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Tick-borne illness

Elena Nikolaevna Krotkova, Innesa Vladimirovna Babaeva, Michail Bogutskiy, Vladimir Maksimovich Tsyrkunov
THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: to present epidemiological features and clinical manifestations of TBE in patients residing in Grodno region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 124 case histories of patients with TBE in “Grodno Regional Infectious Clinical Hospital” in 2010 – 2014. RESULTS: Epidemiological features of tick-borne encephalitis are the prevalence of the transmission mechanism of contamination (57.3%), involvement of residents of Grodno and Grodno region (54...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Artem S Rogovskyy, David C Gillis, Yurij Ionov, Ekaterina Gerasimov, Alex Zelikovsky
Lyme disease (LD), the most prevalent tick-borne illness in North America is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb). The long-term survival of Bb spirochetes in the mammalian host is achieved though VlsE-mediated antigenic variation. It is mathematically predicted that a highly variable surface antigen prolongs bacterial infection sufficiently to exhaust the immune response directed towards invariant surface antigens. If the prediction is correct, it is expected that the antibody response to Bb invariant antigens will become non-protective as Bb infection progresses...
October 31, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Nicole Lukovsky-Akhsanov, M Kelly Keating, Pamela Spivey, George W Lathrop, Nathaniel Powell, Michael L Levin
Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen...
2016: PloS One
P V Shiji, Veena Viswanath, Sreena Sreekumar, R Sreejith, Abdul Majeed, V Udayabhaskaran
Kyasanur Forest disease is a tick-borne arboviral fever with biphasic course of illness with prominent hemorrhagic features in the first phase and encephalitic picture in the second phase. So far it has been described in the southern Karnataka only. Here we report a case of Kyasanur Forest Disease for the first time from Kerala in an 18 year old male from Noolpuzha - Alathoor colony of Wayanad district.
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
David S Younger
Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness and the fifth most common disease in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. If left untreated, infection disseminates to the nervous system. The nonhuman primate model of Lyme disease of the nervous system, or Lyme neuroborreliosis, accurately mimics the aspects of the human illness...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Aleš Chrdle, Vaclav Chmelik, Daniel Ruzek
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an acute febrile illness with neurological manifestations that is prevalent in forested areas of moderate climate in Europe and Asia. TBE virus is transmitted by ticks and rarely by unpasteurized milk and dairy products. The disease burden is attributed mainly to resulting long-term disability, especially in individuals over 50 years of age. Currently, there is no causative treatment, but a very effective vaccination is available with a good safety profile. The vaccination requires three basic doses to be fully effective and regular boosters afterwards...
August 15, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Setareh Jahfari, Agnetha Hofhuis, Manoj Fonville, Joke van der Giessen, Wilfrid van Pelt, Hein Sprong
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated. METHODS: Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires on health status were collected from patients that visited their general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in 2007 and 2008...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Peter J Krause, Jonathan Schwab, Sukanya Narasimhan, Janna Brancato, Guang Xu, Stephen M Rich
A 5-year-old Massachusetts resident developed hard tick-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia miyamotoi. A partially engorged Ixodes scapularis tick was removed from her scalp and identified as infected with B. miyamotoi using polymerase chain reaction. Two weeks later, she developed an illness compatible with B. miyamotoi infection that included fatigue and recurrent fever. The diagnosis was confirmed by B. miyamotoi seroconversion.
December 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Luwanika Mlera, Wessam Melik, Danielle K Offerdahl, Eric Dahlstrom, Stephen F Porcella, Marshall E Bloom
Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs) cause a broad spectrum of disease manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to mild febrile illness and life threatening encephalitis. These single-stranded positive-sense (ss(+)) RNA viruses are naturally maintained in a persistent infection of ixodid ticks and small-medium sized mammals. The development of cell lines from the ixodid ticks has provided a valuable surrogate system for studying the biology of TBFVs in vitro. When we infected ISE6 cells, an Ixodes scapularis embryonic cell line, with Langat virus (LGTV) we observed that the infection proceeded directly into persistence without any cytopathic effect...
2016: Viruses
Lauriane de Fabritus, Antoine Nougairède, Fabien Aubry, Ernest A Gould, Xavier de Lamballerie
Large-scale codon re-encoding is a new method of attenuating RNA viruses. However, the use of infectious clones to generate attenuated viruses has inherent technical problems. We previously developed a bacterium-free reverse genetics protocol, designated ISA, and now combined it with large-scale random codon-re-encoding method to produce attenuated tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a pathogenic flavivirus which causes febrile illness and encephalitis in humans. We produced wild-type (WT) and two re-encoded TBEVs, containing 273 or 273+284 synonymous mutations in the NS5 and NS5+NS3 coding regions respectively...
