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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228390/altered-brain-morphology-after-focal-radiation-reveals-impact-of-off-target-effects-implications-for-white-matter-development-and-neurogenesis
#1
Kiran G Beera, Yu-Qing Li, Jun Dazai, James Stewart, Shannon Egan, Mashal Ahmed, C Shun Wong, David A Jaffray, Brian J Nieman
Background: Children with brain tumors treated with cranial radiation therapy (RT) often exhibit cognitive late effects, commonly associated with reduced white matter (WM) volume and decreased neurogenesis. The impact of radiation damage in particular regions or tissues on brain development as a whole has not been elucidated. Methods: We delivered whole-brain or focal radiation (8 Gy single dose) to infant mice. Focal treatments targeted white matter (anterior commissure), neuronal (olfactory bulbs), or neurogenic (subventricular zone) regions...
November 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228317/leukocyte-telomere-length-at-birth-and-during-the-early-life-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-following-in-utero-exposure-to-antiretrovirals
#2
Abhinav Ajaykumar, Hugo Soudeyns, Fatima Kakkar, Jason Brophy, Ari Bitnun, Ariane Alimenti, Arianne Y K Albert, Deborah M Money, Hélène C F Côté
Background: Maternal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) during pregnancy could impact the health of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children, as some antiretrovirals cross the placenta and can inhibit telomerase. Our objective was to compare HEU and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) leukocyte telomere length (LTL) at birth and in early life, and investigate any relationship with cART exposure. Methods: HEU and HUU children's blood LTL was compared cross-sectionally at birth, and during the first three years of life...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228213/contemporary-incidence-of-stroke-focal-infarct-and-or-haemorrhage-determined-by-neuroimaging-and-neurodevelopmental-disability-at-12-months-of-age-in-neonates-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-utilizing-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#3
Charlotte E Verrall, Karen Walker, Alison Loughran-Fowlds, Kristina Prelog, Robert Goetti, Christopher Troedson, Julian Ayer, Jonathan Egan, Robert Halliday, Yishay Orr, Gary F Sholler, Nadia Badawi, David S Winlaw
OBJECTIVES: When evaluated prospectively, acute brain injury is reported in up to 75% of neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), predominantly white matter injury rather than stroke. This study investigates the incidence of stroke (focal infarct and/or haemorrhage) detected by neuroimaging in contemporary clinical practice, whereby magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography routinely occurs in response to clinical events, comparing those undergoing the Norwood procedure with those undergoing other neonatal procedures involving CPB, and defines the relationship between stroke and neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) at 12 months of age...
December 8, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228160/effect-of-financial-incentives-on-breastfeeding-a-cluster-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Clare Relton, Mark Strong, Kate J Thomas, Barbara Whelan, Stephen J Walters, Julia Burrows, Elaine Scott, Petter Viksveen, Maxine Johnson, Helen Baston, Julia Fox-Rushby, Nana Anokye, Darren Umney, Mary J Renfrew
Importance: Although breastfeeding has a positive effect on an infant's health and development, the prevalence is low in many communities. The effect of financial incentives to improve breastfeeding prevalence is unknown. Objective: To assess the effect of an area-level financial incentive for breastfeeding on breastfeeding prevalence at 6 to 8 weeks post partum. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Nourishing Start for Health (NOSH) trial, a cluster randomized trial with 6 to 8 weeks follow-up, was conducted between April 1, 2015 and March 31, 2016, in 92 electoral ward areas in England with baseline breastfeeding prevalence at 6 to 8 weeks post partum less than 40%...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228154/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-human-placentae-at-term-and-preterm-delivery
#5
Alison G Paquette, Heather M Brockway, Nathan D Price, Louis J Muglia
Purpose: Preterm birth affects 1 out of every 10 infants in the United States, resulting in substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Currently, there are few predictive markers and few treatment options to prevent preterm birth. A healthy, functioning placenta is essential to positive pregnancy outcomes. Previous studies have suggested that placental pathology may play a role in preterm birth etiology. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that preterm placentae may exhibit unique transcriptomic signatures compared to term samples reflective of their abnormal biology leading to this adverse outcome...
