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Cesarean; hypotension

Kalpana Rajendra Kulkarni, Amruta Girish Naik, Sunetra Girish Deshpande
BACKGROUND: Spinal anesthesia is a preferred technique over general anesthesia for cesarean delivery. It avoids maternal airway related complications, aspiration and neonatal depression. However hypotension following spinal anesthesia can lead to decrease in uterine blood flow and neonatal hypoxia. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of 15 1of crystalloid preloading versus prophylactic intravenous bolus of 10 mg ephedrine as an antihypotensive measure for cesarean section...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
M C Vallejo, A F Attaallah, O M Elzamzamy, D T Cifarelli, A L Phelps, G R Hobbs, R E Shapiro, P Ranganathan
BACKGROUND: During spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery phenylephrine is the vasopressor of choice but can cause bradycardia. Norepinephrine has both β- and α-adrenergic activity suitable for maintaining blood pressure with less bradycardia. We hypothesized that norepinephrine would be superior to phenylephrine, requiring fewer rescue bolus interventions to maintain blood pressure. METHODS: Eighty-five parturients having spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery were randomized to Group P (phenylephrine 0...
August 28, 2016: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Xiangdi Yu, Fangxiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Pain during cesarean delivery is one of the more common reasons for a successful medicolegal claim. However, creating an extensive block area can result in hypotension, so determining the precise dose of local anesthetic is critical. OBJECTIVES: Investigate effects of parturient height on the median effective dose (ED50) of intrathecally-administered ropivacaine. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional analytic study. SETTING: Anesthesiology department in a provinicial hospital in China...
September 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Kajal Jain, Jeetinder Kaur Makkar, Siva Subramani Vp, Shalini Gander, Praveen Kumar
BACKGROUND: Previous evidence showed that use of phenylephrine was associated with higher umbilical artery pH (UA pH) than ephedrine after elective cesarean delivery (CD). However, the best choice of vasopressor and its effect on funic gases in cases of acute fetal compromise require additional studies. METHODS: Ninety parturients showing acute fetal compromise during intrapartum period and taken up for CD (category II) under spinal anesthesia were randomized to receive prophylactic infusion of ephedrine 2...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Carlos Javier Shiraishi Zapata
I report a case of hypotension and bradycardia before spinal anesthesia in a pregnant woman with mild to moderate hypertension treated with nifedipine and methyldopa, scheduled for an elective cesarean delivery. She had the history of neurally-mediated syncopes. Two main factors (increased vagal tone and adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs) could explain the hypotension and bradycardia before spinal anesthesia. Monitoring allowed recognizing the problem and corrected it. Thus, it was avoided a disaster in anesthesia, as hemodynamic changes after spinal anesthesia, they would have joined to previous hypotension and bradycardia, which would have caused even a cardiac arrest...
September 26, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Mahshid Nikooseresht, Mohamad Ali Seif Rabiei, Pooran Hajian, Razieh Dastaran, Nasim Alipour
BACKGROUND: Despite controversies about the safest anesthetic technique for cesarean delivery in severely preeclamptic women, there is evidence that supports the use of spinal anesthesia in this group of patients. OBJECTIVES: This prospective randomized clinical trial was designed to determine the hemodynamic effects of low-dose spinal bupivacaine and the incidence of spinal anesthesia-associated hypotension in severely preeclamptic and healthy parturients undergoing cesarean sections...
June 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Brandi A Bottiger, Dmitri S Bezinover, Berend Mets, Priti G Dalal, Jansie Prozesky, Serdar Ural, Sonia Vaida
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery (CD) have a high-risk of spinal-induced hypotension (SIH). We hypothesized that a colloid preload would further reduce SIH when compared with a crystalloid preload. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-two healthy parturients undergoing elective CD were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups (41 patients in each group) to receive either Lactated Ringer's solution (1500 ml) or hydroxyethyl starch (6% in normal saline, 500 ml) 30 min prior to placement of spinal anesthesia...
