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Tick-borne illness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202075/tick-borne-pathogens-induce-differential-expression-of-genes-promoting-cell-survival-and-host-resistance-in-ixodes-ricinus-cells
#1
Karen L Mansfield, Charlotte Cook, Richard J Ellis, Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Nicholas Johnson, Pilar Alberdi, José de la Fuente, Anthony R Fooks
BACKGROUND: There has been an emergence and expansion of tick-borne diseases in Europe, Asia and North America in recent years, including Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis and human anaplasmosis. The primary vectors implicated are hard ticks of the genus Ixodes. Although much is known about the host response to these bacterial and viral pathogens, there is limited knowledge of the cellular responses to infection within the tick vector. The bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum is able to bypass apoptotic processes in ticks, enabling infection to proceed...
February 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196318/common-skin-conditions-in-children-skin-infections
#2
Brian Z Rayala, Dean S Morrell
Skin infections account for a significant subset of dermatologic conditions of childhood. Common cutaneous viral infections in children include warts, molluscum contagiosum, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and herpes simplex. Although viral infections are self-limited and often only mildly symptomatic, they can cause anxiety, embarrassment, and health care use. Recognition of their common and atypical presentations is necessary to differentiate them from other skin conditions of similar morphology. Impetigo, cellulitis, and abscess comprise the majority of childhood bacterial skin infections and are treated with topical or systemic antibiotics that cover group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus...
February 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169507/predictive-factors-for-fatal-tick-borne-spotted-fever-in-brazil
#3
S V de Oliveira, M C A Willemann, G S Gazeta, R N Angerami, R Gurgel-Gonçalves
In Brazil, two pathogenic Rickettsia species have been identified causing tick-borne spotted fever (SF). The aetiological agent Rickettsia rickettsii causes serious illness, particularly in the south-eastern region of the country. Moreover, the Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic Rainforest cause milder clinical manifestations in south-eastern, south and north-east regions. This study has sought to analyse predictive factors for fatal SF. A case-control study was performed using disease notification records in Brazil...
February 7, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153903/toward-a-complete-north-american-borrelia-miyamotoi-genome
#4
Luke C Kingry, Adam Replogle, Dhwani Batra, Lori A Rowe, Christopher Sexton, Marc Dolan, Neeta Connally, Jeannine M Petersen, Martin E Schriefer
Borrelia miyamotoi, of the relapsing-fever spirochete group, is an emerging tick-borne pathogen causing human illness in the northern hemisphere. Here, we present the chromosome, eight extrachromosomal linear plasmids, and a draft sequence for five circular and one linear plasmid of a Borrelia miyamotoi strain isolated from an Ixodes sp. tick from Connecticut, USA.
February 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103209/west-nile-virus-and-other-nationally-notifiable-arboviral-diseases-united-states-2015
#5
Elisabeth Krow-Lucal, Nicole P Lindsey, Jennifer Lehman, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. The leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States is West Nile virus (WNV) (1). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, St. Louis encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, also cause sporadic cases and outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC in 2015 for nationally notifiable arboviruses...
January 20, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093540/human-granulocytic-anaplasmosis-as-a-cause-of-febrile-illness-in-korea-since-at-least-2006
#6
Jongyoun Yi, Kye-Hyung Kim, Mee Kyung Ko, Eun Yup Lee, Su Jin Choi, Myoung-Don Oh
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne rickettsial zoonosis with fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. HGA has been reported in Korea in 2013 but it is uncertain how long it has existed. A retrospective study was conducted on patients who underwent bone marrow examination due to fever and cytopenia, with no clear hematologic or microbiologic causes, from 2003 through 2012. Laboratory diagnosis was made by detecting 16S rRNA genes of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from the stored blood samples. Among the 70 patients, five (7...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073909/the-detection-of-spotted-fever-group-rickettsia-dna-in-tick-samples-from-pastoral-communities-in-kenya
#7
Hellen Koka, Rosemary Sang, Helen Lydia Kutima, Lillian Musila
In this study, ticks from pastoral communities in Kenya were tested for Rickettsia spp. infections in geographical regions where the presence of tick-borne arboviruses had previously been reported. Rickettsial and arbovirus infections have similar clinical features which makes differential diagnosis challenging when both diseases occur. The tick samples were tested for Rickettsia spp. by conventional PCR using three primer sets targeting the gltA, ompA, and ompB genes followed by amplicon sequencing. Of the tick pools screened, 25% (95/380) were positive for Rickettsia spp...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051192/global-warming-and-its-health-impact
#8
Antonella Rossati
Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990680/retrospective-study-of-rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-in-children
#9
Rechelle Tull, Christine Ahn, Alyssa Daniel, Gil Yosipovitch, Lindsay C Strowd
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a lethal tick-borne illness, is prevalent in the south central United States. Children younger than 10 years old have the greatest risk of fatal outcome from RMSF. The objective of the current study was to review pediatric cases of RMSF seen in the dermatology consult service and to evaluate dermatology's role in the diagnosis and management of this disease. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of inpatient dermatology consultations at a tertiary care center in North Carolina from 2001 to 2011...
