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Tick-borne illness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073909/the-detection-of-spotted-fever-group-rickettsia-dna-in-tick-samples-from-pastoral-communities-in-kenya
#1
Hellen Koka, Rosemary Sang, Helen Lydia Kutima, Lillian Musila
In this study, ticks from pastoral communities in Kenya were tested for Rickettsia spp. infections in geographical regions where the presence of tick-borne arboviruses had previously been reported. Rickettsial and arbovirus infections have similar clinical features which makes differential diagnosis challenging when both diseases occur. The tick samples were tested for Rickettsia spp. by conventional PCR using three primer sets targeting the gltA, ompA, and ompB genes followed by amplicon sequencing. Of the tick pools screened, 25% (95/380) were positive for Rickettsia spp...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051192/global-warming-and-its-health-impact
#2
Antonella Rossati
Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990680/retrospective-study-of-rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-in-children
#3
Rechelle Tull, Christine Ahn, Alyssa Daniel, Gil Yosipovitch, Lindsay C Strowd
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a lethal tick-borne illness, is prevalent in the south central United States. Children younger than 10 years old have the greatest risk of fatal outcome from RMSF. The objective of the current study was to review pediatric cases of RMSF seen in the dermatology consult service and to evaluate dermatology's role in the diagnosis and management of this disease. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of inpatient dermatology consultations at a tertiary care center in North Carolina from 2001 to 2011...
December 19, 2016: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977689/tick-borne-diseases-in-turkey-a-review-based-on-one-health-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Abdullah Inci, Alparslan Yildirim, Onder Duzlu, Mehmet Doganay, Serap Aksoy
The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) with zoonotic characteristics. In Turkey, almost 19 TBDs have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis), one filarial nematode (acanthocheilonemasis), ten bacterial agents (anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, aegyptianellosis, tick-borne typhus, Candidatus Rickettsia vini, Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne relapsing fever [TBRF], tularaemia, bartonellosis, and hemoplasmosis), and four viral infections (tick-borne encephalitis [TBE], Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever [CCHF], louping-ill [LI], and lumpy skin disease [LSD])...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929218/emerging-vector-borne-diseases
#5
Mark K Huntington, Jay Allison, Dilip Nair
Several mosquito-borne viral infections have recently emerged in North America; West Nile virus is the most common in the United States. Although West Nile virus generally causes a self-limited, flulike febrile illness, a serious neuroinvasive form may occur. Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease worldwide, and it has been a significant public health threat in the United States since 2009. Known as breakbone fever for its severe myalgias and arthralgias, dengue may cause a hemorrhagic syndrome...
October 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883379/epidemiological-and-clinical-features-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-in-north-western-region-in-belarus
#6
Elena Nikolaevna Krotkova, Innesa Vladimirovna Babaeva, Michail Bogutskiy, Vladimir Maksimovich Tsyrkunov
THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: to present epidemiological features and clinical manifestations of TBE in patients residing in Grodno region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 124 case histories of patients with TBE in “Grodno Regional Infectious Clinical Hospital” in 2010 – 2014. RESULTS: Epidemiological features of tick-borne encephalitis are the prevalence of the transmission mechanism of contamination (57.3%), involvement of residents of Grodno and Grodno region (54...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799330/antibody-response-to-lyme-disease-spirochetes-in-the-context-of-vlse-mediated-immune-evasion
#7
Artem S Rogovskyy, David C Gillis, Yurij Ionov, Ekaterina Gerasimov, Alex Zelikovsky
Lyme disease (LD), the most prevalent tick-borne illness in North America, is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi The long-term survival of B. burgdorferi spirochetes in the mammalian host is achieved though VlsE-mediated antigenic variation. It is mathematically predicted that a highly variable surface antigen prolongs bacterial infection sufficiently to exhaust the immune response directed toward invariant surface antigens. If the prediction is correct, it is expected that the antibody response to B. burgdorferi invariant antigens will become nonprotective as B...
