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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035693/identification-of-a-u-zn-cu-responsive-global-regulatory-two-component-system-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#1
Dan M Park, K Wesley Overton, Megan J Liou, Yongqin Jiao
Despite the well-known toxicity of uranium (U) to bacteria, little is known about how cells sense and respond to U. The recent finding of a U-specific stress response in Caulobacter crescentus has provided a foundation for studying the mechanisms of U- perception in bacteria. To gain insight into this process, we used a forward genetic screen to identify the regulatory components governing expression of the urcA promoter (PurcA ) that is strongly induced by U. This approach unearthed a previously uncharacterized two-component system, named UzcRS, which is responsible for U-dependent activation of PurcA ...
December 30, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031282/tonb-dependent-heme-hemoglobin-utilization-by-caulobacter-crescentus-huta
#2
Heloise Balhesteros, Yan Shipelskiy, Noah Long, Aritri Majumdar, Benjamin B Katz, Naara M Santos, Laura Leaden, Salete M Newton, Marilis V Marques, Phillip E Klebba
: Siderophore nutrition tests with Caulobacter crescentus strain NA1000 revealed that it utilized a variety of ferric hydroxamate siderophores, including asperchromes, ferrichromes, ferrichrome A, malonichrome and ferric aerobactin, as well as hemin and hemoglobin. C. crescentus did not transport ferrioxamine B or ferric catecholates. Because it did not use ferric enterobactin, the catecholate aposiderophore was an effective agent for iron deprivation. We determined the kinetics and thermodynamics of [(59)Fe]-apoferrichrome and [(59)Fe]-citrate binding and transport by NA1000...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012062/a-synthetic-hybrid-promoter-for-xylose-regulated-control-of-gene-expression-in-saccharomyces-yeasts
#3
Ronald E Hector, Jeffrey A Mertens
Metabolism of non-glucose carbon sources is often highly regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. This level of regulation is lacking in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains engineered to metabolize xylose. To better control transcription in S. cerevisiae, the xylose-dependent, DNA-binding repressor (XylR) from Caulobacter crescentus was used to block transcription from synthetic promoters based on the constitutive Ashbya gossypii TEF promoter. The new hybrid promoters were repressed in the absence of xylose and showed up to a 25-fold increase in the presence of xylose...
December 23, 2016: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011580/replication-fork-passage-drives-asymmetric-dynamics-of-a-critical-nucleoid-associated-protein-in-caulobacter
#4
Rodrigo Arias-Cartin, Genevieve S Dobihal, Manuel Campos, Ivan V Surovtsev, Bradley Parry, Christine Jacobs-Wagner
In bacteria, chromosome dynamics and gene expression are modulated by nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs), but little is known about how NAP activity is coupled to cell cycle progression. Using genomic techniques, quantitative cell imaging, and mathematical modeling, our study in Caulobacter crescentus identifies a novel NAP (GapR) whose activity over the cell cycle is shaped by DNA replication. GapR activity is critical for cellular function, as loss of GapR causes severe, pleiotropic defects in growth, cell division, DNA replication, and chromosome segregation...
December 23, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008852/modularity-and-determinants-of-a-bi-polarization-control-system-from-free-living-and-obligate-intracellular-bacteria
#5
Matthieu Bergé, Sébastien Campagne, Johann Mignolet, Seamus Holden, Laurence Théraulaz, Suliana Manley, Frédéric H-T Allain, Patrick H Viollier
Although free-living and obligate intracellular bacteria are both polarized it is unclear whether the underlying polarization mechanisms and effector proteins are conserved. Here we dissect at the cytological, functional and structural level a conserved polarization module from the free living α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus and an orthologous system from an obligate intracellular (rickettsial) pathogen. The NMR solution structure of the zinc-finger (ZnR) domain from the bifunctional and bipolar ZitP pilus assembly/motility regulator revealed conserved interaction determinants for PopZ, a bipolar matrix protein that anchors the ParB centromere-binding protein and other regulatory factors at the poles...