December 19, 2016: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977689/tick-borne-diseases-in-turkey-a-review-based-on-one-health-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Abdullah Inci, Alparslan Yildirim, Onder Duzlu, Mehmet Doganay, Serap Aksoy
The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) with zoonotic characteristics. In Turkey, almost 19 TBDs have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis), one filarial nematode (acanthocheilonemasis), ten bacterial agents (anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, aegyptianellosis, tick-borne typhus, Candidatus Rickettsia vini, Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne relapsing fever [TBRF], tularaemia, bartonellosis, and hemoplasmosis), and four viral infections (tick-borne encephalitis [TBE], Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever [CCHF], louping-ill [LI], and lumpy skin disease [LSD])...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929218/emerging-vector-borne-diseases
#11
Mark K Huntington, Jay Allison, Dilip Nair
Several mosquito-borne viral infections have recently emerged in North America; West Nile virus is the most common in the United States. Although West Nile virus generally causes a self-limited, flulike febrile illness, a serious neuroinvasive form may occur. Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease worldwide, and it has been a significant public health threat in the United States since 2009. Known as breakbone fever for its severe myalgias and arthralgias, dengue may cause a hemorrhagic syndrome...
October 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883379/epidemiological-and-clinical-features-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-in-north-western-region-in-belarus
#12
Elena Nikolaevna Krotkova, Innesa Vladimirovna Babaeva, Michail Bogutskiy, Vladimir Maksimovich Tsyrkunov
THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: to present epidemiological features and clinical manifestations of TBE in patients residing in Grodno region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 124 case histories of patients with TBE in “Grodno Regional Infectious Clinical Hospital” in 2010 – 2014. RESULTS: Epidemiological features of tick-borne encephalitis are the prevalence of the transmission mechanism of contamination (57.3%), involvement of residents of Grodno and Grodno region (54...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799330/antibody-response-to-lyme-disease-spirochetes-in-the-context-of-vlse-mediated-immune-evasion
#13
Artem S Rogovskyy, David C Gillis, Yurij Ionov, Ekaterina Gerasimov, Alex Zelikovsky
Lyme disease (LD), the most prevalent tick-borne illness in North America, is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi The long-term survival of B. burgdorferi spirochetes in the mammalian host is achieved though VlsE-mediated antigenic variation. It is mathematically predicted that a highly variable surface antigen prolongs bacterial infection sufficiently to exhaust the immune response directed toward invariant surface antigens. If the prediction is correct, it is expected that the antibody response to B. burgdorferi invariant antigens will become nonprotective as B...
January 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741322/assessment-of-domestic-goats-as-models-for-experimental-and-natural-infection-with-the-north-american-isolate-of-rickettsia-slovaca
#14
Nicole Lukovsky-Akhsanov, M Kelly Keating, Pamela Spivey, George W Lathrop, Nathaniel Powell, Michael L Levin
Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731570/kyasanur-forest-disease-first-reported-case-in-kerala
#15
P V Shiji, Veena Viswanath, Sreena Sreekumar, R Sreejith, Abdul Majeed, V Udayabhaskaran
Kyasanur Forest disease is a tick-borne arboviral fever with biphasic course of illness with prominent hemorrhagic features in the first phase and encephalitic picture in the second phase. So far it has been described in the southern Karnataka only. Here we report a case of Kyasanur Forest Disease for the first time from Kerala in an 18 year old male from Noolpuzha - Alathoor colony of Wayanad district.
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719999/epidemiology-of-lyme-neuroborreliosis
#16
REVIEW
David S Younger
Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness and the fifth most common disease in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. If left untreated, infection disseminates to the nervous system. The nonhuman primate model of Lyme disease of the nervous system, or Lyme neuroborreliosis, accurately mimics the aspects of the human illness...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715427/tick-borne-encephalitis-what-travelers-should-know-when-visiting-an-endemic-country
#17
Aleš Chrdle, Václav Chmelík, Daniel Růžek
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an acute febrile illness with neurological manifestations that is prevalent in forested areas of moderate climate in Europe and Asia. TBE virus is transmitted by ticks and rarely by unpasteurized milk and dairy products. The disease burden is attributed mainly to resulting long-term disability, especially in individuals over 50 y of age. Currently, there is no causative treatment, but a very effective vaccination is available with a good safety profile. The vaccination requires 3 basic doses to be fully effective and regular boosters afterwards...
October 2, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706159/molecular-detection-of-tick-borne-pathogens-in-humans-with-tick-bites-and-erythema-migrans-in-the-netherlands
#18
Setareh Jahfari, Agnetha Hofhuis, Manoj Fonville, Joke van der Giessen, Wilfrid van Pelt, Hein Sprong
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated. METHODS: Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires on health status were collected from patients that visited their general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in 2007 and 2008...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626914/hard-tick-relapsing-fever-caused-by-borrelia-miyamotoi-in-a-child
#19
Peter J Krause, Jonathan Schwab, Sukanya Narasimhan, Janna Brancato, Guang Xu, Stephen M Rich
A 5-year-old Massachusetts resident developed hard tick-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia miyamotoi. A partially engorged Ixodes scapularis tick was removed from her scalp and identified as infected with B. miyamotoi using polymerase chain reaction. Two weeks later, she developed an illness compatible with B. miyamotoi infection that included fatigue and recurrent fever. The diagnosis was confirmed by B. miyamotoi seroconversion.
December 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626437/analysis-of-the-langat-virus-genome-in-persistent-infection-of-an-ixodes-scapularis-cell-line
#20
Luwanika Mlera, Wessam Melik, Danielle K Offerdahl, Eric Dahlstrom, Stephen F Porcella, Marshall E Bloom
Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs) cause a broad spectrum of disease manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to mild febrile illness and life threatening encephalitis. These single-stranded positive-sense (ss(+)) RNA viruses are naturally maintained in a persistent infection of ixodid ticks and small-medium sized mammals. The development of cell lines from the ixodid ticks has provided a valuable surrogate system for studying the biology of TBFVs in vitro. When we infected ISE6 cells, an Ixodes scapularis embryonic cell line, with Langat virus (LGTV) we observed that the infection proceeded directly into persistence without any cytopathic effect...
2016: Viruses
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