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abscopal effect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721900/triggering-the-abscopal-effect-is-the-quality-of-the-radiation-important
#1
Frederik J Vernimmen, Jill T Nicholson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686524/hunting-for-abscopal-and-bystander-effects-clinical-exploitation-of-non-targeted-effects-induced-by-partial-high-single-dose-irradiation-of-the-hypoxic-tumour-segment-in-oligometastatic-patients
#2
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680762/tumor-targeted-il-12-combined-with-local-irradiation-leads-to-systemic-tumor-control-via-abscopal-effects-in-vivo
#3
Franziska Eckert, Ivan Jelas, Moritz Oehme, Stephan M Huber, Katja Sonntag, Christian Welker, Stephen D Gillies, Wolfgang Strittmatter, Daniel Zips, Rupert Handgretinger, Karin Schilbach
NHS-IL12 is an immunocytokine, a fusion protein of IL12's functional domains and a necrosis-targeting antibody, which has shown significant effects against human rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts in a humanized tumor model, including terminal growth arrest and differentiation of the tumor cells. Here, we locally irradiated the tumors, increasing necrosis and consequently intratumoral immune cytokine availability, and asked whether this effect may surmount efficacy of single treatment modality. Humanized mice bearing bilateral rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts were evaluated for tumor burden and survival after irradiation, systemic NHS-IL12 therapy or a combination of both...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677658/abscopal-activation-of-microglia-in-embryonic-fish-brain-following-targeted-irradiation-with-heavy-ion-microbeam
#4
Takako Yasuda, Miyuki Kamahori, Kento Nagata, Tomomi Watanabe-Asaka, Michiyo Suzuki, Tomoo Funayama, Hiroshi Mitani, Shoji Oda
Microglia remove apoptotic cells by phagocytosis when the central nervous system is injured in vertebrates. Ionizing irradiation (IR) induces apoptosis and microglial activation in embryonic midbrain of medaka (Oryzias latipes), where apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is upregulated in the later phase of activation of microglia In this study, we found that another microglial marker, l-plastin (lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1), was upregulated at the initial phase of the IR-induced phagocytosis when activated microglia changed their morphology and increased motility to migrate...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674082/intratumoral-sting-activation-with-t-cell-checkpoint-modulation-generates-systemic-antitumor-immunity
#5
Casey R Ager, Matthew J Reilley, Courtney Nicholas, Todd Bartkowiak, Ashvin R Jaiswal, Michael A Curran
Coordinated manipulation of independent immune regulatory pathways in the tumor microenvironment - including blockade of T-cell checkpoint receptors and reversal of suppressive myeloid programs - can render aggressive cancers susceptible to immune rejection. Elevated toxicity associated with combination immunotherapy, however, prevents translation of the most efficacious regimens. We evaluated T-cell checkpoint modulating antibodies targeting CTLA-4, PD-1, and 4-1BB together with myeloid agonists targeting either STING or Flt3 in the TRAMP-C2 model of prostate cancer to determine whether low-dose intratumoral delivery of these agents could elicit systemic control of multi-focal disease...
July 3, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665741/a-rapid-and-systemic-complete-response-to-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-and-pembrolizumab-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#6
Guozhu Xie, Di Gu, Lanfang Zhang, Shijun Chen, Dehua Wu
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of local tumor would induce an abscopal effect that has been observed in several kinds of human cancers; one important mechanism may involve the improved activation of the host immune system. The immune checkpoint inhibitor can overcome immune tolerance and enhance the activation of antitumor T cells. The combined treatment of SBRT and checkpoint inhibitor may represent a new promising therapeutic approach. Herein, we reported a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with concurrent SBRT and anti-PD-1 antibody, pembrolizumab, by which the patient achieved an amazingly systemic complete response in only 2...
June 30, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650437/antigen-capturing-nanoparticles-improve-the-abscopal-effect-and-cancer-immunotherapy
#7
Yuanzeng Min, Kyle C Roche, Shaomin Tian, Michael J Eblan, Karen P McKinnon, Joseph M Caster, Shengjie Chai, Laura E Herring, Longzhen Zhang, Tian Zhang, Joseph M DeSimone, Joel E Tepper, Benjamin G Vincent, Jonathan S Serody, Andrew Z Wang
Immunotherapy holds tremendous promise for improving cancer treatment. To administer radiotherapy with immunotherapy has been shown to improve immune responses and can elicit the 'abscopal effect'. Unfortunately, response rates for this strategy remain low. Herein we report an improved cancer immunotherapy approach that utilizes antigen-capturing nanoparticles (AC-NPs). We engineered several AC-NP formulations and demonstrated that the set of protein antigens captured by each AC-NP formulation is dependent on the NP surface properties...
