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Immune system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944998/enhanced-immune-response-induced-by-p5-her2-neu-derived-peptide-pulsed-dendritic-cells-as-a-preventive-cancer-vaccine
#1
Zahra Gholizadeh, Jalil Tavakkol-Afshari, Amin Reza Nikpoor, Seyed Amir Jalali, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari
Dendritic cells are special and powerful antigen-presenting cells that can induce primary immune responses against tumour-associated antigens. They can present antigens via both MHC-I and MHC-II, so they have the ability to stimulate both cytotoxic T lymphocytes and T helper cells. Furthermore, CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes require activation by CD4(+) T cells. This requires a CD4(+) T cell activator molecule, of which PADRE is one of the best. We chose an approach to use both of these important arms of the immune system...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944895/comparison-of-morphology-phenotypes-and-function-between-cultured-human-il%C3%A2-4%C3%A2-dc-and-ifn%C3%A2-dc
#2
Zhiliang Jin, Jing Fan, Yajuan Zhang, Yongxiang Yi, Lili Wang, Dandan Yin, Tao Deng, Wei Ye
Dendritic cells (DCs) as professional antigen presenting cells, are important in the initiation of the primary immune response. The present study compared the morphology, phenotypes and function between monocyte‑derived human DCs produced from a conventional culturing system containing granulocyte‑macrophage colony‑stimulating factor (GM‑CSF) and IL‑4 (IL‑4‑DC) and DCs generated by the stimulation of GM‑CSF and interferon (IFN)‑α (IFN‑DC). When compared with IL‑4‑DC in morphology, IFN‑DC contained more organelles, including endoplasmic reticulum and myelin figures, whereas mature (m)IL‑4‑DC contained more vacuoles in the cells...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944843/microarray-and-bioinformatics-analyses-of-gene-expression-profiles-in-balb-c-murine-macrophage-polarization
#3
Li Jiang, Xueqin Li, Yingying Zhang, Mengying Zhang, Zongsheng Tang, Kun Lv
Macrophages possess the hallmark feature of plasticity, allowing them to undergo a dynamic transition between M1 and M2 polarized phenotypes. The aim of the present study was to screen for differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) that were associated with BALB/c murine macrophage polarization. The transcription profiles of three M1 and three M2 samples were obtained using microarray analysis. Based on the threshold of fold‑change >2.0 and P‑value <0.05, a total of 1,253 DEGs were identified, of which 696 were upregulated and 557 downregulated in M1 macrophages compared with M2 macrophages...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944829/thymic-function-in-the-regulation-of-t-cells-and-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-modulation-of-cytokines-and-stress-signaling-review
#4
Fenggen Yan, Xiumei Mo, Junfeng Liu, Siqi Ye, Xing Zeng, Dacan Chen
The thymus is critical in establishing and maintaining the appropriate microenvironment for promoting the development and selection of T cells. The function and structure of the thymus gland has been extensively studied, particularly as the thymus serves an important physiological role in the lymphatic system. Numerous studies have investigated the morphological features of thymic involution. Recently, research attention has increasingly been focused on thymic proteins as targets for drug intervention. Omics approaches have yielded novel insights into the thymus and possible drug targets...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944823/integrated-strategy-of-differentially-expressed-genes-associated-with-ulcerative-colitis
#5
Juerong Feng, Qian Gao, Qing Liu, Fan Wang, Xue Lin, Qiu Zhao, Jing Liu, Jin Li
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that is associated with both genetic and environmental factors; however, the underlying pathogenesis of UC remains unclear. The present study aimed to further explore 12 microarray datasets from patients with UC obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus repository, for potential genetic pathogenesis of UC through a global bioinformatics view, which included identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), functional enrichments, protein‑protein interactions, transcriptional and post‑transcriptional regulation and drug‑gene associations...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944562/autoantibodies-against-aldehyde-modified-collagen-type-iv-are-associated-with-risk-of-development-of-myocardial-infarction
#6
J Vallejo, P Dunér, G N Fredrikson, J Nilsson, E Bengtsson
BACKGROUND: Oxidation of LDL particles entrapped in the extracellular matrix of the arterial wall is a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Lipid oxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), react with surrounding extracellular matrix proteins and cause modifications that are recognized by the immune system. MDA modification of collagen type IV is increased in carotid lesions from symptomatic patients and correlates with autoantibodies against MDA-modified collagen type IV in plasma...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944558/imaging-the-neuroimmune-response-to-alcohol-exposure-in-adolescent-baboons-a-tspo-pet-study-using-18-f-dpa-714
#7
Wadad Saba, Sébastien Goutal, Sylvain Auvity, Bertrand Kuhnast, Christine Coulon, Virginie Kouyoumdjian, Irène Buvat, Claire Leroy, Nicolas Tournier
The effects of acute alcohol exposure to the central nervous system are hypothesized to involve the innate immune system. The neuroimmune response to an initial and acute alcohol exposure was investigated using translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) PET imaging, a non-invasive marker of glial activation, in adolescent baboons. Three different alcohol-naive adolescent baboons (3-4 years old, 9 to 14 kg) underwent (18) F-DPA-714 PET experiments before, during and 7-12 months after this initial alcohol exposure (0...
