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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156761/extracts-from-hericium-erinaceus-relieve-inflammatory-bowel-disease-by-regulating-immunity-and-gut-microbiota
#1
Chen Diling, Yang Xin, Zheng Chaoqun, Yang Jian, Tang Xiaocui, Chen Jun, Shuai Ou, Xie Yizhen
Hericium erinaceus (HE), a traditional edible mushroom, is known as a medicine food homology to ameliorate gastrointestinal diseases. To investigate whether HE is clinically effective in alleviating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), HE extracts (polysaccharide, alcoholic extracts and whole extracts were prepared using solvent extraction methods) were administrated for 2 weeks in rats with IBD induced by trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema (150 mg/kg). Significant clinical and histological changes in IBD rats were identified, including damage activity, common morphous and tissue damage index scores in colonic mucosa and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156755/escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-engineered-to-express-tum-5-can-restrain-murine-melanoma-growth
#2
Lian He, Huijun Yang, Fei Liu, Yiyan Chen, Sijia Tang, Wei Ji, Jianli Tang, Zhudong Liu, Yunjun Sun, Shengbiao Hu, Youming Zhang, Xiong Liu, Weitao Huang, Xuezhi Ding, Liqiu Xia
Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis. Thus, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis has become promising cancer therapeutic strategy in recent years. Tumstatin is a more powerful angiogenesis inhibitor than endostatin. Anti-angiogenic active fragment encoding amino acids 45-132 (Tum-5) of tumstatin was subcloned into four different inducible expression vectors and successfully solubly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) in this study. Subsequently, an anaerobic inducible expression vector was constructed under Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene promoter Pvhb in E...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156741/screening-epitopes-on-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-autoantigens-with-a-peptide-array
#3
Lin Wang, Chenjun Hao, Yongqiu Deng, Yanbo Liu, Shiliang Hu, Yangang Peng, Manna He, Jinhu Fu, Ming Liu, Jia Chen, Xiaoming Chen
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common autoimmune disease. Many autoantibodies are closely associated with SLE. However, the specific epitopes recognized and bound by these autoantibodies are still unclear. This study screened the binding epitopes of SLE-related autoantibodies using a high-throughput screening method. Epitope prediction on 12 SLE-related autoantigens was performed using the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) software. The predicted epitopes were synthesized into peptides and developed into a peptide array...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156566/cgas-sting-pathway-in-cancer-jekyll-and-hyde-story-of-cancer-immune-response
#4
REVIEW
Debojit Bose
The last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the field of cancer immunity. Mechanistic insights of cancer immunoediting have not only enhanced our understanding but also paved the way to target and/or harness the innate immune system to combat cancer, called cancer immunotherapy. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)/Stimulator of interferon genes(STING) pathway has recently emerged as nodal player in cancer immunity and is currently being explored as potential therapeutic target. Although therapeutic activation of this pathway has shown promising anti-tumor effects in vivo, evidence also indicates the role of this pathway in inflammation mediated carcinogenesis...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156562/biodegradable-chitosan-decreases-the-immune-response-to-trichinella-spiralis-in-mice
#5
Klaudia Brodaczewska, Natalia Wolaniuk, Katarzyna Lewandowska, Katarzyna Donskow-Łysoniewska, Maria Doligalska
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of chitosan units released during natural degradation of the polymer to activate the immune system against T. spiralis infection. High molecular weight chitosan was injected intraperitoneally into C57BL/6 mice. Flow cytometry and cytokine concentration, measured by ELISA, were used to characterize peritoneal cell populations during T. spiralis infection. The strong chemo-attractive properties of chitosan caused considerable infiltration into the peritoneal cavity of CD11b⁺ cells, with reduced expression of MHC class II, CD80, CD86, Dectin-1 or CD23 receptors in comparison to T...
November 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156533/serotonin-induces-peripheral-antinociception-via-the-opioidergic-system
#6
Danielle Aguiar Diniz, Júlia Alvarenga Petrocchi, Larissa Caldeira Navarro, Tâmara Cristina Souza, Marina Gomes Miranda E Castor, Igor Dimitri Gama Duarte, Thiago Roberto Lima Romero
PURPOSE: Studies conducted since 1969 have shown that the release of serotonin (5-HT) in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord contributes to opioid analgesia. In the present study, the participation of the opioidergic system in antinociceptive effect serotonin at the peripheral level was examined. METHODS: The paw pressure test was used with mice (Swiss, males from 35 g) which had increased pain sensitivity by intraplantar injection of PGE2 (2 μg). Serotonin (250 ng), administered locally to the right paw of animals, produces antinociception in this model...