December 23, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008851/functional-dichotomy-and-distinct-nanoscale-assemblies-of-a-cell-cycle-controlled-bipolar-zinc-finger-regulator
#6
Johann Mignolet, Seamus Holden, Matthieu Bergé, Gaël Panis, Ezgi Eroglu, Laurence Théraulaz, Suliana Manley, Patrick H Viollier
Protein polarization underlies differentiation in metazoans and in bacteria. How symmetric polarization can instate functional asymmetry remains elusive. Here, we show by super-resolution photo-activated localization microscopy and edgetic mutations that the bitopic zinc-finger protein ZitP implements specialized developmental functions - pilus biogenesis and multifactorial swarming motility - while shaping distinct nanoscale (bi)polar architectures in the asymmetric model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. Polar assemblage and accumulation of ZitP and its effector protein CpaM are orchestrated in time and space by conserved components of the cell cycle circuitry that coordinate polar morphogenesis with cell cycle progression, and also act on the master cell cycle regulator CtrA...
December 23, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998932/toxin-inhibition-in-c-crescentus-vapbc1-is-mediated-by-a-flexible-pseudo-palindromic-protein-motif-and-modulated-by-dna-binding
#7
Kirstine L Bendtsen, Kehan Xu, Majbritt Luckmann, Kristoffer S Winther, Shiraz A Shah, Christian N S Pedersen, Ditlev E Brodersen
Expression of bacterial type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems is regulated at the transcriptional level through direct binding of the antitoxin to pseudo-palindromic sequences on operator DNA. In this context, the toxin functions as a co-repressor by stimulating DNA binding through direct interaction with the antitoxin. Here, we determine crystal structures of the complete 90 kDa heterooctameric VapBC1 complex from Caulobacter crescentus CB15 both in isolation and bound to its cognate DNA operator sequence at 1...
December 19, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997543/cell-cycle-constraints-and-environmental-control-of-local-dna-hypomethylation-in-%C3%AE-proteobacteria
#8
Silvia Ardissone, Peter Redder, Giancarlo Russo, Antonio Frandi, Coralie Fumeaux, Andrea Patrignani, Ralph Schlapbach, Laurent Falquet, Patrick H Viollier
Heritable DNA methylation imprints are ubiquitous and underlie genetic variability from bacteria to humans. In microbial genomes, DNA methylation has been implicated in gene transcription, DNA replication and repair, nucleoid segregation, transposition and virulence of pathogenic strains. Despite the importance of local (hypo)methylation at specific loci, how and when these patterns are established during the cell cycle remains poorly characterized. Taking advantage of the small genomes and the synchronizability of α-proteobacteria, we discovered that conserved determinants of the cell cycle transcriptional circuitry establish specific hypomethylation patterns in the cell cycle model system Caulobacter crescentus...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941972/a-kinase-phosphatase-switch-transduces-environmental-information-into-a-bacterial-cell-cycle-circuit
#9
Kristina Heinrich, Patrick Sobetzko, Kristina Jonas
The bacterial cell cycle has been extensively studied under standard growth conditions. How it is modulated in response to environmental changes remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the freshwater bacterium Caulobacter crescentus blocks cell division and grows to filamentous cells in response to stress conditions affecting the cell membrane. Our data suggest that stress switches the membrane-bound cell cycle kinase CckA to its phosphatase mode, leading to the rapid dephosphorylation, inactivation and proteolysis of the master cell cycle regulator CtrA...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905486/biochemical-and-structural-analysis-of-a-novel-esterase-from-caulobacter-crescentus-related-to-penicillin-binding-protein-pbp
#10
Bum Han Ryu, Tri Duc Ngo, Wanki Yoo, Sojeong Lee, Boo-Young Kim, Euijoo Lee, Kyeong Kyu Kim, T Doohun Kim
Considering that the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria is largely increasing, a thorough understanding of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) is of great importance and crucial significance because this enzyme family is a main target of β-lactam-based antibiotics. In this work, combining biochemical and structural analysis, we present new findings that provide novel insights into PBPs. Here, a novel PBP homologue (CcEstA) from Caulobacter crescentus CB15 was characterized using native-PAGE, mass spectrometry, gel filtration, CD spectroscopy, fluorescence, reaction kinetics, and enzyme assays toward various substrates including nitrocefin...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893963/regulated-proteolysis-in-bacteria-caulobacter
