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Aggression psychology

Nirbhay N Singh, Giulio E Lancioni, Bryan T Karazsia, Jeffrey Chan, Alan S W Winton
Caregivers of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often end up having their medical and psychological well-being compromised due to the stressful nature of caregiving, especially when those in their care engage in aggressive behavior. In this study, we provided caregivers with mindfulness-based training to enable them to better manage their psychological well-being and, through this, to also enhance specific indices of quality of life of the individuals in their care. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) the comparative effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) and Training-as-Usual (TAU) for caregivers in a congregate care facility for individuals with severe and profound IDD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Joseph Tseng, Peter Poullos
Fournier's gangrene is a severe polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital, or perianal regions. The classic presentation is severe pain and swelling with systemic signs. Crepitus and cutaneous necrosis are often seen. Characteristic CT findings include subcutaneous gas and inflammatory stranding. Unless treated aggressively, patients can rapidly become septic and die. Factitious Disorder is the falsification of one's own of medical or psychological signs and symptoms. Many deceptive methods have been described, from falsely reporting physical or psychological symptoms, to manipulating lab tests, or even injecting or ingesting foreign substances in order to induce illness...
September 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Stephen Macfarlane, Daniel O'Connor
Most patients with dementia have some behavioural and psychological symptoms. While aggression and agitation are easily recognised, symptoms such as apathy may be overlooked. Behavioural and psychological symptoms should be managed without drugs whenever possible. Although there is little evidence to support their use, antipsychotic drugs are often prescribed to people with dementia. Before prescribing it is important to exclude other causes of altered behaviour, such as pain or infection. Some symptoms may be artefacts of memory loss rather than psychosis...
August 2016: Australian Prescriber
Adrienne J Heinz, Nicole L Cohen, Lori Holleran, Jennifer A Alvarez, Marcel O Bonn-Miller
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a condition that disproportionately affects military veterans, is associated with heightened rates of aggression and suicide. Although experience with firearms is common among this population, virtually nothing is known regarding who is more likely to own a firearm and whether firearm ownership is differentially associated with psychological and behavioral risk factors among veterans with PTSD. Of 465 veterans (79% male) entering PTSD treatment, 28% owned a firearm (median number of firearms among owners = 3, range = 1-40)...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Drew A Kingston, Franklyn J Graham, Raymond A Knight
Hypersexuality, or extreme normophilic sexual urges and behaviors, is a controversial construct that was recently considered as a candidate disorder for the DSM-5 and was rejected. It was also rejected for inclusion in Section III (Conditions for Further Study). Nonetheless, it has been found to be an important predictor of recidivism among sex offenders, and it continues to be discussed widely in the literature. In the present study, we investigated the developmental roots of this construct in a sample of 529 adult male sexual offenders, who were administered the Multidimensional Assessment of Sex and Aggression...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
X Jégouzo, M Desbordes, S Delègue, G Le Vacon, M Patrick, S Mouchabac
OBJECTIVES: Behavioral and psychological symptoms have a high prevalence in dementia. They include mood disorders, psychotic disorders and behavioral disorders such as aggression or screaming. Despite a number of side effects and an increased mortality, antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed for treatment of this disorder. In France, this increased risk of mortality led in 2009 to the adoption of guidelines concerning all antipsychotics. The guidelines propose a sensible use of antipsychotics after the establishment of non-pharmacological measures...
October 12, 2016: L'Encéphale
Sandra G Sosa-Rubi, Biani Saavedra-Avendano, Claudia Piras, S Janae Van Buren, Sergio Bautista-Arredondo
Dating violence is a significant problem in Mexico. National survey data estimated 76 % of Mexican youth have been victims of psychological aggression in their relationships; 15.5 % have experienced physical violence; and 16.5 % of women have been the victims of sexual violence. Female adolescents perpetrate physical violence more frequently than males, while perpetration between genders of other types of violence is unclear. Furthermore, poor, marginalized youth are at a higher risk for experiencing dating violence...
October 14, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Billy Jansson, Örjan Sundin
This study focused on the factor structure of the victimization form of the revised Controlling Behaviors Scale (CBS-R). Data from 1,218 women and men were analyzed in the study. Results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) failed to find support for the proposed five-factor structure of the scale, as the items on the scale were better represented by one common factor. In addition, when examining if controlling behaviors are distinct from psychological aggression, the CFA indicated that the items on the CBS-R are clearly distinguishable from the items on the psychological aggression (as measured with the subscales of the revised Conflict Tactic Scales [CTS2]), and that this holds for both males and females...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Nicole H Weiss, Katherine L Dixon-Gordon, Courtney Peasant, Véronique Jaquier, Clinesha Johnson, Tami P Sullivan
Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with heightened psychopathology symptoms and risky behaviors. However, extant investigations are limited by their focus on IPV victimization, despite evidence to suggest that victimization and aggression frequently co-occur. Further, research on these correlates often has not accounted for the heterogeneity of women who experience victimization. Method: The present study utilized latent profile analysis to identify patterns of physical, psychological, and sexual victimization and aggression in a convenience sample of 212 community women experiencing victimization (Mage = 36...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Brian Hare
The challenge of studying human cognitive evolution is identifying unique features of our intelligence while explaining the processes by which they arose. Comparisons with nonhuman apes point to our early-emerging cooperative-communicative abilities as crucial to the evolution of all forms of human cultural cognition, including language. The human selfdomestication hypothesis proposes that these early-emerging social skills evolved when natural selection favored increased in-group prosociality over aggression in late human evolution...
