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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551734/alopecia-areata-an-update-on-treatment-options-for-children
#1
REVIEW
Lauren Peloquin, Leslie Castelo-Soccio
Pediatric alopecia areata is a spectrum of autoimmune non-scarring alopecia in which some patients lose small patches of hair from their scalp but others lose more or all of the hair from the scalp and body, including eyebrows and eyelashes. Few studies have looked at therapies for this disorder in children, so much of the data are derived from adult literature and describe off-label use of medication. Generally, topical therapies consisting of topical steroids and topical irritating compounds/contact sensitizers are used...
May 27, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551671/sarcoidosis-under-dendritic-cell-vaccination-immunotherapy-in-long-term-responding-patients-with-metastatic-melanoma
#2
Ugur Uslu, Michael Erdmann, Stefan Schliep, Jan Dörrie, Niels Schaft, Gerold Schuler, Beatrice Schuler-Thurner
Sarcoidosis, a chronic inflammatory disorder, results from increased immune responses. Its development can be triggered in patients under immunotherapy, as activation of the immune system in these patients is desired. Since 1997, 249 patients with metastasized cutaneous melanoma (stage III and IV, AJCC 2009) have been treated with dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines at our hospital. Three out of these patients were diagnosed with sarcoidosis after or during long-term DC vaccination therapy (1.20%). Metastatic disease was initially suspected based on the radiographic manifestation of lung masses or bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551585/lethal-and-sub-lethal-evaluation-of-indigo-carmine-dye-and-byproducts-after-tio2-photocatalysis-in-the-immune-system-of-eisenia-andrei-earthworms
#3
Patrícia Christina Genázio Pereira, Roberta Valoura Reimão, Thelma Pavesi, Enrico Mendes Saggioro, Josino Costa Moreira, Fábio Veríssimo Correia
The Indigo carmine (IC) dye has been widely used in textile industries, even though it has been considered toxic for rats, pigs and humans. Owing to its toxicity, wastes containing this compound should be treated to minimize or eliminate their toxic effects on the biota. As an alternative to wastewater treatment, advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) have been highlighted due to their high capacity to destruct organic molecules. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate Indigo Carmine toxicity to soil organisms using the earthworm Eisenia andrei as a model-organism and also verify the efficiency of AOP in reducing its toxicity to these organisms...
May 25, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551577/bioactive-growth-hormone-in-older-men-and-women-it-s-relationship-to-immune-markers-and-healthspan
#4
William J Kraemer, Mary J Kennett, Andrea M Mastro, Roger J McCarter, Connie J Rogers, William H DuPont, Shawn D Flanagan, William J Turbitt, Maren S Fragala, Emily M Post, Wesley C Hymer
OBJECTIVE: The consequences of age-related decline in the somatotropic axis of humans are complex and remain largely unresolved. We tested the hypothesis that hGH measurements of plasma by bioassay vs immunoassay from samples obtained from free-living, elderly individuals would reveal a dichotomy in GH activities that are correlated with the functional status of the donors, i.e. their healthspan. DESIGN: Forty-one men and women of advanced age (men: N=16, age, 80...
May 8, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551443/impact-of-perioperative-infection-on-cancer-specific-survival-after-nephrectomy-for-renal-cell-carcinoma
#5
Jacob E Tallman, Shane M Pearce, Kristine Kuchta, Brian T Helfand, Scott E Eggener
INTRODUCTION: Several case reports have documented rare spontaneous cancer regression following systemic infections. Immune-related targeted therapies are now available for many cancers, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We hypothesized perioperative infection following nephrectomy for RCC may impact long-term cancer-specific survival (CSS). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare claims data from 2004-2011...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551360/immunotherapeutic-properties-of-chemotherapy
#6
REVIEW
Carole Fournier, Thaiz Rivera Vargas, Tiffany Martin, Andréa Melis, Lionel Apetoh
Impressive remissions driven by immunological checkpoint blockade in cancer patients have prompted the scientific community to investigate afresh the crosstalk between cancer cells and the patient's immune system. Preclinical and clinical studies have highlighted that the anticancer efficacy of some conventional chemotherapeutics is based on their ability to restore anticancer immune responses. The current challenge is to understand and circumvent immune resistance mechanisms to chemo- and immunotherapies to design relevant immunotherapy and chemotherapy combinations...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551208/dualistic-immunomodulation-of-sub-chronic-microcystin-lr-exposure-on-the-innate-immune-defense-system-in-male-zebrafish
#7
Wang Lin, Jie Hou, Honghui Guo, Yuming Qiu, Li Li, Dapeng Li, Rong Tang
Microcystins (MCs), produced by toxic cyanobacterial blooms that appeared world wildly in eutrophication waters, have often caused fish illness and even massive death cases. Among at least 90 structural variants, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most common and toxic variant. In order to better understand innate immune responses in fish disrupted by environmental concentrations of MC-LR, male zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 1, 3, 10 and 30 μg/L MC-LR for 30 d, and the changes in splenic pathology and immunological gene expression as well as serum immune parameters were studied...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551095/an-in-depth-analysis-identifies-two-new-independent-signals-in-11q23-3-associated-with-vitiligo-in-the-chinese-han-population
#8
Suli Zhao, Fang Fang, Xianfa Tang, Jinfa Dou, Wenjun Wang, Xiaodong Zheng, Liangdan Sun, Anping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease, characterized by progressive loss of skin pigmentation, which is caused by the interactions of multiple factors, such as heredity, immunity and environment. Recently, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs638893 at 11q23.3 region was identified as a risk factor for vitiligo in genome-wide association studies and multiple SNPs in this region have been associated with other autoimmune diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify additional susceptibility variants associated with vitiligo at 11q23...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551078/effects-of-a-tissue-selective-estrogen-complex-on-b-lymphopoiesis-and-b-cell-function
#9
Jauquline Nordqvist, Angelina Bernardi, Ulrika Islander, Hans Carlsten
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: 17β-estradiol (E2) has major effects on the immune system. It induces thymic atrophy, inhibits both T and B lymphopoiesis and stimulates antibody production treatment with E2 has protective effects on the skeleton but is associated with negative side effects in reproductive organs. A tissue-selective estrogen complex (TSEC) comprise of estrogens combined with a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). TSEC therapy displays the bone-protective effects of estrogen, while the negative side effects on reproductive organs are blocked by the SERM...