November 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156530/microrna-373-facilitates-hsv-1-replication-through-suppression-of-type-i-ifn-response-by-targeting-irf1
#7
Yiting Xie, Songlin He, Jinhua Wang
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) had led to kinds of clinical disorders and became an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, such as herpetic gingivostomatitis in children. Previous studies reported that HSV-1 infection is common and has evolved a variety of mechanisms to evade the immune system, such as dysregulation of miRNAs. However, reports concerning the role of miRNA in HSV-1infection are limited. Here, we report that a host microRNA, miR-373, was significantly upregulated by HSV-1 infection in Hela cells and patients with herpetic gingivostomatitis and it facilitated HSV-1 replication in vitro...
November 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156526/combined-use-of-insoluble-%C3%AE-glucan-from-the-cell-wall-of-candida-albicans-and-cyclophosphamide-validation-in-s180-tumor-bearing-mice
#8
Yan Qi, Xin Hu, Jin Cui, Jing Chen, Qian Wu, Xiao Sun, Yan Shi
BACKGROUND: Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is a widely used antitumor drug that can suppress the immune system. The effects of regulating immune response and antitumor of β-glucan from the cell wall of Candida albicans (CAIBG) have been confirmed. However, the effects of the combined use of CAIBG and CTX remain unclear and warrant further investigation. METHODS: S180 tumor-bearing models were developed for CAIBG (100 mg/10 mL/kg) and CTX (30 mg/10 mL/kg) intervention...
November 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156318/how-host-metabolism-impacts-on-virus-pathogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Siva Karthik Varanasi, Barry T Rouse
The outcome of virus infections depends on multiple factors. This review deals with the role of host metabolism as one such factor. We describe how different cells in the immune system employ differential metabolic pathways and how this relates to the outcome of virus infections. We also discuss how nutritional and metabolic diseases can influence the nature of viral pathogenesis as well as how targeted therapies against metabolic processes can impact on the outcome of virus infections. The case is also made for metabolic profiling as a potential tool to predict the outcome of a virus infection and to guide therapies that enhance host resistance...
November 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156273/contribution-of-sun-exposure-to-the-vitamin-d-dose-received-by-various-groups-of-the-spanish-population
#10
Maria-Antonia Serrano
Although the harmful effects of excessive exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation are well known, the recommended dose of UV radiation is beneficial for the synthesis of vitamin D by the skin, in addition to being useful in the treatment of various illnesses and mental problems. Numerous studies have shown that vitamin D performs important functions in the human organism, such as absorbing calcium and phosphorous and contributing to the immune system, among others. Several studies have found that a high percentage of various groups of the Spanish population suffer from vitamin D deficiency, and since very few natural foods contain vitamin D, it was considered important to determine whether groups such as schoolchildren, outdoor workers and athletes, receive enough solar radiation to produce adequate levels of vitamin D in their daily activities...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155971/in-ovo-injection-of-ascorbic-acid-modulates-antioxidant-defense-system-and-immune-gene-expression-in-newly-hatched-local-chinese-yellow-broiler-chicks
#11
H K El-Senousey, B Chen, J Y Wang, A M Atta, F R Mohamed, Q H Nie
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo injection of ascorbic acid on antioxidant capacity and immune-related gene expression in the newly hatched local Chinese yellow broiler chicks. Fertile Chinese yellow broiler eggs (n = 90) were assigned to three equal groups. The first group was a non-injected control group. The second group was another control group where the eggs were injected with saline in the air sac after 18 days of incubation. The third group was injected with 3 mg/egg AA in the air sac after 18 days of incubation...
November 15, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155899/subtle-variation-within-conserved-effector-operon-gene-products-contributes-to-t6ss-mediated-killing-and-immunity
#12
Christopher J Alteri, Stephanie D Himpsl, Kevin Zhu, Haley L Hershey, Ninette Musili, Jessa E Miller, Harry L T Mobley
Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) function to deliver lethal payloads into target cells. Many studies have shown that protection against a single, lethal T6SS effector protein requires a cognate antidote immunity protein, both of which are often encoded together in a two-gene operon. The T6SS and an effector-immunity pair is sufficient for both killing and immunity. HereIn this paper we describe a T6SS effector operon that differs from conventional effector-immunity pairs in that eight genes are necessary for lethal effector function, yet can be countered by a single immunity protein...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155837/reduced-order-modeling-and-analysis-of-the-human-complement-system
#13
Adithya Sagar, Wei Dai, Mason Minot, Rachel LeCover, Jeffrey D Varner
Complement is an important pathway in innate immunity, inflammation, and many disease processes. However, despite its importance, there are few validated mathematical models of complement activation. In this study, we developed an ensemble of experimentally validated reduced order complement models. We combined ordinary differential equations with logical rules to produce a compact yet predictive model of complement activation. The model, which described the lectin and alternative pathways, was an order of magnitude smaller than comparable models in the literature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155769/a-simple-approach-to-induce-experimental-autoimmune-neuritis-in-c57bl-6-mice-for-functional-and-neuropathological-assessments
