiology and chemical parameters, volatile compounds and aroma production was studied. Parameters like, pH, aw and colour decreased during ripening, without being affected by nitrate reduction. Lipid oxidation increased during ripening and it was higher in control sausages due to fat content. Residual nitrite was below the detection limit during the whole process and residual nitrate decreased during ripening, with higher reduction in RN25 sausages...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Zhongxiang Sun, Qi Shi, Cuicui Xu, Rumeng Wang, Huanhuan Wang, Yuanyuan Song, Rensen Zeng
The major yolk protein precursors (YPP) gene, vitellogenin (Vg), usually considered as a reproductive indicator and molecular marker for evaluating insect fecundity, is controlled by insect hormone (mainly ecdysteroids and juvenile hormone), transcription factors and many other fecundity-related genes. To better understand the underlying molecular regulation mechanisms of the NlVg in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (N. lugens), the correlation between one early ecdysone response gene E74 and one important fecundity-related gene angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) on the regulation of Vg gene expression, was investigated...
June 19, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Jian Wu, Jibo Liu, Yaqin Ding, Mingying Zhu, Kan Lu, Jing Zhou, Xin Xie, Yi Xu, Xiaoyu Shen, Yiyue Chen, Xiaohong Shao, Chunling Zhu
Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a mediatory role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), but the function of the involved miRNAs is still incomplete. Here, we found that miR-455-3p was down-regulated in the human mesangial cells (HMC) and human proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK-2) stimulated with high glucose (HG) or transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) was identified as a directed target of miR-455-3p...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yingcai Zhao, Changhu Xue, Tiantian Zhang, YuMing Wang
Sea cucumbers, belonging to the phylum Echinodermata, have been valued for centuries as a nutritious and functional food with various bioactivities. Sea cucumbers can produce highly active substances, notably saponins, the main secondary metabolites, which are the basis of their chemical defense. The saponins are mostly triterpene glycosides with triterpenes or steroid in aglycone, which possess multiple biological properties including anti-tumor, hypolipidemic activity, improvement of nonalcoholic fatty liver, inhibition of fat accumulation, anti-hyperuricemia, promotion of bone marrow hematopoiesis, anti-hypertension, etc...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Brandee Decker, Kevin Pumiglia
Nitric oxide, produced by eNOS, plays critical roles in the regulation of vascular function and maintenance. Chronic PI3K signaling has recently been associated with vascular malformations. A well described substrate downstream of PI3K signaling is eNOS. Another critical downstream target of PI3K is the metabolic regulator, mTORc1. The relationship between mTORc1 and eNOS regulation, has not been determined. We generated cells with manipulated PI3K signaling by expressing the activating mutation, PIK3CAH1047R , or knocking down PTEN expression...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
Jonghae Lee, Yang Lee, Emily C LaVoy, Michihisa Umetani, Junyoung Hong, Yoonjung Park
Activation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome mediates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β and thereby plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory response in vascular pathology. An active lifestyle has beneficial effects on inflammation-associated vascular dysfunction in obesity. However, it remains unclear how physical activity regulates NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated vascular dysfunction in obesity. Therefore, we explored the protective effect of physical activity on NLRP3 inflammasome-associated vascular dysfunction in mouse hearts, and the potential underlying mechanisms...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
Weinan Zhou, Elizabeth A Davis, Megan J Dailey
The intestinal epithelium plays an essential role in nutrient absorption, hormone release, and barrier function. Maintenance of the epithelium is driven by continuous cell renewal by intestinal epithelial stem cells located in the intestinal crypts. Obesity affects this process and results in changes in the size and function of the tissue. Because both the amount of food intake and the composition of the diet are contributing factors to developing and maintaining obesity, it is necessary to tease apart the separate contributions of obesity versus the type/amount of diet in driving the epithelial changes...