September 25, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944502/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-non-hiv-immunosuppressed-patients
#8
REVIEW
Hirohiko Sueki, Yoshiko Mizukawa, Yumi Aoyama
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) represents a clinical phenomenon of immune-mediated inflammation against various antigens, including pathogenic microorganisms, drugs and unknown autoantigens, during recovery from immunosuppressed conditions. IRIS has become well recognized in HIV-infected populations. However, IRIS has seldom been recognized in HIV-negative immunocompromised patients. In the last 15 years, the immunopathogenesis of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) has been largely determined...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944314/ligand-activation-of-the-ah-receptor-contributes-to-gastrointestinal-homeostasis
#9
Iain A Murray, Gary H Perdew
The Ah receptor (AHR) is capable of binding a structurally diverse group of compounds that can be found in the diet, produced by bacteria in the gut and through endogenous metabolism. The gastrointestinal tract is a rich source of AHR ligands, which have been shown to protect the gut upon challenge with either pathogenic bacteria or toxic chemicals. The human AHR can be activated by a broader range of ligands compared to the mouse AHR, suggesting that studies in mice may underestimate the impact of AHR ligands in the human gut...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944167/regulation-of-cytotoxic-t-cell-responses-by-p53-in-cancer
#10
Mitchell W Braun, Tomoo Iwakuma
An intriguing aspect of the tumor suppressor p53 is its ability to communicate to the adaptive immune system and control the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response to cancer cells. Wild-type p53 (wtp53) communicates with CTLs through proteins involved in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation pathway [e.g., transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP1) and endoplasmic reticulum amino peptidase 1 (ERAP1)], the apoptosis signal receptor Fas/APO-1, and the inhibitory immune-checkpoint programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)...
December 2016: Translational Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944105/tumor-immunology-viewed-from-alternative-animal-models-the-xenopus-story
#11
Maureen Banach, Jacques Robert
A PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonmammalian comparative animal models are important not only to gain fundamental evolutionary understanding of the complex interactions of tumors with the immune system, but also to better predict the applicability of novel immunotherapeutic approaches to humans. After reviewing recent advances in developing alternative models, we focus on the amphibian Xenopus laevis and its usefulness in deciphering the perplexing roles of MHC class I-like molecules and innate (i)T cells in tumor immunity...
March 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944078/a-pore-forming-protein-implements-vlr-activated-complement-cytotoxicity-in-lamprey
#12
Fenfang Wu, Bo Feng, Yong Ren, Di Wu, Yue Chen, Shengfeng Huang, Shangwu Chen, Anlong Xu
Lamprey is a basal vertebrate with a unique adaptive immune system, which uses variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) for antigen recognition. Our previous study has shown that lamprey possessed a distinctive complement pathway activated by VLR. In this study, we identified a natterin family member-lamprey pore-forming protein (LPFP) with a jacalin-like lectin domain and an aerolysin-like pore-forming domain. LPFP had a high affinity with mannan and could form oligomer in the presence of mannan. LPFP could deposit on the surface of target cells, form pore-like complex resembling a wheel with hub and spokes, and mediate powerful cytotoxicity on target cells...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944007/the-other-white-nose-syndrome-transcriptome-tolerant-and-susceptible-hosts-respond-differently-to-the-pathogen-pseudogymnoascus-destructans
#13
Christina M Davy, Michael E Donaldson, Craig K R Willis, Barry J Saville, Liam P McGuire, Heather Mayberry, Alana Wilcox, Gudrun Wibbelt, Vikram Misra, Trent Bollinger, Christopher J Kyle
Mitigation of emerging infectious diseases that threaten global biodiversity requires an understanding of critical host and pathogen responses to infection. For multihost pathogens where pathogen virulence or host susceptibility is variable, host-pathogen interactions in tolerant species may identify potential avenues for adaptive evolution in recently exposed, susceptible hosts. For example, the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans causes white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating bats and is responsible for catastrophic declines in some species in North America, where it was recently introduced...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943993/effectiveness-of-a-glycylcycline-antibiotic-for-reducing-the-pathogenicity-of-superantigen-producing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-burn-wounds
#14
Lauren B Nosanov, Daniel Y Jo, Pranay R Randad, Lauren T Moffatt, Bonnie C Carney, Rachel T Ortiz, Jeffrey W Shupp
Objective: Burn-injured patients are highly susceptible to infectious complications, which are often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Rates of antibiotic resistance have increased, and resistant species such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus provide additional challenges in the form of virulence factors. Proteins can disrupt local healing, leading to systemic immune disruption. To optimize outcomes, treatments that reduce pathogenicity must be identified. This study aims to compare a glycylcycline antibiotic-tigecycline-with clindamycin for effectiveness in treating superantigenic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in burn wounds...