July 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Diana DeAndrade, Jonathan H Waters, Darrell J Triulzi, Louis Alarcon, Mary Kay Wisniewski, Robert Dyga, Mark H Yazer
BACKGROUND: The rate of patient-related clinical adverse events (AEs) associated with the use of intraoperative cell salvage (ICS) was analyzed. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The perfusion service and electronic risk management databases in a nine-hospital regional health care system were reviewed over an approximately 11-year period. The number of ICS cases performed during this period and basic patient demographics were also extracted. RESULTS: There were 43,198 patients for whom ICS was utilized during the study period...
September 9, 2016: Transfusion
Lucy Mwaura, Vitalis Mung'ayi, Jimmie Kabugi, Samina Mir
BACKGROUND: Spinal anaesthesia is the standard of care for elective caesarean delivery. It has advantages over general anaesthesia. However the sympathetic blockade induced by spinal anaesthesia results in an 80 percent incidence of hypotension without prophylactic management. Current evidence supports co-loading with intravenous fluids in conjunction with the use of vasopressors as the most effective way to prevent and treat the hypotension. Phenylephrine is the accepted vasopressor of choice in the parturient...
June 2016: African Health Sciences
Labib M Ghulmiyyah, Ihab M Usta, Ghina Ghazeeri, Nael Taher, Gael Abu-Ghannam, Hani Tamim, Anwar H Nassar
Objective The objective of this study was to determine the optimal dose of intravenous oxytocin administered during cesarean delivery (CD) to decrease the amount of blood loss. Methods Out of a total of 226 women presenting for CD, 189 patients were randomized into three groups by a computer-generated random number sequence table. Low-risk women with singleton term pregnancies undergoing scheduled CD were assigned to receive 20, 30, or 40 units (U) of oxytocin diluted in 500 mL of lactated Ringer solution intraoperatively...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Nabih I El Khouly, Ashraf M Meligy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of prophylactic ondansetron on spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension and bradycardia among patients undergoing elective cesarean deliveries. METHODS: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolled patients aged 20-40years scheduled for elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia between January 1, 2015 and January 31, 2016 at Menoufia University Hospital, Egypt. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous ondansetron 4mg in 10mL of saline or 10mL of saline...
November 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Francisco A E Carvalho, Sérgio B Tenório, Fabiano T Shiohara, Luiz R Maia, Angela Mota
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of the combination of intrathecal morphine with clonidine in comparison with 2 doses of intrathecal morphine alone for postcesarean analgesia. DESIGN: Prospective, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Maternity ward of Hospital Santa Cruz, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil (operating room and ward). PATIENTS: The study included 195 American Society of Anesthesiologist I to III singleton parturients undergoing elective cesarean section...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Turker Sengul, Ayten Saracoglu, Sibel Sener, Olgac Bezen
Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a rare pre-excitation syndrome which develops when atrioventricular conduction occurs through a pathologic accessory pathway known as the bundle of Kent instead of atrioventricular node, hence resulting in tachycardia. Patients with WPW syndrome may experience various symptoms arising from mild-to-moderate chest disease, palpitations, hypotension, and severe cardiopulmonary dysfunction. These patients are most often symptomatic because of cardiac arrhythmias. In this case report, we present an uneventful anesthetic management of a pregnant patient with WPW syndrome undergoing cesarean delivery...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Michael Heesen, Markus Klimek, Sanne E Hoeks, Rolf Rossaint
BACKGROUND: Hypotension remains a frequent complication of spinal anesthesia, increasing the risk of nausea and vomiting, altered mental status, and aspiration. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine whether 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, administered before the initiation of spinal anesthesia, mitigate hypotension. METHODS: After a systematic literature search in various databases, randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trials studying the preventive effect of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists were included...
