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Waqas Hameed, Bilal Iqbal Avan
INTRODUCTION: Respectful and dignified healthcare is a fundamental right for every woman. However, many women seeking childbirth services, especially those in low-income countries such as Pakistan, are mistreated by their birth attendants. The aim of this epidemiological study was to estimate the prevalence of mistreatment and types of mistreatment among women giving birth in facility- and home-based settings in Pakistan in order to address the lack of empirical evidence on this topic...
2018: PloS One
Anatole Manzi, Jean Claude Mugunga, Hari S Iyer, Hema Magge, Fulgence Nkikabahizi, Lisa R Hirschhorn
BACKGROUND: Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) can reduce under-5 morbidity and mortality in low-income settings. A program to strengthen IMCI practices through Mentorship and Enhanced Supervision at Health centers (MESH) was implemented in two rural districts in eastern Rwanda in 2010. METHODS: We estimated cost per improvement in quality of care as measured by the difference in correct diagnosis and correct treatment at baseline and 12 months of MESH...
2018: PloS One
Kiran T Thakur, Alexandra Boubour, Deanna Saylor, Mitashee Das, David R Bearden, Gretchen L Birbeck
: Neurological conditions associated with HIV remain major contributors to morbidity and mortality and are increasingly recognized in the aging population on long-standing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Importantly, growing evidence shows that the CNS may serve as a reservoir for viral replication, which has major implications for HIV eradication strategies. Though there has been major progress in the last decade in our understanding of the pathogenesis, burden, and impact of neurological conditions associated with HIV infection, significant scientific gaps remain...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Michael Schriver, Vincent Kalumire Cubaka, Peter Vedsted, Innocent Besigye, Per Kallestrup
BACKGROUND: External supervision of primary health care facilities to monitor and improve services is common in low-income countries. Currently there are no tools to measure the quality of support in external supervision in these countries. AIM: To develop a provider-reported instrument to assess the support delivered through external supervision in Rwanda and other countries. METHODS: "External supervision: Provider Evaluation of Supervisor Support" (ExPRESS) was developed in 18 steps, primarily in Rwanda...
2018: Global Health Action
Ignacio Aznar-Lou, Anton Pottegård, Ana Fernández, María Teresa Peñarrubia-María, Antoni Serrano-Blanco, Ramón Sabés-Figuera, Montserrat Gil-Girbau, Marta Fajó-Pascual, Patricia Moreno-Peral, Maria Rubio-Valera
OBJECTIVE: Copayment policies aim to reduce the burden of medication expenditure but may affect adherence and generate inequities in access to healthcare. The objective was to evaluate the impact of two copayment measures on initial medication non-adherence (IMNA) in several medication groups and by income level. DESIGN: A population-based study was conducted using real-world evidence. SETTING: Primary care in Catalonia (Spain) where two separate copayment measures (fixed copayment and coinsurance) were introduced between 2011 and 2013...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Bakary Sanneh, Alhagie Papa Sey, Minesh Shah, Jacqueline Tate, Mariama Sonko, Sheriffo Jagne, ModouLamin Jarju, Dawda Sowe, Makie Taal, Adam Cohen, Umesh Parashar, Jason M Mwenda
INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus vaccines protect against the leading cause of severe childhood diarrhoea, and have been introduced in many low-income African countries. The Gambia introducedRotateq® (RV5) into their national immunization program in 2013. We revieweddata from an active rotavirus sentinel surveillancesitefor early evidence of vaccine impact. METHODS: We compared rotavirus prevalence in diarrhoeal stool in children< 5 years of age admittedat the Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital sentinel surveillance site before (2013) andafterRV5 introduction (2015-2016) in the Gambia...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
Wendy Si Hassen, Katia Castetbon, Sandrine Péneau, Christine Tichit, Anouar Nechba, Aurélie Lampuré, France Bellisle, Serge Hercberg, Caroline Méjean
BACKGROUND: Few studies have specifically focused on demographic and socio-economic characteristics associated with snacking in adults, whereas their identification could be useful for defining effective public health measures. The aim of our study was to assess the associations of these factors with daily snacking behavior and its dietary quality. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 84,692 women and 23,491 men from the NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Occurrence of snacking, energy intake from snacks, snack nutrient, and energy densities were assessed using 24-h dietary records of weekdays at baseline...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
M Elizabeth Snow, Katherine Tweedie, Ann Pederson
BACKGROUND: Recently, patient engagement has been identified as a promising strategy for supporting healthcare planning. However, the context and structure of universalistic, "one-size-fits-all" approaches often used for patient engagement may not enable diverse patients to participate in decision-making about programs intended to meet their needs. Specifically, standard patient engagement approaches are gender-blind and might not facilitate the engagement of those marginalized by, for example, substance use, low income, experiences of violence, homelessness, and/or mental health challenges-highly gendered health and social experiences...
