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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437731/children-and-adolescents-facing-a-continuous-security-threat-aggressive-behavior-and-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms
#1
Orit Nuttman-Shwartz
There is extensive research evidence indicating that children and youth are the most vulnerable population for developing psychological symptoms relating to war and terror. Although studies have documented a wide range of detrimental emotional and behavioral effects of such exposure, much less is known about the effects of exposure to a continuous security threat for children and adolescents. Against this background, the current article examined the implications of continuous exposure to missile attacks among 1096 children and adolescents enrolled in public schools near the Israeli border with Gaza...
April 21, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428145/prior-treadmill-exercise-promotes-resilience-to-vicarious-trauma-in-rats
#2
Camila Kochi, Hesong Liu, Safiyya Zaidi, Fatin Atrooz, Phoebe Dantoin, Samina Salim
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious psychological condition, which can develop both from physically experiencing and also from witnessing traumatic events. There is evidence that physical exercise can have a positive impact on the symptoms of PTSD. Relevant to this, in our previous pre-clinical work, beneficial effects of treadmill exercise were reported on PTSD-like behaviors in a social defeat paradigm, a rat model of direct physical trauma. However, the role of exercise on vicariously acquired PTSD-like phenotype was not examined...
April 17, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424072/prevalence-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-its-association-with-symptoms-of-depression-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-a-female-population-sample-in-sweden
#3
Solveig Lövestad, Jesper Löve, Marjan Vaez, Gunilla Krantz
BACKGROUND: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is the most common type of violence targeting women. IPV includes acts of physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and controlling behaviors and these forms of violence often coexist in the same relationship. Living with IPV is associated with serious mental health outcomes such as depression and depressive symptoms. Few population based studies from Sweden have investigated the relationship between different forms of IPV and women's depressive symptoms and even fewer used controlling behavior as an independent variable in such studies...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398126/a-multifactorial-and-integrative-approach-to-impulsivity-in-neuropsychology-insights-from-the-upps-model-of-impulsivity
#4
Lucien Rochat, Joël Billieux, Jean Gagnon, Martial Van der Linden
Risky and excessive behaviors, such as aggressive and compulsive behaviors, are frequently described in patients with brain damage and have dramatic psychosocial consequences. Although there is strong evidence that impulsivity constitutes a key factor at play in these behaviors, the literature about impulsivity in neuropsychology is to date scarce. In addition, examining and understanding these problematic behaviors requires the assumption that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct. Consequently, this article aims at shedding light on frequent risky and excessive behaviors in patients with brain damage by focusing on a unified, comprehensive, and well-validated model, namely, the UPPS model of impulsivity...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390864/an-acute-social-defeat-stressor-in-early-puberty-increases-susceptibility-to-social-defeat-in-adulthood
#5
Anna M Rosenhauer, Katharine E McCann, Alisa Norvelle, Kim L Huhman
Syrian hamsters readily display territorial aggression; if they lose even a single agonistic encounter, however, hamsters show striking reductions in aggressive behavior and increases in submissive behavior, a distinct behavioral change that we have previously termed conditioned defeat. This acute social defeat stressor is primarily psychological and is effective in both males and females. Therefore, we maintain that this procedure presents an ideal model for studying behavioral and physiological responses to social stress...