June 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Anne-Catherine Pouleur, Stefan Anker, Dulce Brito, Oana Brosteanu, Dirk Hasenclever, Barbara Casadei, Frank Edelmann, Gerasimos Filippatos, Damien Gruson, Ignatios Ikonomidis, Renaud Lhommel, Masliza Mahmod, Stefan Neubauer, Alexandre Persu, Bernhard L Gerber, Stefan Piechnik, Burkert Pieske, Elisabeth Pieske-Kraigher, Fausto Pinto, Piotr Ponikowski, Michele Senni, Jean-Noël Trochu, Nancy Van Overstraeten, Rolf Wachter, Jean-Luc Balligand
AIMS: Progressive left ventricular (LV) remodelling with cardiac myocyte hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the onset and progression of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The Beta3-LVH trial will test the hypothesis that the β3 adrenergic receptor agonist mirabegron will improve LV hypertrophy and diastolic function in patients with hypertensive structural heart disease at high risk for developing heart failure with preserved ejection fraction...
June 22, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
Alice Martinic, Javad Barouei, Zach Bendiks, Darya Mishchuk, Dustin D Heeney, Roy Martin, Maria L Marco, Carolyn M Slupsky
Obesity is a prevalent chronic condition in many developed and developing nations that raises the risk for developing heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Previous studies have shown that consuming particular probiotic strains of Lactobacillus is associated with improvement in the obese and diabetic phenotype; however, the mechanisms of these beneficial effects are not well understood. In this study, C57BL/6J male mice were fed a lard-based high fat diet for 15 weeks with Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation NCIMB8826 (Lp) between weeks 10 and 15 (n=10 per group)...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Véronique Gingras, Lisa Bonato, Virginie Messier, Amélie Roy-Fleming, Mohamed Raef Smaoui, Martin Ladouceur, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret
AIMS: To examine the effect of added protein and/or fat in standard meals with a fixed carbohydrate content on postprandial glucose control with closed-loop insulin delivery in adults with type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized four-way cross-over study, participants (n=15) consumed breakfast meals with a fixed carbohydrate content (75±1 g) and added protein and/or fat (35±2 g): 1) carbohydrate-only (standard), 2) high protein (HP), 3) high fat (HF) and 4) high fat + protein meals (HFHP)...
June 21, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Wei Wu, Kai Wang, Jiangtao Qiao, Jie Dong, Zhanping Li, Hongcheng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Bee pollen, collected by honey bees, contains a substantial amount of nutrients and has a high nutritive value. However, a high level of nutrients can be difficult to be digested and absorbed due to the complex wall of bee pollen. RESULTS: We observed that amino acids were mostly distributed inside cell wall of lotus bee pollen, rape bee pollen, apricot bee pollen, wuweizi bee pollen and camellia bee pollen, using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS)...
June 22, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Marjan Mansourian, Akram Yazdani, Elham Faghihimani, Ashraf Aminorraya, Masoud Amini, Tohid Jafari-Koshki
AIMS: Pre-diabetes is a strong risk factor for type 2diabetes (T2D). The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with normal glucose maintenance and pre-diabetes prevention or delay. METHODS: Data of 1016 first-degree relatives of T2D patients were retrieved from the Isfahan Diabetes Prevention Study (IDPS). Association of various variables including nutrients, serum tests and physical activity with the risk of pre-diabetes was assessed using recurrent events approach...
June 22, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Amin Kalaaji, Stine Dreyer, Line Vadseth, Ivana Maric, Vanja Jönsson, Trond H Haukebøe
Background: Use of gluteal augmentation with fat increased by 3267% from 2002 to 2015, and the rate of death is highest compared with other aesthetic procedures: 1 in 3448 patients dies, compared with 1 in 55,000. Objectives: To retrospectively investigate patients who underwent this procedure at Oslo Plastic Surgery Clinic, to review international data determine factors causing mortality, and to provide guidelines for safety. Methods: Patient data were searched for reason for the procedure, assessment of patients, techniques performed, and safety measures used...