2017: Eplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943872/in-silico-screening-of-the-human-gut-metaproteome-identifies-th17-promoting-peptides-encrypted-in-proteins-of-commensal-bacteria
#15
Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Marco A Moro-García, Aitor Blanco-Míguez, Florentino Fdez-Riverola, Anália Lourenço, Rebeca Alonso-Arias, Borja Sánchez
Scientific studies focused on the role of the human microbiome over human health have generated billions of gigabits of genetic information during the last decade. Nowadays integration of all this information in public databases and development of pipelines allowing us to biotechnologically exploit this information are urgently needed. Prediction of the potential bioactivity of the products encoded by the human gut microbiome, or metaproteome, is the first step for identifying proteins responsible for the molecular interaction between microorganisms and the immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943841/microglia-an-interface-between-the-loss-of-neuroplasticity-and-depression
#16
REVIEW
Gaurav Singhal, Bernhard T Baune
Depression has been widely accepted as a major psychiatric disease affecting nearly 350 million people worldwide. Research focus is now shifting from studying the extrinsic and social factors of depression to the underlying molecular causes. Microglial activity is shown to be associated with pathological conditions, such as psychological stress, pathological aging, and chronic infections. These are primary immune effector cells in the CNS and regulate the extensive dialogue between the nervous and the immune systems in response to different immunological, physiological, and psychological stressors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943450/pathological-features-of-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-identified-by-bile-proteomic-analysis
#17
C Rupp, K A Bode, Y Leopold, P Sauer, D N Gotthardt
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown origin. Previous bile proteomic analyses in patients with PSC have revealed changes in disease activity specific to malignant transformation. In this study, we established a reference bile duct-derived bile proteome for PSC that can be used to evaluate biliary pathophysiology. Samples were collected from patients with PSC or with choledocholithiasis (control) (n=6 each). Furthermore, patients with PSC-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and with CC without concomitant PSC were analyzed...
September 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943400/standardized-whole-blood-stimulation-improves-immunomonitoring-of-induced-immune-responses-in-multi-center-study
#18
Darragh Duffy, Vincent Rouilly, Cecile Braudeau, Véronique Corbière, Raouf Djebali, Marie-Noelle Ungeheuer, Regis Josien, Sam LaBrie, Olivier Lantz, Delphine Louis, Eva Martinez-Caceres, Francoise Mascart, Jose G Ruiz de Morales, Catherine Ottone, Lydia Redjah, Nina Salabert-Le Guen, Alain Savenay, Manfred Schmolz, Antoine Toubert, Matthew L Albert
Functional immune responses are increasingly important for clinical studies, providing in depth biomarker information to assess immunotherapy or vaccination. Incorporating functional immune assays into routine clinical practice has remained limited due to challenges in standardizing sample preparation. We recently described the use of a whole blood syringe-based system, TruCulture®, which permits point-of-care standardized immune stimulation. Here, we report on a multi-center clinical study in seven FOCIS Centers of Excellence to directly compare TruCulture to conventional PBMC methods...
September 21, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943328/o-acetylation-of-peptidoglycan-limits-helper-t-cell-priming-and-permits-staphylococcus-aureus-reinfection
#19
Marisel Sanchez, Stacey L Kolar, Sabrina Müller, Christopher N Reyes, Andrea J Wolf, Chihiro Ogawa, Rajat Singhania, Daniel D De Carvalho, Moshe Arditi, David M Underhill, Gislâine A Martins, George Y Liu
Humans do not usually develop effective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus reinfection. Using a murine model that mimics human infection, we show that lack of protective immunity to S. aureus systemic reinfection is associated with robust interleukin-10 (IL-10) production and impaired protective Th17 responses. In dendritic cell co-culture assays, priming with S. aureus promotes robust T cell proliferation, but limits Th cells polarization and production of IL-1β and other cytokines important for Th1 and Th17 differentiation...
September 20, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943294/nested-positive-feedback-loops-in-the-maintenance-of-major-depression-an-integration-and-extension-of-previous-models
#20
REVIEW
Ryan Smith, Anna Akozei, William D S Killgore, Richard D Lane
Several theories of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have previously been proposed, focusing largely on either a psychological (i.e., cognitive/affective), biological, or neural/computational level of description. These theories appeal to somewhat distinct bodies of work that have each highlighted separate factors as being of considerable potential importance to the maintenance of MDD. Such factors include a range of cognitive/attentional information-processing biases, a range of structural and functional brain abnormalities, and also dysregulation within the autonomic, endocrine, and immune systems...
September 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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