December 4, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228047/stability-of-serum-ferritin-measured-by-immunoturbidimetric-assay-after-storage-at-80%C3%A2-c-for-several-years
#6
Anne-Sylvia Sacri, Daniela Ferreira, Babak Khoshnood, Laurent Gouya, Henrique Barros, Martin Chalumeau
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency (ID) may impair long-term neurological development when it occurs in young infants. In cohort studies, it is sometimes necessary to evaluate ID with sera kept frozen for several years. To assess ID, learned societies recommend measuring serum ferritin (SF) level combined with C-reactive protein level. The long-term stability of C-reactive protein in frozen samples is well established but not ferritin. METHODS: We measured SF level (immunoturbidimetric assay; in micrograms per liter) immediately after collection from 53 young adults recruited and followed-up in Porto, Portugal, from 2011 to 2013 (SF1), and then, in 2016 in two aliquots kept frozen at- 80°C for 3 to 5 years: one without (SF2A) and one with (SF2B) intermediate thawing in 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228009/prevalence-of-anemia-and-associated-factors-among-pregnant-women-in-southern-ethiopia-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#7
Meaza Lebso, Anchamo Anato, Eskindir Loha
BACKGROUND: Anemia is defined as a condition in which there is less than the normal hemoglobin (Hb) level in the body. During pregnancy; iron deficiency is associated with multiple adverse outcomes for both mother and infant. Most of the studies conducted in Ethiopia on anemia during pregnancy were conducted at institution level and associated factors are not well studied and documented. Independent factors like, food security status, dietary diversity and intestinal parasites infection were considered by only a few of them...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227902/china-s-great-leap-forward-an-estimate-of-total-and-additional-excess-male-birth-losses
#8
Victor Grech
INTRODUCTION: Stress reduces the male to female ratio at birth (M/T). China's Great Leap Forward (11/1957-1/1961) had disastrous consequences with a catastrophic national famine that lasted between 1959 and 1961. This resulted in a reduction in births and an additional male birth deficit. This study was carried out in order to estimate the total pregnancy losses and M/T, along with these value's perinatal mortality rates equivalents. METHODS: Estimated M/T and births for 1956-61 and for the aggregates of 1956-58 and 1959-61 were calculated...
December 8, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227900/exposures-to-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-and-birthweight-in-a-rural-urban-mother-child-cohort-in-tamil-nadu-india
#9
Kalpana Balakrishnan, Santu Ghosh, Gurusamy Thangavel, Sankar Sambandam, Krishnendu Mukhopadhyay, Naveen Puttaswamy, Arulselvan Sadasivam, Padmavathi Ramaswamy, Priscilla Johnson, Rajarajeswari Kuppuswamy, Durairaj Natesan, Uma Maheshwari, Amudha Natarajan, Gayathri Rajendran, Rengaraj Ramasami, Sathish Madhav, Saraswathy Manivannan, Srinivasan Nargunanadan, Srinivasan Natarajan, Sudhakar Saidam, Moumita Chakraborty, Lingeswari Balakrishnan, Vijayalakshmi Thanasekaraan
BACKGROUND: Exposure to PM2.5 (fine particulate matter <less than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter) related to ambient and household air pollution has been associated with low birthweight. Few of these studies, however, have been conducted in high exposure settings that are commonly encountered in low and middle income countries (LMICs). OBJECTIVES: We examined whether PM2.5 exposures during pregnancy were associated with birthweight in an integrated rural-urban, mother-child cohort in the state of Tamil Nadu, India...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227860/respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-brazilian-infants-ten-years-two-cohorts
#10
Elinara Wollmeister, Alfonso Eduardo Alvarez, Juliana Cristina Santiago Bastos, Fernando Augusto Lima Marson, José Dirceu Ribeiro, Emílio Carlos Elias Baracat, Clarice Weis Arns, Adriana Gut Lopes Riccetto
BACKGROUND: Each year, a considerable amount of children will experience at least one episode of acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB) during their first year of life. About 10% of them will be hospitalized, with significant physical and economic burdens. OBJECTIVES: To compare two cohorts of infants with AVB, from same region, in a ten-year interval, regarding epidemiologic factors and viral etiology. STUDY DESIGN: Cohorts: 142 (2004) and 172 (2014) infants at ages zero to 12 months; clinical diagnosis of AVB; medical care in hospital and genetic screening of nasopharyngeal secretion for respiratory viruses...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227711/diffuse-chorangiomatosis-as-a-cause-of-cardiomegaly-microangiopathic-hemolytic-anemia-and-thrombocytopenia-in-a-newborn
#11
Shreyas Arya, Vidit Bhargava, Joan Richardson, Hal K Hawkins
INTRODUCTION: The hallmark of diffuse chorangiomatosis is capillary dysvasculogenesis, diffusely involving the placenta. It can cause massive placental enlargement and may have adverse fetal effects. CASE REPORT: A 32 weeks gestation male infant was born via cesarean section and had a placenta weighing 900 g. There was diffuse vascular proliferation involving the stem villi and intermediate villi. Short Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) microarray analysis of the placenta showed no biparental mosaicism or loss of heterozygosity, ruling out placental mesenchymal dysplasia...