April 5, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378347/the-effectiveness-of-massage-and-touch-on-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-a-quantitative-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Jie Wu, Yi Wang, Zhiwen Wang
BACKGROUND: Many original studies have explored the effectiveness of massage and touch on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. However, the study design, interventions, measurements and outcomes varied among studies. AIM: To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of massage and touch on the behavioral and psychological symptoms of older people with dementia. DESIGN: A quantitative systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Library, The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Library, PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest Health & Medical Complete, SinoMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang were searched from the date the database established to January 2016...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377723/multiple-psychopharmacological-effects-of-the-traditional-japanese-kampo-medicine-yokukansan-and-the-brain-regions-it-affects
#7
REVIEW
Kazushige Mizoguchi, Yasushi Ikarashi
Yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, has indications for use in night crying and irritability in children, as well as neurosis and insomnia. It is currently also used for the remedy of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), such as aggressiveness, agitation, and hallucinations. In parallel with clinical evidence, a significant amount of fundamental researches have been undertaken to clarify the neuropsychopharmacological efficacies of YKS, with approximately 70 articles, including our own, being published to date...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344567/does-hunger-contribute-to-socioeconomic-gradients-in-behavior
#8
Daniel Nettle
Recent research has uncovered many examples of socioeconomic gradients in behavior and psychological states. As yet there is no theoretical consensus on the nature of the causal processes that produce these gradients. Here, I present the hunger hypothesis, namely the claim that part of the reason that people of lower socioeconomic position behave and feel as they do is that they are relatively often hungry. The hunger hypothesis applies in particular to impulsivity-hyperactivity, irritability-aggression, anxiety, and persistent narcotic use, all of which have been found to show socioeconomic gradients...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321191/palmitoylethanolamide-reduces-neuropsychiatric-behaviors-by-restoring-cortical-electrophysiological-activity-in-a-mouse-model-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Francesca Guida, Serena Boccella, Monica Iannotta, Danilo De Gregorio, Catia Giordano, Carmela Belardo, Rosaria Romano, Enza Palazzo, Maria A Scafuro, Nicola Serra, Vito de Novellis, Francesco Rossi, Sabatino Maione, Livio Luongo
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a major public health problem, which is associated with neurological dysfunction. In severe or moderate cases of TBI, in addition to its high mortality rate, subjects may encounter diverse behavioral dysfunctions. Previous reports suggest that an association between TBI and chronic pain syndromes tends to be more common in patients with mild forms of brain injury. Despite causing minimal brain damage, mild TBI (mTBI) often leads to persistent psychologically debilitating symptoms, which can include anxiety, various forms of memory and learning deficits, and depression...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301969/the-internet-s-effect-on-personality-traits-an-important-casualty-of-the-internet-addiction-paradigm
#10
Elias Aboujaoude
Background and aims The "Internet addiction" paradigm has been criticized for several shortcomings, including inattention to specific online behaviors, not distinguishing the Internet from other media, insufficient focus on comorbidities, and definitions that do not take into account the constant access now possible. The paradigm's biggest casualty, however, may be that it has diverted attention away from subtle personality changes that seem to occur online, including in users who cannot be considered "addicted" under any definition...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301323/deciphering-the-modulatory-role-of-oxytocin-in-human-altruism
#11
René Hurlemann, Nina Marsh
Unlike any other species, humans frequently engage in altruistic behaviors by which they increase another individual's welfare even if this implies personal costs. The psychological motives underlying altruistic behaviors remain diverse, ranging from the ability to reciprocate trust and cooperation to bonding and empathizing with family members or even genetically unrelated others. This article explores the neuroendocrine architecture of altruism by emphasizing the crucial role of the evolutionarily highly conserved peptide hormone oxytocin as a modulator of cooperative behaviors including empathy-driven altruism...
March 16, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299794/prospective-associations-between-peer-victimization-and-social-psychological-adjustment-problems-in-early-childhood
#12
Kimberly E Kamper-DeMarco, Jamie M Ostrov
The present short-term longitudinal study examined prospective associations between two forms of peer victimization (i.e., physical, relational) and both externalizing and internalizing problems in early childhood. The study assessed 97 children (42 girls; M age = 45.22 months, SD = 6.99) over the course of one school year with assessments occurring at the end of each semester (approximately 6 months apart). Multiple methods were used to collect data over the course of one school year to test theoretically driven hypotheses...