October 12, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
Giovanni Tallini, R Michael Tuttle, Ronald A Ghossein
CONTEXT: The purpose of this review is to provide the historical context to recent developments in the classification of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC), an entity that has long created significant controversy. The scope is to illustrate the evolution of the diagnostic criteria for papillary thyroid carcinoma, clarifying the role of molecular analysis, and the impact on patient management. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A PubMed search using the terms "follicular variant" and "papillary thyroid carcinoma" covering the years 1960-2016 was performed...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Adam D LaMotte, Casey T Taft, Robin P Weatherill, Melynda D Casement, Suzannah K Creech, William P Milberg, Catherine B Fortier, Regina E McGlinchey
Objective: This study investigated sleep problems and physical pain as moderators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and aggression among returning veterans. Prior research has demonstrated associations between PTSD symptoms and aggression, but little work has sought to identify moderators of this relationship. Sleep problems and physical pain are both common clinical problems among veterans and have theoretical links to aggression. Method: Participants were 103 returning service members and veterans recruited from the greater Boston area and enrolled in the VA Translational Research Center for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Stress Disorders (TRACTS)...
August 15, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
A M C Coneo, A R Thompson, A Lavda
BACKGROUND: Individuals with visible skin conditions often experience stigmatisation and discrimination. This may trigger maladaptive responses such as feelings of anger and hostility with negative consequences to social interactions and relationships. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to identify psychosocial factors contributing to aggression levels in dermatology patients. METHODS: Data was obtained from ninety-one participants recruited from out-patient clinics in the north of England, UK...
October 11, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Lucas Giner, Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla, Diego De La Vega, Philippe Courtet
Suicide is one of the leading causes of violent death in many countries and its prevention is included in worldwide health objectives. Currently, the DSM-5 considers suicidal behavior as an entity that requires further study. Among the three validators required for considering a psychiatric disorder, there is one based on psychological correlates, biological markers, and patterns of comorbidity. This review includes the most important and recent studies on psychological factors: cognitive, emotional, temperament, and personality correlates (unrelated to diagnostic criteria)...
November 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Martina Hinsberger, Leon Holtzhausen, Jessica Sommer, Debra Kaminer, Thomas Elbert, Soraya Seedat, Sarah Wilker, Anselm Crombach, Roland Weierstall
Objective: In an observer-blinded intervention trial, we tested the reduction of posttraumatic stress symptoms, aggressive attitude, and behavior in young males living in a context of ongoing community and gang violence by means of (a) forensic offender rehabilitation narrative exposure therapy (FORNET), and (b) the cognitive-behavioral intervention "Thinking for a Change" (TFAC). A waiting list served as the control condition. Method: A total of 39 young men were included in the data analysis: 15 completed FORNET, 11 underwent cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and 13 were on a waiting list for later treatment...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Andria B Eisman, Marc A Zimmerman, Daniel Kruger, Thomas M Reischl, Alison L Miller, Susan P Franzen, Susan Morrel-Samuels
Empowerment-based strategies have become widely used method to address health inequities and promote social change. Few researchers, however, have tested theoretical models of empowerment, including multidimensional, higher-order models. We test empirically a multidimensional, higher-order model of psychological empowerment (PE), guided by Zimmerman's conceptual framework including three components of PE: intrapersonal, interactional, and behavioral. We also investigate if PE is associated with positive and negative outcomes among youth...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
Deborah M Casper, Noel A Card
This meta-analytic review includes 135 studies, representing 17 countries, of child and adolescent (ages 4-17) samples of overt and relational peer victimization and examines the magnitude of overlap between forms of victimization and associations with five social-psychological adjustment indices. Results indicate a strong intercorrelation between forms of victimization (r¯ = .72). No gender difference with regard to relational victimization was found, but boys were slightly higher in overt victimization...
October 6, 2016: Child Development
Ersan Arda, Basri Cakiroglu, David T Thomas
CONTEXT: Nocturnal enuresis or bedwetting is the most common type of urinary incontinence in children. It has significant psychological effects on both the child and the family. Enuresis nocturna is defined as the inability to hold urine during the night in children who have completed toilet training. It is termed as being "primary" if no continence has ever been achieved or "secondary if it follows at least 6 months of dry nights. The aim of this review was to assemble the pathophysiological background and general information about nocturnal enuresis...
July 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
José María Gómez, Miguel Verdú, Adela González-Megías, Marcos Méndez
The psychological, sociological and evolutionary roots of conspecific violence in humans are still debated, despite attracting the attention of intellectuals for over two millennia. Here we propose a conceptual approach towards understanding these roots based on the assumption that aggression in mammals, including humans, has a significant phylogenetic component. By compiling sources of mortality from a comprehensive sample of mammals, we assessed the percentage of deaths due to conspecifics and, using phylogenetic comparative tools, predicted this value for humans...
September 28, 2016: Nature
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