May 16, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551005/electronic-health-record-use-in-an-affluent-region-in-india-findings-from-a-survey-of-chandigarh-hospitals
#10
Adam C Powell, Jasmine K Ludhar, Yuri Ostrovsky
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the electronic health record (EHR) systems in use in an affluent region of India in order to understand the state-of-the-art within the Indian market. METHODS: A survey on EHR features was created by combining an instrument developed by the Organisation for International Cooperation and Development and an instrument developed by an American team of researchers. An interviewer directly administered the survey to leaders from hospitals in greater Chandigarh which possessed electronic health information systems...
July 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550726/indices-of-stress-and-immune-function-in-arctic-barnacle-goslings-branta-leucopsis-were-impacted-by-social-isolation-but-not-a-contaminated-grazing-environment
#11
Margje E de Jong, Isabella B R Scheiber, Nico W van den Brink, Anna Braun, Kevin D Matson, Jan Komdeur, Maarten J J E Loonen
In many areas around the Arctic remains and spoil heaps of old mines can be found, which have been abandoned after their heydays. Runoff from tailings of these abandoned mines can directly contaminate the local environment with elevated concentrations of trace metals. Few studies have investigated the possible negative effects of contaminants on Arctic terrestrial animals that use these areas. Trace metals can accumulate in animals and this accumulation has been linked to negative effects on fitness. Both, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and/or the immune system have been named as possible underlying causes for these observations...
May 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550712/combined-immune-checkpoint-blockade-anti-pd-1-anti-ctla-4-evaluation-and-management-of-adverse-drug-reactions
#12
REVIEW
Jessica C Hassel, Lucie Heinzerling, Jens Aberle, Oliver Bähr, Thomas K Eigentler, Marc-Oliver Grimm, Victor Grünwald, Jan Leipe, Niels Reinmuth, Julia K Tietze, Jörg Trojan, Lisa Zimmer, Ralf Gutzmer
Combined immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) provides unprecedented efficacy gains in numerous cancer indications, with PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab plus CTLA-4 inhibitor ipilimumab in advanced melanoma as first-ever approved therapies for combined ICB. However, gains in efficacy must be balanced against a higher frequency and severity of adverse drug reactions (ADR). Because delays in diagnosis and management might result in symptom worsening and further complications, clinicians shall be well trained to identify ADR promptly and monitor patients adequately...
May 18, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550391/gut-liver-axis-cirrhosis-and-portal-hypertension-the-chicken-and-the-egg
#13
Juan P Arab, Rosa M Martin-Mateos, Vijay H Shah
The term gut-liver axis is used to highlight the close anatomical and functional relationship between the intestine and the liver. The intestine has a highly specialized epithelial membrane which regulates transport across the mucosa. Due to dysbiosis, impairment of the intestinal barrier and altered immunity status, bacterial products can reach the liver through the portal vein, where they are recognized by specific receptors, activate the immune system and lead to a proinflammatory response. Gut microbiota and bacterial translocation play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases, including alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and its complications, such as portal hypertension, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatic encephalopaty...
May 26, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550027/exceptional-response-to-nivolumab-and-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-sbrt-in-neuroendocrine-cervical-carcinoma-with-high-tumor-mutational-burden-management-considerations-from-the-center-for-personalized-cancer-therapy-at-uc-san-diego-moores-cancer-center
#14
Andrew Sharabi, Sangwoo Shawn Kim, Shumei Kato, Philip D Sanders, Sandip Pravin Patel, Parag Sanghvi, Elizabeth Weihe, Razelle Kurzrock
Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix is an ultra-rare malignancy with a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Checkpoint blockade immunotherapy has rapidly developed into an emerging standard of care for several common disease types. Interestingly, in preclinical and retrospective clinical data, radiation therapy has been demonstrated to synergize with checkpoint inhibitors. Here we report a patient with metastatic, chemotherapy-refractory neuroendocrine carcinoma who presented with partial bowel obstruction due to a large tumor burden...
