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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926426/epigenetics-and-precision-oncology
#1
Rachael J Werner, Andrew D Kelly, Jean-Pierre J Issa
Epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation defects and aberrant covalent histone modifications occur within all cancers and are selected for throughout the natural history of tumor formation, with changes being detectable in early onset, progression, and ultimately recurrence and metastasis. The ascertainment and use of these marks to identify at-risk patient populations, refine diagnostic criteria, and provide prognostic and predictive factors to guide treatment decisions are of growing clinical relevance...
September 2017: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924686/psychosocial-impact-of-personalized-therapies-in-oncology
#2
Georgia Schilling, Frank Schulz-Kindermann
Personalized medicine is a keyword in modern oncology summarizing biomarker-driven targeted therapies. Those novel agents enhance our therapeutic portfolio and offer new options for our patients. But the term is often misleading and implicates a tailored therapy to the individual person, but it rather means a treatment stratified on genetic characteristics of the tumor. Molecular therapies raise expectations of curability or long-term treatments making former life-threatening diseases to more chronic ones but this is true only for some patients...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924684/psychotherapy-in-the-oncology-setting
#3
Mirjam de Vries, Friedrich Stiefel
A person who faces the diagnosis of cancer is subjected to changes within his body, but also with regard to his view of himself and his social relationships. Cancer related psychological distress occurs frequently and has a different prevalence according to-among other factors-cancer type and stage of disease. The main psychiatric disturbances observed in patients with cancer are adjustment disorders and affective disorders (anxiety and depression), which in the majority of patients are due to stressors related to the occurrence and threat of the disease and pre-existing psychological vulnerabilities; however, they might also be a direct consequence of biological causes either resulting from bodily modifications induced by the cancer or from treatment side effects...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924680/the-oncological-patient-in-the-palliative-situation
#4
Steffen Eychmueller, Diana Zwahlen, Monica Fliedner
Palliative care approaches patients and their suffering with a bio-psycho-social-spiritual model. Thus, it is the strength of palliative care to complement the diagnosis driven approach of medical cancer care by a problem and resources-based assessment, participatory care plan and person-directed interventions. Interventions need to reflect timely prognosis, target population (the patient, the family carer, the professional) and level of trust and remaining energy. In palliative care the relevance of psycho-oncological aspects in the care of the terminally ill is considerable in the understanding of the overall suffering of patients approaching death and their loved ones and in their care and support...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921640/the-role-of-clinical-pharmacology-in-oncology-dose-selection-advances-and-opportunities-in-personalized-medicine
#5
Stacy S Shord
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917141/the-impact-of-black-cancer-patients-race-related-beliefs-and-attitudes-on-racially-discordant-oncology-interactions-a-field-study
#6
Louis A Penner, Felicity W K Harper, John F Dovidio, Terrance L Albrecht, Lauren M Hamel, Nicole Senft, Susan Eggly
OBJECTIVE: Both physician and patient race-related beliefs and attitudes are contributors to racial healthcare disparities, but only the former have received substantial research attention. Using data from a study conducted in the Midwestern US from 2012 to 2014, we investigated whether 114 Black cancer patients' existing race-related beliefs and attitudes would predict how they and 18 non-Black physicians (medical oncologists) would respond in subsequent clinical interactions. METHOD: At least two days before interacting with an oncologist for initial discussions of treatment options, patients completed measures of perceived past discrimination, general mistrust of physicians, and suspicion of healthcare systems; interactions were video-recorded...
August 30, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915716/implementation-and-utilization-of-the-molecular-tumor-board-to-guide-precision-medicine
#7
REVIEW
Shuko Harada, Rebecca Arend, Qian Dai, Jessica A Levesque, Thomas S Winokur, Rongjun Guo, Martin J Heslin, Lisle Nabell, L Burt Nabors, Nita A Limdi, Kevin A Roth, Edward E Partridge, Gene P Siegal, Eddy S Yang
BACKGROUND: With rapid advances in genomic medicine, the complexity of delivering precision medicine to oncology patients across a university health system demanded the creation of a Molecular Tumor Board (MTB) for patient selection and assessment of treatment options. The objective of this report is to analyze our progress to date and discuss the importance of the MTB in the implementation of personalized medicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were reviewed in the MTB for appropriateness for comprehensive next generation sequencing (NGS) cancer gene set testing based on set criteria that were in place...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#8
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905809/the-acceptance-of-illness-in-lung-cancer-patients-before-and-after-surgical-treatment
#9
Andrzej Nowicki, Paulina Graczyk, Marzena Lemanowicz
Lung cancer is the most common malignant tumor in the world, as well as one of the cancers with the most fatal prognosis. The acceptance of the disease is the most important element of the adaptive process. The better the illness acceptance, the lower the stress level and the higher the self-esteem, which facilitates the adaptation to the health status. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the acceptance of the disease in patients before and after lung cancer surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 2016 at the Center of Oncology in Bydgoszcz and the Kuyavian and Pomeranian Pulmonology Center in Bydgoszcz...