January 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741322/assessment-of-domestic-goats-as-models-for-experimental-and-natural-infection-with-the-north-american-isolate-of-rickettsia-slovaca
#8
Nicole Lukovsky-Akhsanov, M Kelly Keating, Pamela Spivey, George W Lathrop, Nathaniel Powell, Michael L Levin
Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731570/kyasanur-forest-disease-first-reported-case-in-kerala
#9
P V Shiji, Veena Viswanath, Sreena Sreekumar, R Sreejith, Abdul Majeed, V Udayabhaskaran
Kyasanur Forest disease is a tick-borne arboviral fever with biphasic course of illness with prominent hemorrhagic features in the first phase and encephalitic picture in the second phase. So far it has been described in the southern Karnataka only. Here we report a case of Kyasanur Forest Disease for the first time from Kerala in an 18 year old male from Noolpuzha - Alathoor colony of Wayanad district.
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719999/epidemiology-of-lyme-neuroborreliosis
#10
REVIEW
David S Younger
Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness and the fifth most common disease in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. If left untreated, infection disseminates to the nervous system. The nonhuman primate model of Lyme disease of the nervous system, or Lyme neuroborreliosis, accurately mimics the aspects of the human illness...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715427/tick-borne-encephalitis-what-travelers-should-know-when-visiting-an-endemic-country
#11
Aleš Chrdle, Václav Chmelík, Daniel Růžek
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an acute febrile illness with neurological manifestations that is prevalent in forested areas of moderate climate in Europe and Asia. TBE virus is transmitted by ticks and rarely by unpasteurized milk and dairy products. The disease burden is attributed mainly to resulting long-term disability, especially in individuals over 50 y of age. Currently, there is no causative treatment, but a very effective vaccination is available with a good safety profile. The vaccination requires 3 basic doses to be fully effective and regular boosters afterwards...
October 2, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706159/molecular-detection-of-tick-borne-pathogens-in-humans-with-tick-bites-and-erythema-migrans-in-the-netherlands
#12
Setareh Jahfari, Agnetha Hofhuis, Manoj Fonville, Joke van der Giessen, Wilfrid van Pelt, Hein Sprong
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated. METHODS: Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires on health status were collected from patients that visited their general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in 2007 and 2008...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626914/hard-tick-relapsing-fever-caused-by-borrelia-miyamotoi-in-a-child
#13
Peter J Krause, Jonathan Schwab, Sukanya Narasimhan, Janna Brancato, Guang Xu, Stephen M Rich
A 5-year-old Massachusetts resident developed hard tick-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia miyamotoi. A partially engorged Ixodes scapularis tick was removed from her scalp and identified as infected with B. miyamotoi using polymerase chain reaction. Two weeks later, she developed an illness compatible with B. miyamotoi infection that included fatigue and recurrent fever. The diagnosis was confirmed by B. miyamotoi seroconversion.
December 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626437/analysis-of-the-langat-virus-genome-in-persistent-infection-of-an-ixodes-scapularis-cell-line
#14
Luwanika Mlera, Wessam Melik, Danielle K Offerdahl, Eric Dahlstrom, Stephen F Porcella, Marshall E Bloom
Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs) cause a broad spectrum of disease manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to mild febrile illness and life threatening encephalitis. These single-stranded positive-sense (ss(+)) RNA viruses are naturally maintained in a persistent infection of ixodid ticks and small-medium sized mammals. The development of cell lines from the ixodid ticks has provided a valuable surrogate system for studying the biology of TBFVs in vitro. When we infected ISE6 cells, an Ixodes scapularis embryonic cell line, with Langat virus (LGTV) we observed that the infection proceeded directly into persistence without any cytopathic effect...