June 26, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621265/improving-radiotherapy-in-cancer-treatment-promises-and-challenges
#8
REVIEW
Helen H W Chen, Macus Tien Kuo
Effective radiotherapy for cancer has relied on the promise of maximally eradicating tumor cells while minimally killing normal cells. Technological advancement has provided state-of-the-art instrumentation that enables delivery of radiotherapy with great precision to tumor lesions with substantial reduced injury to normal tissues. Moreover, better understanding of radiobiology, particularly the mechanisms of radiation sensitivity and resistance in tumor lesions and toxicity in normal tissues, has improved the treatment efficacy of radiotherapy...
June 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598415/dna-exonuclease-trex1-regulates-radiotherapy-induced-tumour-immunogenicity
#9
Claire Vanpouille-Box, Amandine Alard, Molykutty J Aryankalayil, Yasmeen Sarfraz, Julie M Diamond, Robert J Schneider, Giorgio Inghirami, C Norman Coleman, Silvia C Formenti, Sandra Demaria
Radiotherapy is under investigation for its ability to enhance responses to immunotherapy. However, the mechanisms by which radiation induces anti-tumour T cells remain unclear. We show that the DNA exonuclease Trex1 is induced by radiation doses above 12-18 Gy in different cancer cells, and attenuates their immunogenicity by degrading DNA that accumulates in the cytosol upon radiation. Cytosolic DNA stimulates secretion of interferon-β by cancer cells following activation of the DNA sensor cGAS and its downstream effector STING...
June 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597025/abscopal-effect-of-local-irradiation-treatment-for-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#10
Yuri Hidaka, Takuya Takeichi, Yuichi Ishikawa, Mariko Kawamura, Masashi Akiyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592116/radionuclides-in-radiation-induced-bystander-effect-may-it-share-in-radionuclide-therapy
#11
M Widel
For many years in radiobiology and radiotherapy predominated the conviction that cellular DNA is the main target for ionizing radiation, however, the view has changed in the past 20 years. Nowadays, it is assumed that not only directed (targeted) radiation effect, but also an indirect (non-targeted) effect may contribute to the result of radiation treatment. Non-targeted effect is relatively well recognized after external beam irradiation in vitro and in vivo, and comprises such phenomena like radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), genomic instability, adaptive response and abscopal (out of field) effect...
June 8, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579522/thermal-ablation-and-immunomodulation-from-preclinical-experiments-to-clinical-trials
#12
H Takaki, F Cornelis, Y Kako, K Kobayashi, N Kamikonya, K Yamakado
Accumulating evidence has shown that thermal ablation can induce spontaneous distant tumor regression, which is also known as abscopal effect. Abscopal effect might depend upon the activation of antitumor immune response. However, such responses induced by thermal ablation had been thought to be usually weak and that they rarely induce distant tumor regression. Recently, results of several preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that thermal ablation can induce therapeutically effective systemic antitumor immune response if appropriate immunomodulators are combined...
June 1, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571827/effect-on-overall-survival-of-locoregional-treatment-in-a-cohort-of-de-novo-metastatic-prostate-cancer-patients-a-single-institution-retrospective-analysis-from-the-royal-marsden-hospital
#13
Diletta Bianchini, David Lorente, Pasquale Rescigno, Zafeiris Zafeiriou, Elena Psychopaida, Hazel O'Sullivan, Mervyn Alaras, Michael Kolinsky, Semini Sumanasuriya, Mariane Sousa Fontes, Joaquin Mateo, Raquel Perez Lopez, Nina Tunariu, Nikolaos Fotiadis, Pardeep Kumar, Alison Tree, Nicholas Van As, Vincent Khoo, Chris Parker, Rosalind Eeles, Alan Thompson, David Dearnaley, Johann S de Bono
BACKGROUND: The optimal management of the primary tumor in metastatic at diagnosis (M1) prostate cancer (PCa) patients is not yet established. We retrospectively evaluated the effect of locoregional treatment (LRT) on overall survival (OS) hypothesizing that this could improve outcome through better local disease control and the induction of an antitumor immune response (abscopal effect). PATIENTS AND METHODS: M1 at diagnosis PCa patients referred to the Prostate Targeted Therapy Group at the Royal Marsden between June 2003 and December 2013 were identified...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559824/microwave-ablation-and-immune-activation-in-the-treatment-of-recurrent-colorectal-lung-metastases-a-case-report
#14
Magnus Bäcklund, Jacob Freedman
We present a patient with colorectal metastases confined to the lungs and treated with multiple resections until this was not an option anymore, followed by stereotactic body radiation therapy until this option was drained. Then, the patient was successfully treated with multiple microwave ablations combined with immunological activation targeting the programmed cell death 1 receptor (PD-1), possibly instigating a powerful abscopal effect. Techniques, doses, and radiological findings are presented.