March 15, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284344/are-there-early-inflammatory-biomarkers-that-affect-neurodevelopment-in-infancy
#13
Núria Voltas, Victoria Arija, Carmen Hernández-Martínez, Rosa Jiménez-Feijoo, Natàlia Ferré, Josefa Canals
Few studies have investigated the relationship between post-natal inflammatory biomarkers at early age and child neurodevelopment outcomes. The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between IL-6, IL-1β, IL-4 cytokines, as well as cortisol at 6 and 12months of age, and neurodevelopment and psychological problems at 30months of age. The study was conducted on a sample of 51 full-term newborns who were followed up at 6, 12, and 30months of age. Infant neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, psychological problems were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 1...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222509/galantamine-response-associates-with-agitation-and-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Sachiko Nakayama, Akimitsu Suda, Atsushi Nakanishi, Yumiko Motoi, Nobutaka Hattori
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) occur in up to 80% of AD patients and represent one of the largest factors contributing to caregiver burden. To analyze the effect of galantamine on BPSD and caregiver burden, we treated a total of 50 patients with mild AD for 12 weeks and evaluated them using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and Japanese version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (ZBI). We also performed regional cerebral blood flow single photon emission computed tomography (rCBF SPECT) at baseline using three-dimensional sterotatic surface projections...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221065/the-american-psychological-association-task-force-assessment-of-violent-video-games-science-in-the-service-of-public-interest
#15
REVIEW
Sandra L Calvert, Mark Appelbaum, Kenneth A Dodge, Sandra Graham, Gordon C Nagayama Hall, Sherry Hamby, Lauren G Fasig-Caldwell, Martyna Citkowicz, Daniel P Galloway, Larry V Hedges
A task force of experts was convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) to update the knowledge and policy about the impact of violent video game use on potential adverse outcomes. This APA Task Force on Media Violence examined the existing literature, including the meta-analyses in the field, since the last APA report on media violence in 2005. Because the most recent meta-analyses were published in 2010 and reflected work through 2009, the task force conducted a search of the published studies from 2009-2013...
February 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219962/psychological-manifestations-of-celiac-disease-autoimmunity-in-young-children
#16
Laura B Smith, Kristian F Lynch, Kalle Kurppa, Sibylle Koletzko, Jeffrey Krischer, Edwin Liu, Suzanne Bennett Johnson, Daniel Agardh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychological symptoms can be associated with celiac disease; however, this association has not been studied prospectively in a pediatric cohort. We examined mother report of psychological functioning in children persistently positive for tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA), defined as celiac disease autoimmunity (CDA), compared with children without CDA in a screening population of genetically at-risk children. We also investigated differences in psychological symptoms based on mothers' awareness of their child's CDA status...
March 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219403/the-kiva-antibullying-program-in-primary-schools-in-chile-with-and-without-the-digital-game-component-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Jorge Gaete, Daniela Valenzuela, Cristian Rojas-Barahona, Eduardo Valenzuela, Ricardo Araya, Christina Salmivalli
BACKGROUND: Bullying is a major problem worldwide and Chile is no exception. Bullying is defined as a systematic aggressive behavior against a victim who cannot defend him or herself. Victims suffer social isolation and psychological maladjustment, while bullies have a higher risk for conduct problems and substance use disorders. These problems appear to last over time. The KiVa antibullying program has been evaluated in Finland and other European countries, showing preventive effects on victimization and self-reported bullying...
February 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212816/social-science-s-curious-war-with-pop-culture-and-how-it-was-lost-the-media-violence-debate-and-the-risks-it-holds-for-social-science
#18
REVIEW
Christopher J Ferguson, Eugene Beresin
For nearly half a century, psychologists, pediatricians and psychiatrists have studied the potential impact of media violence on aggression and societal violence, particularly among youth. Despite hundreds of studies, scholars have failed to find consensus on potential effects. Nonetheless, professional organizations such as the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Psychological Association have released policy statements conclusively linking violent media to societal concerns. In reaction, some scholars have accused these professional groups of distorting evidence and failing to inform the public of the inconsistent nature of studies in this field...
February 14, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203036/evidence-of-big-five-and-aggressive-personalities-in-gait-biomechanics
#19
Liam Satchell, Paul Morris, Chris Mills, Liam O'Reilly, Paul Marshman, Lucy Akehurst
Behavioral observation techniques which relate action to personality have long been neglected (Furr and Funder in Handbook of research methods in personality psychology, The Guilford Press, New York, 2007) and, when employed, often use human judges to code behavior. In the current study we used an alternative to human coding (biomechanical research techniques) to investigate how personality traits are manifest in gait. We used motion capture technology to record 29 participants walking on a treadmill at their natural speed...
2017: Journal of Nonverbal Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182882/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-child-maltreatment-among-migrant-families-in-china
#20
Yunjiao Gao, Sally Atkinson-Sheppard, Xing Liu
Although cases of child abuse among migrant families are often reported by social media, the issue of child maltreatment among migrant families in China has received little empirical attention. This study investigated both the prevalence of child maltreatment by parents among migrant families, and the individual, family and community-level risk factors associated with child abuse in this context. A survey was conducted with 667 migrant and 496 local adolescents in Shenzhen, South China, with a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design...
March 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
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