2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548676/utilisation-of-isa-reverse-genetics-and-large-scale-random-codon-re-encoding-to-produce-attenuated-strains-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-within-days
#15
Lauriane de Fabritus, Antoine Nougairède, Fabien Aubry, Ernest A Gould, Xavier de Lamballerie
Large-scale codon re-encoding is a new method of attenuating RNA viruses. However, the use of infectious clones to generate attenuated viruses has inherent technical problems. We previously developed a bacterium-free reverse genetics protocol, designated ISA, and now combined it with large-scale random codon-re-encoding method to produce attenuated tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a pathogenic flavivirus which causes febrile illness and encephalitis in humans. We produced wild-type (WT) and two re-encoded TBEVs, containing 273 or 273+284 synonymous mutations in the NS5 and NS5+NS3 coding regions respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525653/two-different-virulence-related-regulatory-pathways-in-borrelia-burgdorferi-are-directly-affected-by-osmotic-fluxes-in-the-blood-meal-of-feeding-ixodes-ticks
#16
Sébastien Bontemps-Gallo, Kevin Lawrence, Frank C Gherardini
Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a vector-borne illness that requires the bacteria to adapt to distinctly different environments in its tick vector and various mammalian hosts. Effective colonization (acquisition phase) of a tick requires the bacteria to adapt to tick midgut physiology. Successful transmission (transmission phase) to a mammal requires the bacteria to sense and respond to the midgut environmental cues and up-regulate key virulence factors before transmission to a new host. Data presented here suggest that one environmental signal that appears to affect both phases of the infective cycle is osmolarity...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473856/flavivirus-ns1-a-multifaceted-enigmatic-viral-protein
#17
REVIEW
Meghana Rastogi, Nikhil Sharma, Sunit Kumar Singh
Flaviviruses are emerging arthropod-borne viruses representing an immense global health problem. The prominent viruses of this group include dengue virus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus tick borne encephalitis virus and Zika Virus. These are endemic in many parts of the world. They are responsible for the illness ranging from mild flu like symptoms to severe hemorrhagic, neurologic and cognitive manifestations leading to death. NS1 is a highly conserved non-structural protein among flaviviruses, which exist in diverse forms...
2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430539/tick-borne-relapsing-fever-outbreak-among-a-high-school-football-team-at-an-outdoor-education-camping-trip-arizona-2014
#18
Jefferson M Jones, Carter R Hranac, Mare Schumacher, Kim Horn, Darlene M Lee, Joel Terriquez, David M Engelthaler, Marie Peoples, Jennifer Corrigan, Adam Replogle, Nina Souders, Kenneth K Komatsu, Nathan C Nieto
During August 2014, five high school students who had attended an outdoor education camp were hospitalized with a febrile illness, prompting further investigation. Ten total cases of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) were identified-six cases confirmed by culture or visualization of spirochetes on blood smear and four probable cases with compatible symptoms (attack rate: 23%). All patients had slept in the campsite's only cabin. Before the camp, a professional pest control company had rodent proofed the cabin, but no acaricides had been applied...
September 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27419168/first-case-of-lyme-arthritis-involving-a-prosthetic-knee-joint
#19
William F Wright, James A Oliverio
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States. Arthritis is usually a mani-festation of late dis-ease but has not been associated with cases of periprosthetic joint infections. We report on a patient who was first diagnosed with periprosthetic joint infection and subsequently Lyme arthritis.
April 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390047/underreporting-of-lyme-and-other-tick-borne-diseases-in-residents-of-a-high-incidence-county-minnesota-2009
#20
E K Schiffman, C McLaughlin, J A E Ray, M M Kemperman, A F Hinckley, H G Friedlander, D F Neitzel
Lyme disease (LD), anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) attributed to Ixodes ticks are thought to be widely underreported in the United States. To identify TBD cases diagnosed in 2009, but not reported to the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH), diagnostic and procedural billing codes suggestive of tick-borne diseases were used to select medical charts for retrospective review in medical facilities serving residents of a highly endemic county in Minnesota. Of 444 illness events, 352 (79%) were not reported...
July 8, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
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