May 26, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549970/distinct-patterns-of-cellular-immune-response-elicited-by-influenza-non-adjuvanted-and-as03-adjuvanted-monovalent-h1n1-pdm09-vaccine
#15
Sarah Giarola-Silva, Jordana G A Coelho-Dos-Reis, Marina Moraes Mourão, Ana Carolina Campi-Azevedo, Erick E Nakagaki Silva, Maria Luiza-Silva, Marina Angela Martins, Amanda Cardoso de Oliveira Silveira Cassette, Maurício Azevedo Batista, Vanessa Peruhype-Magalhães, Lis Ribeiro do Valle Antonelli, José Geraldo Leite Ribeiro, Silvana Maria Elói-Santos, Alexandre Vieira Machado, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Márcio Sobreira Silva Araújo
The study aimed at identifying biomarkers of immune response elicited by non-adjuvanted-(NAV) and adjuvanted-(AV) H1N1(pdm09) vaccines. The results showed that despite both vaccines elicited similar levels of anti-H1N1 antibodies at day30 after vaccination, higher reactivity was observed in AV at day180. While AV induced early changes in cell-surface molecules on monocytes, CD4(+), CD8(+) T-cells and B-cells, NAV triggered minor changes, starting later on at day3. Furthermore, AV induced a late and persistent increase in TLR gene expression after day3, except for tlr4, while NAV displayed earlier but transient tlr3/4/7/9 up-regulation...
May 23, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549917/dendritic-cell-derived-exosomes-elicit-tumor-regression-in-autochthonous-hepatocellular-carcinoma-mouse-models
#16
Zhen Lu, Bingfeng Zuo, Renwei Jing, Xianjun Gao, Quan Rao, Zhili Liu, Han Qi, Hongxing Guo, HaiFang Yin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dendritic cell (DC)-derived exosomes (DEXs) form a new class of vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. However their potency in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a life-threatening malignancy with limited treatment options in the clinic and responds poorly to immunotherapy, remains to be investigated. METHODS: Exosomes derived from α-fetoprotein (AFP) - expressing DCs (DEXAFP) were investigated in three different HCC mouse models systemically and tumor growth and microenvironment were monitored...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549766/plasticity-of-immune-system-vs-memory-therapy-ist
#17
A Tammaro, I Romano, F Persechino, F R Parisella, I Trimarchi, S Persechino
BACKGROUND: Pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy are the main treatments for allergic diseases to inhalants. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates whether to repeat short cycles of immunotherapy after 3 or 5 years the from interruption of the first therapeutic cycle, lasting 3-4 years, to maintain immune memory in individuals subjected to IST. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have compared two groups, one of 452 patients who, after the first treatment for 3-4 years of IST, performed a cycle of four months after three and 10 years from the suspension, and a second group of 126 individuals who have performed only the IST treatment for 3-4 years...
May 23, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549714/the-enigmatic-role-of-viruses-in-multiple-sclerosis-molecular-mimicry-or-disturbed-immune-surveillance
#18
REVIEW
Jens Geginat, Moira Paroni, Massimiliano Pagani, Daniela Galimberti, Raffaele De Francesco, Elio Scarpini, Sergio Abrignani
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a T cell driven autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Despite its association with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), how viral infections promote MS remains unclear. However, there is increasing evidence that the CNS is continuously surveyed by virus-specific T cells, which protect against reactivating neurotropic viruses. Here, we discuss how viral infections could lead to the breakdown of self-tolerance in genetically predisposed individuals, and how the reactivations of viruses in the CNS could induce the recruitment of both autoaggressive and virus-specific T cell subsets, causing relapses and progressive disability...
May 23, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549691/27-hydroxycholesterol-upregulates-the-production-of-heat-shock-protein-60-of-monocytic-cells
#19
Bo-Young Kim, Yonghae Son, Jeongyoon Choi, Seong-Kug Eo, Young Chul Park, Koanhoi Kim
Investigating differentially expressed proteins in a milieu rich in cholesterol oxidation products, we found via mass spectrometry-based proteomics that surface levels of heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) were upregulated on monocytic cells in the presence of 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHChol). The elevated levels of cytoplasmic membrane HSP60 were verified via Western blot analysis and visualized by confocal microscopy. Treatment with 27OHChol also resulted in increased levels of cellular HSP60 without altering its transcription...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549569/trpm-channels-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-against-pro-inflammatory-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Susanna Zierler, Sarah Hampe, Wiebke Nadolni
The immune system protects our body against foreign pathogens. However, if it overshoots or turns against itself, pro-inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, or diabetes develop. Ions, the most basic signaling molecules, shape intracellular signaling cascades resulting in immune cell activation and subsequent immune responses. Mutations in ion channels required for calcium signaling result in human immunodeficiencies and highlight those ion channels as valued targets for therapies against pro-inflammatory diseases...
May 3, 2017: Cell Calcium
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