June 20, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Dan Xi, Jinzhen Zhao, Kai Guo, Lu Hu, Hui Chen, Weijun Fu, Wenyan Lai, Zhigang Guo
Background: A hallmark of atherosclerosis is the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Serum amyloid P component (SAP), a member of the pentraxin family of proteins, is known to affect macrophage activation. However, the role of SAP in atherosclerosis is still unclear. Methods: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/- ) mice fed a high-fat diet were given intraperitoneal injections of SAP (6 mg/kg) every other day for a total of 2 weeks to characterize atherosclerosis development. Results: We showed that intraperitoneal injection of SAP attenuated atherosclerosis in Apoe-/- mice...
2018: Theranostics
Harry G Leitch, Petra Hajkova
In the version of this article originally published, a box was misplaced in Fig. 1. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.
June 21, 2018: Nature Genetics
Marsel Lino, Mark H Wan, Antonio S Rocca, David Ngai, Navid Shobeiri, Guangpei Hou, Chunxi Ge, Renny T Franceschi, Michelle P Bendeck
OBJECTIVE: Vascular calcification is a common and severe complication in patients with atherosclerosis which is exacerbated by type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our laboratory recently reported that the collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) mediates vascular calcification in atherosclerosis; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. During calcification, vascular smooth muscle cells transdifferentiate into osteoblast-like cells, in a process driven by the transcription factor RUNX2 (runt-related transcription factor 2)...
June 21, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Tilman Ziegler, Andrea Bähr, Andrea Howe, Katharina Klett, Wira Husada, Christian Weber, Karl-Ludwig Laugwitz, Christian Kupatt, Rabea Hinkel
Translations of new therapeutic options for cardiovascular disease from animal studies into a clinical setting have been hampered, in part by an improper reflection of a relevant patient population in animal models. In this study, we investigated the impact of thymosin β4 (Tβ4), which promotes collateralization and capillarization, during hypercholesterolemia, a known risk factor of coronary artery disease. Initial in vitro results highlighted an improved endothelial cell function upon Tβ4 treatment under control conditions and during hypercholesterolemic stress (scratch area [pixels]: oxidized low-density lipoprotein [oxLDL], 191,924 ± 7,717; and oxLDL + Tβ4, 105,621 ± 11,245)...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
T Devincenzi, A Prunier, K Meteau, S Prache
Excessive flavour in lamb meat is undesirable for consumers and can prompt purchase resistance. Volatile indoles responsible for off-flavours accumulate more in the fat of lambs on pasture than on grain and are enhanced when lambs graze alfalfa. Here, we investigated whether barley supplementation of lambs grazing alfalfa influences meat sensory quality. Using three groups of 12 male Romane lambs, we compared three feeding regimes: alfalfa grazing (AG), alfalfa grazing + daily supplementation with barley (29 g/kg live weight0...
June 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Monique Potvin Kent, Jennifer R Smith, Elise Pauzé, Mary L'Abbé
BACKGROUND: Food and beverage marketing has been identified as an environmental determinant of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study is to assess whether the Uniform Nutrition Criteria established and implemented by companies participating in the self-regulatory Canadian Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CAI) had an impact on the healthfulness of food and beverage advertising during television programming with a high share of children in the viewing audience...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Jia-Yong Lao, Chen-Chou Wu, Lian-Jun Bao, Liang-Ying Liu, Lei Shi, Eddy Y Zeng
Barbecue (BBQ) is one of the most popular cooking activities with charcoal worldwide and produces abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulate matter. Size distribution and clothing-air partitioning of particle-bound PAHs are significant for assessing potential health hazards to humans due to exposure to BBQ fumes, but have not been examined adequately. To address this issue, particle and gaseous samples were collected at 2-m and 10-m distances from a cluster of four BBQ stoves. Personal samplers and cotton clothes were carried by volunteers sitting near the BBQ stoves...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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