March 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Jing Huang, Guohe Huang, Chunjiang An, Yuan He, Yao Yao, Peng Zhang, Jian Shen
Global water safety is facing great challenges due to increased population and demand. There is an urgent need to develop suitable water treatment strategy for small rural and remote communities in low-income developing countries. In order to find a low-cost solution, the reduction of E. coli using ceramic water disk coated with nano ZnO was investigated in this study. The performance of modified ceramic disk filters was influenced by several factors in the filter production process. Based on the factorial analysis, the pore size of the disk filters was the most significant factor for influencing E...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Cha-Nam Shin, Elizabeth Reifsnider, Darya McClain, Mihyun Jeong, David P McCormick, Michael Moramarco
BACKGROUND: Most Hispanic infants are fed formula during the first 6 weeks, and although 80% of Hispanic women initiate breastfeeding, rates of exclusive breastfeeding are much lower. Research aim: The purpose was to examine the influence of acculturation and cultural values on the breastfeeding practices of pregnant women of Mexican descent participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children who were enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial that aimed to reduce child obesity...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
Erica Reynolds, Christine Johnson, Jennifer A Jamieson, Hannah Mawhinney
PURPOSE: University students may be at risk for food insecurity (FI) due to low income coupled with rising tuition, housing, and food costs. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of FI and potential correlates among students at a small, rural Canadian university. METHODS: Health Canada's 10-item household food security survey module (HFSSM) was adapted to assess food security status within the postsecondary student population. An additional 11 items measured food access and demographics...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Elizabeth Ruvalcaba, Shang-En Chung, Cynthia Rand, Kristin A Riekert, Michelle Eakin
OBJECTIVE: Asthma disproportionately affects minority groups, low income populations, and young children under 5. Head Start (HS) programs predominantly serve this high-risk population, yet staff are not trained on asthma management. The objective of this study was to assess a 5-year, multicomponent HS staff asthma education program in Baltimore City HS programs. METHODS: All HS programs were offered annual staff asthma education by a medical research team that included didactic lectures and hands-on training...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Emily J Gach, Ka I Ip, Arnold J Sameroff, Sheryl L Olson
Multiple environmental risk factors in early childhood predict a broad range of adverse developmental outcomes. However, most prior longitudinal research has not illuminated explanatory mechanisms. Our main goals were to examine predictive associations between cumulative ecological risk factors in early childhood and children's later externalizing problems and to determine whether these associations were explained by variations in parenting quality. Participants were 241 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems and their parents and teachers...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Sarah A Amin, Paula J Duquesnay, Catherine M Wright, Kenneth Chui, Christina D Economos, Jennifer M Sacheck
PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) may impact children's physical activity (PA) behaviors and confidence to participate in PA. We examined how SES modifies the relationship between children's perceived athletic competence (PAC) and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). METHODS: Children (N = 1157; 45% male; grades 3-4) were recruited for the Fueling Learning through Exercise study. Free/reduced price lunch eligibility was used as an indicator of SES. Seven-day accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+) was used to measure daily MVPA, out-of-school MVPA (O-MVPA), and school-time MVPA...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Gregory J Kato, Frédéric B Piel, Clarice D Reid, Marilyn H Gaston, Kwaku Ohene-Frempong, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti, Wally R Smith, Julie A Panepinto, David J Weatherall, Fernando F Costa, Elliott P Vichinsky
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited disorders caused by mutations in HBB, which encodes haemoglobin subunit β. The incidence is estimated to be between 300,000 and 400,000 neonates globally each year, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Haemoglobin molecules that include mutant sickle β-globin subunits can polymerize; erythrocytes that contain mostly haemoglobin polymers assume a sickled form and are prone to haemolysis. Other pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the SCD phenotype are vaso-occlusion and activation of the immune system...