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550027/exceptional-response-to-nivolumab-and-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-sbrt-in-neuroendocrine-cervical-carcinoma-with-high-tumor-mutational-burden-management-considerations-from-the-center-for-personalized-cancer-therapy-at-uc-san-diego-moores-cancer-center
#15
Andrew Sharabi, Sangwoo Shawn Kim, Shumei Kato, Philip D Sanders, Sandip Pravin Patel, Parag Sanghvi, Elizabeth Weihe, Razelle Kurzrock
Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix is an ultra-rare malignancy with a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Checkpoint blockade immunotherapy has rapidly developed into an emerging standard of care for several common disease types. Interestingly, in preclinical and retrospective clinical data, radiation therapy has been demonstrated to synergize with checkpoint inhibitors. Here we report a patient with metastatic, chemotherapy-refractory neuroendocrine carcinoma who presented with partial bowel obstruction due to a large tumor burden...
June 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536278/immune-checkpoint-blockade-immunogenic-chemotherapy-or-ifn-%C3%AE-blockade-boost-the-local-and-abscopal-effects-of-oncolytic-virotherapy
#16
Laetitia Fend, Takahiro Yamazaki, Christelle Remy, Catherine Fahrner, Murielle Gantzer, Virginie Nourtier, Xavier Préville, Eric Quéméneur, Oliver Kepp, Julien Adam, Aurélien Marabelle, Jonathan M Pitt, Guido Kroemer, Laurence Zitvogel
Athough the clinical efficacy of oncolytic viruses has been demonstrated for local treatment, the ability to induce immune-mediated regression of distant metastases is still poorly documented. We report here that the engineered oncolytic vaccinia virus VVWR-TK(-)RR(-)-Fcu1 can induce immunogenic cell death and generate a systemic immune response. Effects on tumor growth and survival was largely driven by CD8(+) T cells, and immune cell infiltrate in the tumor could be reprogrammed towards a higher ratio of effector T cells to regulatory CD4(+) T cells...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533222/fractionated-radiation-therapy-stimulates-anti-tumor-immunity-mediated-by-both-resident-and-infiltrating-polyclonal-t-cell-populations-when-combined-with-pd1-blockade
#17
Simon J Dovedi, Eleanor J Cheadle, Amy Popple, Edmund Poon, Michelle Morrow, Ross Stewart, Erik Yusko, Catherine Sanders, Marissa Vignali, Ryan Emerson, Harlan Robins, Robert W Wilkinson, Jamie Honeychurch, Timothy Illidge
Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) is a highly effective anti-cancer treatment forming part of the standard of care for the majority of patients, but local and distal disease recurrence remains a major cause of mortality. RT is known to enhance tumor immunogenicity; however, the contribution and mechanisms of RT induced immune responses are unknown. <p>Experimental Design: The impact of low-dose fractionated RT (5 x 2 Gy) alone and in combination with αPD-1 mAb on the tumor microenvironment was evaluated by flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the T-cell receptor (TCR)-repertoire...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522277/-immunotherapy-and-radiotherapy
#18
REVIEW
S Bockel, D Antoni, É Deutsch, F Mornex
Radiotherapy, primarily known for its cytotoxic effect on the tumor cells, via the induction of DNA damages, has the ability to induce a systemic antitumoral response. By an immunologic cell death, tumor cells exposed to radiation release a large amount of neoantigenes and pro-inflammatory mediators, acting as an in situ vaccine, resulting in an tumor regression within the primary irradiated site, but also in the distant "out of field" secondary tumors. However, this phenomenon is extremly rare with radiotherapy alone, suggesting that the radiation-induced antitumor immunity is not sufficient for overcoming the tumor's and its microenvironnement immunosuppressing effect...
May 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512270/abscopal-effect-propitious-or-pernicious
#19
Sachin C Sarode, Nikunj Maniyar, Gargi S Sarode, Shankargouda Patil
Recent advances in the field of radiation biology have increased our knowledge of cellular responses to radiation and microenvironmental disseminations through radiation at molecular level.
May 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501459/-cancer-radiotherapy-and-immune-system
#20
REVIEW
J P Nesseler, D Peiffert, G Vogin, P Nickers
Novel paradigms emerge in oncology today. Systemic treatments are more effective and diversified along with an increased life expectancy in oligometastatic patients. Stereotactic radiotherapy using hypofractionation opens new perspectives for local tumour control. The area of radiobiology has expanded with integration of tumour microenvironment in which radiation-induced inflammation mediators and immune system play a major role. Immunity checkpoints inhibitors experience a major development. This rapidly evolving field seems involved in the abscopal effects, especially when radiation is combined with checkpoints inhibitors, as demonstrated in numerous preclinical studies and several clinical trials...
June 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
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