2016: PloS One
Sébastien Bontemps-Gallo, Kevin Lawrence, Frank C Gherardini
Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a vector-borne illness that requires the bacteria to adapt to distinctly different environments in its tick vector and various mammalian hosts. Effective colonization (acquisition phase) of a tick requires the bacteria to adapt to tick midgut physiology. Successful transmission (transmission phase) to a mammal requires the bacteria to sense and respond to the midgut environmental cues and up-regulate key virulence factors before transmission to a new host. Data presented here suggest that one environmental signal that appears to affect both phases of the infective cycle is osmolarity...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Meghana Rastogi, Nikhil Sharma, Sunit Kumar Singh
Flaviviruses are emerging arthropod-borne viruses representing an immense global health problem. The prominent viruses of this group include dengue virus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus tick borne encephalitis virus and Zika Virus. These are endemic in many parts of the world. They are responsible for the illness ranging from mild flu like symptoms to severe hemorrhagic, neurologic and cognitive manifestations leading to death. NS1 is a highly conserved non-structural protein among flaviviruses, which exist in diverse forms...
2016: Virology Journal
Jefferson M Jones, Carter R Hranac, Mare Schumacher, Kim Horn, Darlene M Lee, Joel Terriquez, David M Engelthaler, Marie Peoples, Jennifer Corrigan, Adam Replogle, Nina Souders, Kenneth K Komatsu, Nathan C Nieto
During August 2014, five high school students who had attended an outdoor education camp were hospitalized with a febrile illness, prompting further investigation. Ten total cases of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) were identified-six cases confirmed by culture or visualization of spirochetes on blood smear and four probable cases with compatible symptoms (attack rate: 23%). All patients had slept in the campsite's only cabin. Before the camp, a professional pest control company had rodent proofed the cabin, but no acaricides had been applied...
September 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
William F Wright, James A Oliverio
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States. Arthritis is usually a mani-festation of late dis-ease but has not been associated with cases of periprosthetic joint infections. We report on a patient who was first diagnosed with periprosthetic joint infection and subsequently Lyme arthritis.
April 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
E K Schiffman, C McLaughlin, J A E Ray, M M Kemperman, A F Hinckley, H G Friedlander, D F Neitzel
Lyme disease (LD), anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) attributed to Ixodes ticks are thought to be widely underreported in the United States. To identify TBD cases diagnosed in 2009, but not reported to the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH), diagnostic and procedural billing codes suggestive of tick-borne diseases were used to select medical charts for retrospective review in medical facilities serving residents of a highly endemic county in Minnesota. Of 444 illness events, 352 (79%) were not reported...
July 8, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Esragul Akinci, Hurrem Bodur, Mustafa Sunbul, Hakan Leblebicioglu
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a geographically widespread tick-borne zoonosis. The clinical spectrum of the illness varies from mild infection to severe disease and death. In severe cases, hemorrhagic manifestations develop, with fatality rates of 4-20%, depending on the geographic region and quality of the health care. Although vast majority of the CCHF cases were reported from Turkey, mortality rate is lower than the other regions, which is 5% on average. Prediction of the clinical course of the disease enables appropriate management planning by the physician and prompt transportation, if needed, of the patient to a tertiary care hospital for an intensive therapy...
August 2016: Antiviral Research
Ezekiel O Adekanmbi, Massaro W Ueti, Brady Rinaldi, Carlos E Suarez, Soumya K Srivastava
Babesia species are obligate intraerythrocytic tick-borne protozoan parasites that are the etiologic agents of babesiosis, a potentially life-threatening, malaria-like illness in humans and animals. Babesia-infected people have been known to suffer from complications including liver problems, severe hemolytic anemia, and kidney failure. As reported by the Food and Drug Administration, 38% of mortality cases observed in transfusion recipients were associated with transfusion transmitted diseases of which babesiosis is the chief culprit...
May 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Ferhat Arslan, Ergenekon Karagöz, Ebru Zemheri, Haluk Vahaboglu, Ali Mert
Tick-borne illnesses have diverse biological and clinical features that make recognition and appropriate treatment challenging. Arthropod-transmitted (ticks, fleas and deer flies) tularaemia remains a concern worldwide. Generally, two kinds of tularaemia manifestations, namely ulceroglandular and glandular infections, can arise from the bite of an infected arthropod vector. If the ulceroglandular or glandular form is not treated, suppuration can arise from the gland. In addition, cellulitis is rarely observed around the ulcers...
June 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Turan Aktaş, Fatma Aktaş, Zafer Özmen, Turan Kaya
PURPOSE: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral tick-borne illness. Although its etiopathogenesis is not clearly understood, it is known to be a Nairovirus. We aimed to examine the viral effects of intense systemic inflammation and vascular damage on the pulmonary vascular beds and lung tissues. METHODS: A total of 45 patients who were diagnosed with CCHF were considered for this retrospective study. In this patient group, those whose lungs had been visualized via thoracic computer tomography (CT) were entered into the study...
October 2016: Lung
Michael L Levin, Alyssa N Snellgrove, Galina E Zemtsova
The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples...
July 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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