March 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Mariana Luciano de Almeida, Francine Golghetto Casemiro, Camila Tiome Baba, Diana Monteiro, Mariana Fornazieri, Natália Cerri, Daniele Frascá Martins Fernandes, Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes
BACKGROUND: Some studies have used the follow-up method to analyze real behavioral changes in research involving physical activity (PA) interventions. This has great scientific value; however, it is hard to apply without satisfactory resources and research funding. Little is known about how many studies have used this method to analyze PA interventions in low-income and middle-income countries, especially Brazil. PURPOSE: To describe Brazilian studies using follow-up analysis after PA interventions...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Ramadhani Kigume, Stephen Maluka, Peter Kamuzora
While decentralisation of health systems has been on the policy agenda in low-income and middle-income countries since the 1970s, many studies have focused on understanding who has more decision-making powers but less attention is paid to understand what those powers encompass. Using the decision space approach, this study aimed to understand the amount of decision-making space transferred from the central government to institutions at the periphery in the decentralised health system in Tanzania. The findings of this study indicated that the decentralisation process in Tanzania has provided authorities with a range of decision-making space...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Jennifer Katz, Hugh F Crean, Catherine Cerulli, Ellen L Poleshuck
Introduction Although poverty is an established correlate of poorer mental health for pregnant women, limited research has examined the mental health effects of material hardship (i.e., difficulties meeting basic needs such as for food, transportation, or stable housing) during pregnancy. Methods The current research examined rates of material hardship among pregnant women seeking prenatal care and the relationships of both income and material hardship with depression and anxiety during pregnancy. Pregnant women (N = 892) responded to self-report measures of mental health symptoms, annual household income, and current material hardship in the waiting areas of community-based obstetrics/gynecology practices serving primarily financially disadvantaged patients...
March 14, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Monica Guo, Kathleen O'Connor Duffany, Fatma M Shebl, Alycia Santilli, Danya E Keene
Perceptions of neighborhood safety shape the well-being of individuals and communities, affecting neighborhood walkability, associated physical activity behaviors, and health conditions. However, less is known about the factors that determine perceptions of safety. One factor that may affect perceptions of neighborhood safety is the length of time someone has lived in their neighborhood. We use a representative, adult sample of urban low-income residents from the 2015 New Haven Health Survey (n = 1189) to investigate the associations between length of residence (new residents of < 1 year in neighborhood versus longer-term residents of 1 or more years in neighborhood) and perceptions of neighborhood safety (whether feeling unsafe to walk at night)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Eiman Zargaran, Richard Spence, Lauren Adolph, Andrew Nicol, Nadine Schuurman, Pradeep Navsaria, Damon Ramsey, S Morad Hameed
Importance: Collection and analysis of up-to-date and accurate injury surveillance data are a key step in the maturation of trauma systems. Trauma registries have proven to be difficult to establish in low- and middle-income countries owing to the burden of trauma volume, cost, and complexity. Objective: To determine whether an electronic trauma health record (eTHR) used by physicians can serve as simultaneous clinical documentation and data acquisition tools. Design, Setting, and Participants: This 2-part quality improvement study included (1) preimplementation and postimplementation eTHR study with assessments of satisfaction by 41 trauma physicians, time to completion, and quality of data collected comparing paper and electronic charting; and (2) prospective ecologic study describing the burden of trauma seen at a Level I trauma center, using real-time data collected by the eTHR on consecutive patients during a 12-month study period...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Surgery
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