August 31, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903768/liquid-dynamic-medicine-and-n-of-1-clinical-trials-a-change-of-perspective-in-oncology-research
#10
REVIEW
Nicola Silvestris, Gennaro Ciliberto, Paolo De Paoli, Giovanni Apolone, Maria Luisa Lavitrano, Marco A Pierotti, Giorgio Stanta
The increasing use of genomics to define the pattern of actionable mutations and to test and validate new therapies for individual cancer patients, and the growing application of liquid biopsy to dynamically track tumor evolution and to adapt molecularly targeted therapy according to the emergence of tumor clonal variants is shaping modern medical oncology., In order to better describe this new therapeutic paradigm we propose the term "Liquid dynamic medicine" in the place of "Personalized or Precision medicine"...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894725/safety-of-checkpoint-inhibitors-for-cancer-treatment-strategies-for-patient-monitoring-and-management-of-immune-mediated-adverse-events
#11
REVIEW
Marianne Davies, Emily A Duffield
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs), in the form of monoclonal antibodies against CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1, have dramatically changed the treatment approach in several advanced cancers. Due to their mechanism of action, these novel agents are associated with a unique spectrum of immune-mediated adverse events (imAEs), with a safety profile that indicates they are better tolerated than traditional chemotherapeutic agents. This article aims to provide education on the current knowledge about imAEs associated with ICPI treatment, including strategies and tools for the prompt identification, evaluation, and optimal management of these events...
2017: ImmunoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893255/oncologist-burnout-and-compassion-fatigue-investigating-time-pressure-at-work-as-a-predictor-and-the-mediating-role-of-work-family-conflict
#12
Sibyl Kleiner, Jean E Wallace
BACKGROUND: Oncologists are at high risk of poor mental health. Prior research has focused on burnout, and has identified heavy workload as a key predictor. Compassion fatigue among physicians has generally received less attention, although medical specialties such as oncology may be especially at risk of compassion fatigue. We contribute to research by identifying predictors of both burnout and compassion fatigue among oncologists. In doing so, we distinguish between quantitative workload (e...
September 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883766/intraoral-stents-in-preventing-adverse-radiotherapeutic-effects-in-lip-cancer-patients
#13
Breno A Rocha, Lucianne M C Lima, Lívia M R Paranaíba, Angel da S Martinez, Maria Betânia de O Pires, Edimilson M de Freitas, Camilla V Vilas Boas, Mário R de Melo Filho
AIM: To fabricate and evaluate the efficacy of individualized intraoral stents to minimize the potential side effects of radiation on oral tissues in patients with early stages of lip cancer. BACKGROUND: Lower lip cancer is a common tumor found almost exclusively in middle-aged and elderly males. Surgery is the most common treatment of choice, although for less extensive lesions, exclusive radiotherapy may be preferred. Some studies have found that the use of intraoral stents in patients with intraoral cancer (e...
