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Yoo Sung Song, Jong-Min Kim, Kyeong Joon Kim, Ji Young Yun, Sang Eun Kim
PURPOSE: In patients with Parkinson disease (PD), decreased serum ceruloplasmin levels have been observed. This study investigated a correlation between serum ceruloplasmin-along with its related serum markers- and striatal presynaptic dopaminergic denervation measured with I-FP-CIT SPECT. METHODS: We analyzed a total of 141 de novo patients divided into 2 groups: the PD group (107 patients with PD) and the disease control group (34 patients with vascular pseudoparkinsonism, essential tremor, or drug-induced parkinsonism)...
September 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Joaquin A Vizcarra, Anthony E Lang, Kapil D Sethi, Alberto J Espay
Progressive ambulatory impairment and abnormal white matter (WM) signal on neuroimaging come together under the diagnostic umbrella of vascular parkinsonism (VaP). A critical appraisal of the literature, however, suggests that (1) no abnormal structural imaging pattern is specific to VaP; (2) there is poor correlation between brain MRI hyperintensities and microangiopathic brain disease and parkinsonism from available clinicopathologic data; (3) pure parkinsonism from vascular injury ("definite" vascular parkinsonism) consistently results from ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes involving the SN and/or nigrostriatal pathway, but sparing the striatum itself, the cortex, and the intervening WM; and (4) many cases reported as VaP may represent pseudovascular parkinsonism (e...
June 2015: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
John P Henao, Katherin A Peperzak, Alicia B Lichvar, Steven L Orebaugh, Susan J Skledar, Michael A Pippi, Brian A Williams
BACKGROUND: Perphenazine is a treatment option in postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) prophylaxis. Chronic administration and high dose are known to cause extrapyramidal system (EPS) dysfunction at a frequency of 8%, but the incidence of acute EPS after a single 4 or 8 mg dose is unknown. OBJECTIVE: A retrospective analysis of patient medication billing data and departmental quality records was performed (January 2001 to 10 July 2012) to identify patients who experienced EPS dysfunction after oral perphenazine...
April 2014: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Roberto Di Fabio, Sergio De Filippis, Carmine Cafariello, Laura Penna, Massimo Marianetti, Mariano Serrao, Francesco Pierelli
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate in a group of patients with psychosis the effect of the dopamine agonist rotigotine on neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs), a set of movement disorders such as pseudoparkinsonism, dyskinesias, akinesia, and akathisia that occur as result of taking drugs that block dopamine receptors. METHODS: Twenty patients with psychosis with EPSs were clinically evaluated before and after the administration of rotigotine...
September 2013: Clinical Neuropharmacology
P N Kumar, T M Kumar
Neuroleptic induced neurological side effects were compared over a period of one year (1991-1992) in 45 schizophrenics and age and sex matched 42 mood disorder patients, diagnosed as per DSM-III-R criteria. Prevalence of dystonia was equally common in both groups. Pseudoparkinsonism was significantly high in female mood disorder patients, akathisia in middle aged mood disorder patients and tradive dyskinesia in mood disorder patients. Factors like age of onset, time of onset and mean dose of antipsychotics (chlorpromazine equivalent) did not show any significant difference...
April 1997: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Pamela L Lindsey, Jessica Mehalic
Rabbit syndrome (RS) is an involuntary movement disorder characterized by rapid, fine movements of an individual's mouth, similar to the chewing movements of a rabbit, and has most frequently been associated with the use of antipsychotic medications. RS is often unrecognized or misdiagnosed as tardive dyskinesia or pseudoparkinsonism. Although rare, RS is easily treatable if recognized. It is essential that nurses are able to distinguish this syndrome from other movement disorders; however, a lack of information exists in the nursing literature about this syndrome...
February 2010: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Pamela L Lindsey, Jessica Mehalic
Rabbit syndrome (RS) is an involuntary movement disorder characterized by rapid, fine movements of an individual's mouth, similar to the chewing movements of a rabbit, and has most frequently been associated with the use of antipsychotic medications. RS is often unrecognized or misdiagnosed as tardive dyskinesia or pseudoparkinsonism. Although rare, RS is easily treatable if recognized. It is essential that nurses are able to distinguish this syndrome from other movement disorders; however, a lack of information exists in the nursing literature about this syndrome...
January 27, 2010: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Jan Petter Larsen
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that diagnosing and treating patients with parkinsonism in nursing homes could be improved. Parkinson's disease is the most important cause of parkinsonism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data for this article have been obtained through a literature search and by research in our own centre. RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION: Parkinsonism is a frequent cause of functional impairment among the elderly. The diagnosis is based on an evaluation of the four cardinal signs of parkinsonism (resting tremor, akinesia, rigidity, and postural abnormalities)...
June 16, 2005: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
Igor Sibon, Gilles Fenelon, Niall P Quinn, François Tison
The concept of vascular parkinsonism (VP) has been highly controversial since the initial paper by Critchley in 1929. This review tentatively delineates the extent of the spectrum of VP. Much confusion has arisen owing to the lack of clear definitions of parkinsonism, "atypical parkinsonism" and "pseudoparkinsonism", which we here attempt to define. Confusion has also arisen because incidental vascular lesions occurring in true idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) are up to 10 times more common than parkinsonism due to cerebrovascular disease...
May 2004: Journal of Neurology
Vicky Marshall, Donald G Grosset
Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging detects presynaptic dopamine neuronal dysfunction and thereby assists differentiation of conditions with and without dopamine deficit. In atypical tremor disorders, DAT imaging can differentiate between Parkinson's disease (PD), where dopamine deficit is demonstrated on DAT imaging, and essential tremor, where no dopamine deficit is found. DAT imaging may be particularly informative in monosymptomatic rest tremors, benign tremulous Parkinson's syndrome, and in the elderly in whom essential tremor may be accompanied by pseudoparkinsonism...