#14
David G Gonsalvez, Jessica L Fletcher, Sang Won Yoo, Rhiannon J Wood, Simon S Murray, Junhua Xiao
Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a well-appreciated experimental model of autoimmune peripheral demyelinating diseases. EAN disease is induced by immunizing mice with neurogenic peptides to direct an inflammatory attack toward components of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Recent advances have enabled the induction of EAN in the relatively resistant C57BL/6 mouse line using myelin protein zero (P0)106-125 or P0180-199 peptides delivered in adjuvant combined with the injection of pertussis toxin...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155731/the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans-a-versatile-in-vivo-model-to-study-host-microbe-interactions
#15
Luca Issi, Meredith Rioux, Reeta Rao
We demonstrate a method using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host to study microbial interaction. Microbes are introduced via the diet making the intestine the primary location for disease. The nematode intestine structurally and functionally mimics mammalian intestines and is transparent making it amenable to microscopic study of colonization. Here we show that pathogens can cause disease and death. We are able to identify microbial mutants that show altered virulence. Its conserved innate response to biotic stresses makes C...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155667/use-of-a-diagonal-approach-to-health-system-strengthening-and-measles-elimination-after-a-large-nationwide-outbreak-in-mongolia
#16
José E Hagan, Ashley Greiner, Ulzii-Orshikh Luvsansharav, Jason Lake, Christopher Lee, Roberta Pastore, Yoshihiro Takashima, Amarzaya Sarankhuu, Sodbayar Demberelsuren, Rachel Smith, Benjamin Park, James L Goodson
Measles is a highly transmissible infectious disease that causes serious illness and death worldwide. Efforts to eliminate measles through achieving high immunization coverage, well-performing surveillance systems, and rapid and effective outbreak response mechanisms while strategically engaging and strengthening health systems have been termed a diagonal approach. In March 2015, a large nationwide measles epidemic occurred in Mongolia, 1 year after verification of measles elimination in this country. A multidisciplinary team conducted an outbreak investigation that included a broad health system assessment, organized around the Global Health Security Agenda framework of Prevent-Detect-Respond, to provide recommendations for evidence-based interventions to interrupt the epidemic and strengthen the overall health system to prevent future outbreaks of measles and other epidemic-prone infectious threats...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155650/assessment-of-national-public-health-and-reference-laboratory-accra-ghana-within-framework-of-global-health-security
#17
Adaeze Ogee-Nwankwo, David Opare, Gifty Boateng, Mawuli Nyaku, Lia M Haynes, S Arunmozhi Balajee, Laura Conklin, Joseph P Icenogle, Paul A Rota, Diane Waku-Kouomou
The Second Year of Life project of the Global Health Security Agenda aims to improve immunization systems and strengthen measles and rubella surveillance, including building laboratory capacity. A new laboratory assessment tool was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to assess the national laboratory in Ghana to improve molecular surveillance for measles and rubella. Results for the tool showed that the laboratory is well organized, has a good capacity for handling specimens, has a good biosafety system, and is proficient for diagnosis of measles and rubella by serologic analysis...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155516/association-of-il-12bpro-polymorphism-with-tumor-infiltrating-dendritic-cells-in-colorectal-cancer
#18
Elina Aleksandrova, Tatyana Vlaykova, Julian Ananiev, Maya Gulubova
PURPOSE: Chronic inflammation is a key component in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). A notable hallmark of the inflammation process is the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by infiltrating cells of the immune system. Defects in dendritic cells (DCs) recruitment, maturation and cytokine release are a hallmark of the CRC strategy to escape immune surveillance.The purpose of our study was to evaluate the possible role of IL-12B polymorphism in the promoter region of the IL-12B gene (rs17860508) as a genetic factor contributing to the risk for CRC development...
July 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155372/gut-feeling-researchers-are-discovering-a-link-between-depression-and-gut-bacteria
#19
Mary Bates
The human gut is home to an abundant and diverse community of microbes–each of us carries roughly 100 trillion, representing more than 1,000 different species. The composition of one?s gut microbiota is individually specific, dynamic, and influenced by genetics, diet, age, metabolism, medication use, stress, and geography. These bacteria perform a range of necessary and beneficial functions, including breaking down our food and supporting our immune systems.
November 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155285/parasite-infection-of-specific-host-genotypes-relates-to-changes-in-prevalence-in-two-natural-populations-of-bumblebees
#20
Oliver Manlik, Regula Schmid-Hempel, Paul Schmid-Hempel
The antagonistic relationship between parasites and their hosts is strongly influenced by genotype-by-genotype interactions. Defense against parasitism is commonly studied in the context of immune system-based mechanisms and, thus, the focus in the search for candidate genes in host-parasite interactions is often on immune genes. In this study, we investigated the association between prevalence of parasite infection and host mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes in two natural populations of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris)...
November 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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