October 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
John W Downing, Curtis L Baysinger, Raymond F Johnson, Ray L Paschall, Matthew S Shotwell
BACKGROUND: Vasoactive agents administered to counter maternal hypotension at cesarean delivery may theoretically intensify the hypoxemic fetoplacental vasoconstrictor response and, hence, negatively impact transplacental oxygen delivery to the fetus. Yet, this aspect of their pharmacodynamic profiles is seldom mentioned, let alone investigated. We hypothesized that vasopressin, a potent systemic vasoconstrictor, and oxytocin, a uterotonic agent administered routinely at cesarean delivery, which, in contrast to vasopressin, possesses significant systemic vasodilator properties, would not influence distal stem villous arteriolar resistance...
September 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Kattiya Manomayangkul, Arunotai Siriussawakul, Akarin Nimmannit, Thassayu Yuyen, Sopapan Ngerncham, Kanit Reesukumal
BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood gas values are better indicators of perinatal asphyxia than Apgar scores. Many studies have reported normal ranges of umbilical cord blood gases, which vary greatly due to many factors. This study aimed to establish the reference values of umbilical cord blood gases of normal cesarean newborns in a university hospital setting. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Blood samples from the umbilical artery and vein were collected from 160 newborns delivered by elective cesarean section...
May 2016: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Anitha Prashanth, Murali Chakravarthy, Antony George, Rohini Mayur, Rajathadri Hosur, Sumant Pargaonkar
Hypotension subsequent to spinal anesthesia occurs in a significant number of parturients undergoing lower segment caesarian section. Currently available methods to predict the incidence of hypotension, its severity and the outcome are sub-optimal. Many workers have used basal heart rate as one of the predictors. But using this method it is not possible to objectively analyze and predict the extent and severity of hypotension. We used an equipment measuring the level of sympatho-vagal balance, ANSiscope™, which derives these values from computed value of RR interval variability...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Deepak Gupta, Vitaly Soskin, Milos Marjanovic, Hassan Amhaz, Ashish Mazumdar
BACKGROUND: Measuring non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) in less than one minute intervals (STAT NIBP measurements) is not always feasible. Therefore, large number of undetectable hypotension episodes can only be recognized with continuous beat to beat monitoring of blood pressure, for example, by continuous non-invasive arterial pressure monitor (CNAP). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether CNAP correlates well with conventional intermittent oscillometric NIBP during elective cesarean sections under subarachnoid blockade (SAB) and whether CNAP based patient management results in improved immediate maternal vasopressor requirements and improved immediate fetal/neonatal outcomes compared with NIBP based patient management...
February 2016: Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology
Abdullah S Terkawi, Sarah K Larkin, Siny Tsang, Jessica S Sheeran, Mohamed Tiouririne
BACKGROUND: Hydroxyethyl starch is commonly used in the obstetric patient population to prevent hypotension during cesarean delivery. Evidence suggests hetastarch is associated with a dysfunction in coagulation cascade. We hypothesized that hetastarch use to prevent spinal hypotension during cesarean delivery would be associated with an increase in blood loss when compared to crystalloid use. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia at the University of Virginia between 2011 and 2014...
October 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
Bruno Mendonça Barcellos, Fernanda Martins Loureiro, Livia Fernandes Sampaio, Marco Antonio Cardoso de Resende
Aortic coarctation is a discrete narrowing of the proximal thoracic aorta. It is poorly tolerated during pregnancy because of its association with hypertension, cerebrovascular accident, and aortic rupture. We report a case of severe uncorrected congenital aortic coarctation in a 31-year-old symptomatic pregnant woman at 29 weeks of gestation who underwent successful cesarean delivery with an epidural anesthetic technique. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a gradient of 75 mm Hg. To avoid undiagnosed arterial hypotension and inadequate uteroplacental flow distal to the coarctation, double (radial and femoral) invasive arterial blood pressure measurement was used to monitor both pre- and postcoarctation arterial blood pressure...
August 1, 2016: A & A Case Reports
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