October 2003: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
L Lachenmayer
Differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes encloses idiopathic Parkinson's disease, other primary neurodegenerative diseases (atypical parkinsonism), symptomatic cases, pseudoparkinsonism and inherited forms. Clinical diagnostic criteria are not safe when applied only at disease onset. Diagnostic accuracy can be intensified by recognition of distinct patterns of signs and symptoms and by focussing attention on the time course of the disease.
February 2003: Journal of Neurology
Michael W Jann
In the course of treatment of psychiatric patients, it is often necessary to switch antipsychotic medications. In recent years, atypical antipsychotic agents have become the first-line therapeutic interventions for treating psychotic symptoms. Reasons for switching patients from the typical antipsychotics to the atypical agents can include enhanced efficacy against negative symptoms, improvement in cognitive capacity, and reduction of risk of extrapyramidal side effects. The presumed long-term benefits of switching to the new antipsychotic drug should be assessed...
2002: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Beth M Dubisar, Steven C Stoner, Rintu Khan, Cynthia D Farrar
Seizure activity is a known complication associated with multiple sclerosis; however, it may also result from side effects of the treatments for the disease. A 21-year-old man with Tourette's syndrome, pedophilia, Asperger's syndrome, and multiple sclerosis experienced seizures after receiving therapy with interferon beta-1a. Adjustments in his drug regimen led to the discovery of pseudoparkinsonism and other extrapyramidal symptoms. This case report illustrates how pharmacodynamic properties of drugs can complicate the treatment of neurologic disorders...
November 2002: Pharmacotherapy
Jürgen Brockmöller, Julia Kirchheiner, Jürgen Schmider, Silke Walter, Christoph Sachse, Bruno Müller-Oerlinghausen, Ivar Roots
OBJECTIVES: The genetically polymorphic enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 contributes to the biotransformation of the antipsychotic drug haloperidol. The impact of the polymorphism on haloperidol pharmacokinetics, adverse events, and efficacy was prospectively evaluated under naturalistic conditions in 172 unselected psychiatric inpatients with acute psychotic symptoms. METHODS: Serum trough levels of haloperidol and reduced haloperidol of patients receiving clinically adjusted doses were analyzed on days 3, 14, and 28 after hospital admission...
October 2002: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
John G Csernansky, Emily K Schuchart
Recent studies suggest that the risk of relapse in patients with schizophrenia is approximately 3.5% per month. Predictors of more frequent relapses include poor compliance with antipsychotic drug treatment, severe residual psychopathology, poor insight into the illness and the need for treatment, comorbid substance abuse, and poor relationships between patients, families and care providers. Although conventional antipsychotic drugs, such as haloperidol and fluphenazine, are effective in preventing relapse, second generation antipsychotic drugs, such as clozapine, risperidone and olanzapine, appear to be superior in preventing relapse and improving the patient's quality of life...
2002: CNS Drugs
L A Lenert, J Ziegler, T Lee, R Sommi, R Mahmoud
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are important differences in how patients, family members, and health care providers (HCPs) value health outcomes in schizophrenia and to assess the degree to which such differences, if they exist, could adversely affect clinical and policy decision making. METHODS: Participants viewed videotaped depictions of simulated patients with mild and moderate symptoms of schizophrenia, with and without a common adverse drug effect (pseudoparkinsonism), and then provided standard gamble and visual analog scale ratings of desirability of these states...
October 2000: Medical Care
B J de Leest, G A Golüke-Willemse
Considering the high prevalence of parkinsonism in people over the age of 50 and the impact of this syndrome on the patients' lives, it is important that physicians dealing with elderly people are familiar with the difficult differential diagnosis of Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). The diagnosis of IPD is entirely clinical. For a diagnosis of parkinsonism, bradykinesia must be present, and at least one of the following signs, muscular rigidity, rest tremor or postural instability. The most common cause of parkinsonism is Parkinson's disease...
October 1998: Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie
J Fritze, I Spreda
There are no data available on the risk of extrapyramidal symptoms when using long-term flupenthixol in low dosage in patients suffering from anxiety and depressive disorders. In a case control study 106 patients essentially treated with the neuroleptic flupenthixol in a so-called low, non-antipsychotic dosage were compared to n=37 otherwise comparable patients who never had been treated with neuroleptics. The investigator was blind to the previous treatment conditions. Extrapyramidal symptoms were found although with a low prevalence and mild degree: 6...
November 1997: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
L C Holloman, S R Marder
The management of acute extrapyramidal effects (EPEs) induced by antipsychotic drugs is reviewed. EPEs associated with antipsychotics include acute dystonias, pseudoparkinsonism, and akathisia. Acute dystonias consist of abnormal muscle spasms and postures and usually occur three to five days after antipsychotic therapy begins or the dosage is increased. Acute dystonias should be treated with anticholinergic medications or benzodiazepines. Antipsychotic-induced pseudoparkinsonism has the same clinical appearance as idiopathic parkinsonism...
November 1, 1997: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
R S Lott, J M Kerrick, S A Cohen
Risperidone, in conjunction with behavioral interventions, was used to reduce aggression and assault, self-injury, and property destruction in 33 institutionalized adults with mental retardation. Target behavior frequencies, global assessments by staff, wages earned by patients, and the institution's costs for assault-related injury to staff and lost work time were evaluated before and after initiation of risperidone treatment. Risperidone (1-8 mg/day) was associated with a 50 percent or greater reduction in at least one target behavior frequency in 61 percent of patients...
1996: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
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