November 2017: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877008/definitions-and-statistical-properties-of-master-protocols-for-personalized-medicine-in-oncology
#14
Lindsay A Renfro, Sumithra J Mandrekar
Within the field of cancer research, discovery of biomarkers and genetic mutations that are potentially predictive of treatment benefit are motivating a paradigm shift in how cancer clinical trials are conducted. In this review, we provide an overview of the class of trials known as "master protocols", including basket trials, umbrella trials, and platform trials. For each, we describe standardized terminology, provide a motivating example with modeling details and decision rules, and discuss statistical advantages and limitations...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876159/implementing-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-enhance-compliance-with-guideline-recommended-prechemotherapy-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-a-military-based-medical-oncology-practice
#15
Wilfred Delacruz, Sandra Terrazzino, Michael Osswald, Casey Payne, Brian Haney
PURPOSE: Patients with cancer are at increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease, including community-acquired pneumonia. Current Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and National Cancer Comprehensive Network guidelines recommend pneumococcal vaccination for immunocompromised patients, including patients with cancer. METHODS: We conducted a quality improvement (QI) project to enhance compliance with pneumococcal vaccination in patients before their chemotherapy...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875369/-personalized-oncology
#16
REVIEW
C Heining, P Horak, S Gröschel, H Glimm, S Fröhling
CLINICAL ISSUE: Innovative next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and comprehensive sequencing investigations in large patient cohorts have paved the way for very promising personalized treatment strategies based on the molecular characteristics of individual tumors. STANDARD TREATMENT: Targeted therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antibodies and modern immunotherapeutic approaches are well established as monotherapy and combination therapy for many hematological and oncological malignancies...
September 5, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874669/phenotype-driven-precision-oncology-as-a-guide-for-clinical-decisions-one-patient-at-a-time
#17
Shumei Chia, Joo-Leng Low, Xiaoqian Zhang, Xue-Lin Kwang, Fui-Teen Chong, Ankur Sharma, Denis Bertrand, Shen Yon Toh, Hui-Sun Leong, Matan T Thangavelu, Jacqueline S G Hwang, Kok-Hing Lim, Thakshayeni Skanthakumar, Hiang-Khoon Tan, Yan Su, Siang Hui Choo, Hannes Hentze, Iain B H Tan, Alexander Lezhava, Patrick Tan, Daniel S W Tan, Giridharan Periyasamy, Judice L Y Koh, N Gopalakrishna Iyer, Ramanuj DasGupta
Genomics-driven cancer therapeutics has gained prominence in personalized cancer treatment. However, its utility in indications lacking biomarker-driven treatment strategies remains limited. Here we present a "phenotype-driven precision-oncology" approach, based on the notion that biological response to perturbations, chemical or genetic, in ex vivo patient-individualized models can serve as predictive biomarkers for therapeutic response in the clinic. We generated a library of "screenable" patient-derived primary cultures (PDCs) for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas that reproducibly predicted treatment response in matched patient-derived-xenograft models...
September 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867314/prognostic-factors-and-comparison-of-conservative-treatment-percutaneous-verteroplasty-and-open-surgery-in-the-treatment-of-spinal-metastases-from-lung-cancer
#18
Si-Zhen Yang, Yu Tang, Ying Zhang, Wu-Gui Chen, Jing Sun, Tong-Wei Chu
BACKGROUND: Spinal metastases from lung cancer could result in life-threatening consequences. Few studies report the prognostic factors and compare different treatments in patients with spinal metastases from lung cancer. METHODS: From 2005 to 2014, we retrospectively reviewed and studied 140 patients with spinal metastases from lung cancer according to different treatments. To estimate overall survival and identify prognostic factors for survival, the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were adopted...
August 31, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866901/anxiety-and-psychosomatic-symptoms-in-palliative-care-from-neuro-psychobiological-response-to-stress-to-symptoms-management-with-clinical-hypnosis-and-meditative-states
#19
Anirudh Kumar Satsangi, Maria Paola Brugnoli
Psychosomatic disorder is a condition in which psychological stresses adversely affect physiological (somatic) functioning to the point of distress. It is a condition of dysfunction or structural damage in physical organs through inappropriate activation of the involuntary nervous system and the biochemical response. In this framework, this review will consider anxiety disorders, from the perspective of the psychobiological mechanisms of vulnerability to extreme stress in severe chronic illnesses. Psychosomatic medicine is a field of behavioral medicine and a part of the practice of consultation-liaison psychiatry...
August 9, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866894/more-chemo-or-home-hospice-narrative-results-from-an-n-of-1-trial
#20
Keith M Swetz
Words matter. They have tremendous power to heal or hurt. And although the patients we care for in oncology and palliative medicine often die from, or despite, their neoplastic illness; caregivers and loved ones often hold onto the words that clinicians share with them during their times of struggle and grief. In this narrative, the author (as first person) reflects on some systemic challenges he faced in dealing with illness and loss when his father battled two distinct neoplastic processes. He explores the commonalities and differences that he experienced as a palliative care physician, and how that has guided his medical practice moving forward...
June 23, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
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