December 11, 2017: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227523/childhood-ingestions-of-environmental-toxins-what-are-the-risks
#12
Marissa Hauptman, Alan D Woolf
Infants and children are at higher risk than adolescents and adults for exposure to environmental toxins via ingestion for a number of reasons: their smaller size (and proportionately larger dose of ingested toxins), their closer proximity to the ground, dirt, and indoor dust, their boundless curiosity and oral exploratory behaviors, pica habits that may persist into school-age for children with autism or other developmental delays, their proportionately larger daily water and milk intake, and food preferences that differ markedly from adolescents and adults...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227466/morbidity-and-mortality-of-a-cohort-of-peruvian-hiv-infected-children-2003-2012
#13
Amira N Baker, Angela M Bayer, Rolando M Viani, Lenka Kolevic, Myung-Shin Sim, Jaime G Deville
BACKGROUND: Data on pediatric HIV in Peru is limited. The National Institute of Child Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño: INSN) cares for the most HIV-infected children under age 18 in the country. We describe the outcomes of children seen at INSN's HIV clinic over the 10 years when antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions became available in 2004. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of INSN HIV clinic patients between 2003-2012...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227427/is-late-onset-gram-negative-bloodstream-infection-associated-with-gastrointestinal-pathology-in-infants-hospitalized-in-neonatal-units
#14
Rupjani Banerjee, Joanna Wang, Mark Anthony
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227023/sex-linked-difference-in-blood-oxygen-saturation
#15
Sagi Levental, Elie Picard, Francis Mimouni, Leon Joseph, Tal Y Samuel, Reuben Bromiker, Dror Mandel, Nissim Arish, Shmuel Goldberg
BACKGROUND: It is not known whether SpO2 in healthy volunteers is affected by sex. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate whether there are differences in SpO2 between young healthy adult males and females and to evaluate whether the differences are already present at birth. METHODS: We studied 2 cohorts of patients. The first one consisted of young adult volunteers (105 males and 102 females). In these patients, SpO2 was measured as well as selected anthropometric variables (height, weight), vital signs (respiratory rate, pulse rate and body temperature), and obtained data on menstrual cycle phase of the female participants...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227001/antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-b-virus-during-second-pregnancies
#16
Yasuhiro Wakano, Tokio Sugiura, Takeshi Endo, Koichi Ito, Mitsuyoshi Suzuki, Hitoshi Tajiri, Yasuhito Tanaka, Shinji Saitoh
Mother-to-child transmission of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major concern for infected mothers, especially after their first child has become an HBV carrier despite immunoprophylaxis. Eight mothers whose first child had become an HBV carrier despite immunoprophylaxis were referred for antiviral therapy during the subsequent pregnancy. All pregnant women were seropositive for both the hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen. In the treatment group (three receiving lamivudine and two receiving tenofovir), mother-to-child transmission of the HBV was successfully prevented in all infants (5/5)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226974/acute-bronchiolitis-influence-of-viral-co-infection-in-infants-hospitalized-over-12-consecutive-epidemic-seasons
#17
Laura Petrarca, Raffaella Nenna, Antonella Frassanito, Alessandra Pierangeli, Salvatore Leonardi, Carolina Scagnolari, Guido Antonelli, Paola Papoff, Corrado Moretti, Fabio Midulla
Bronchiolitis is the first lower respiratory tract viral infection manifesting in infants younger than 12 months of age. Our aim was to evaluate clinical and serological differences in infants with bronchiolitis from a single or from multiple viruses. Our secondary aim was to investigate differences in recurrent wheezing episodes after 12-24-36 months of follow-up. We reviewed the clinical records for 486 full-term infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis with at least one virus detected in the nasopharyngeal aspirate...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226740/do-infants-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-diagnosed-with-urinary-tract-infection-need-a-routine-voiding-cystourethrogram
#18
Dustin D Flannery, Erik Brandsma, Judy Saslow, Amy B Mackley, David A Paul, Zubair H Aghai
OBJECTIVE: To determine if infants diagnosed with urinary tract infection (UTI) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) require a routine voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective data analysis from three centers for infants admitted to the NICU born between 2000 and 2013 and diagnosed with UTI. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-six infants from three centers were diagnosed with UTI during their hospitalization. Renal ultrasound (RUS) was performed in 115 infants (91...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226520/a-novel-homozygous-slc25a1-mutation-with-impaired-mitochondrial-complex-v-possible-phenotypic-expansion
#19
Idan Cohen, Orna Staretz-Chacham, Ohad Wormser, Yonatan Perez, Ann Saada, Rotem Kadir, Ohad S Birk
SLC25A1 mutations are associated with combined D,L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (DL- 2HGA; OMIM #615182), characterized by muscular hypotonia, severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction and intractable seizures. SLC25A1 encodes the mitochondrial citrate carrier (CIC), which mediates efflux of the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citrate and isocitrate in exchange for cytosolic malate. Only a single family with an SLC25A1 mutation has been described in which mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction was documented, specifically in complex IV...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226463/which-limb-is-it-responses-to-vibrotactile-stimulation-in-early-infancy
#20
Eszter Somogyi, Lisa Jacquey, Tobias Heed, Matej Hoffmann, Jeffrey J Lockman, Lionel Granjon, Jacqueline Fagard, J Kevin O'Regan
This study focuses on how the body schema develops during the first months of life, by investigating infants' motor responses to localized vibrotactile stimulation on their limbs. Vibrotactile stimulation was provided by small buzzers that were attached to the infants' four limbs one at a time. Four age groups were compared cross-sectionally (3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-month-olds). We show that before they actually reach for the buzzer, which, according to previous studies, occurs around 7-8 months of age, infants demonstrate emerging knowledge about their body's configuration by producing specific movement patterns associated with the stimulated body area...
December 11, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
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