#11
Kamal Kishore Joshi, Peter Chien
Protein degradation is essential for all living things. Bacteria use energy-dependent proteases to control protein destruction in a highly specific manner. Recognition of substrates is determined by the inherent specificity of the proteases and through adaptor proteins that alter the spectrum of substrates. In the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus, regulated protein degradation is required for stress responses, developmental transitions, and cell cycle progression. In this review, we describe recent progress in our understanding of the regulated and stress-responsive protein degradation pathways in Caulobacter...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893179/ctra-controls-cell-division-and-outer-membrane-composition-of-the-pathogen-brucella-abortus
#12
Nayla Francis, Katy Poncin, Antonella Fioravanti, Victoria Vassen, Kevin Willemart, Thi Anh Phuong Ong, Luca Rappez, Jean-Jacques Letesson, Emanuele G Biondi, Xavier De Bolle
Brucella abortus is a pathogen infecting cattle, able to survive, traffic and proliferate inside host cells. It belongs to the Alphaproteobacteria, a phylogenetic group comprising bacteria with free living, symbiotic and pathogenic lifestyles. An essential regulator of cell cycle progression named CtrA was described in the model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. This regulator is conserved in many alphaproteobacteria, but the evolution of its regulon remains elusive. Here we identified promoters that are CtrA targets using ChIP-seq and we found that CtrA binds to promoters of genes involved in cell cycle progression, in addition to numerous genes encoding outer membrane components involved in export of membrane proteins and synthesis of lipopolysaccharide...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812588/scaling-down-for-a-broader-understanding-of-underwater-adhesives-a-case-for-the-caulobacter-crescentus-holdfast
#13
REVIEW
Alex Nyarko, Hazel Barton, Ali Dhinojwala
The adhesion of two materials in the presence of water is greatly impeded by a boundary layer of water between the adhesive and the adherend, resulting in adhesive failure of most synthetic adhesives; however, life evolved first in water and there are many aquatic organisms that have to overcome this impediment to underwater adhesion. For example, multicellular aquatic organisms like the mussel, sandcastle worm and the caddisfly larva employ well-studied adhesive mechanisms for sticking in the presence of water...
November 16, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791168/dynamic-translation-regulation-in-caulobacter-cell-cycle-control
#14
Jared M Schrader, Gene-Wei Li, W Seth Childers, Adam M Perez, Jonathan S Weissman, Lucy Shapiro, Harley H McAdams
Progression of the Caulobacter cell cycle requires temporal and spatial control of gene expression, culminating in an asymmetric cell division yielding distinct daughter cells. To explore the contribution of translational control, RNA-seq and ribosome profiling were used to assay global transcription and translation levels of individual genes at six times over the cell cycle. Translational efficiency (TE) was used as a metric for the relative rate of protein production from each mRNA. TE profiles with similar cell cycle patterns were found across multiple clusters of genes, including those in operons or in subsets of operons...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791133/in-phase-oscillation-of-global-regulons-is-orchestrated-by-a-pole-specific-organizer
#15
Balaganesh Janakiraman, Johann Mignolet, Sharath Narayanan, Patrick H Viollier, Sunish Kumar Radhakrishnan
Cell fate determination in the asymmetric bacterium Caulobacter crescentus (Caulobacter) is triggered by the localization of the developmental regulator SpmX to the old (stalked) cell pole during the G1→S transition. Although SpmX is required to localize and activate the cell fate-determining kinase DivJ at the stalked pole in Caulobacter, in cousins such as Asticcacaulis, SpmX directs organelle (stalk) positioning and possibly other functions. We define the conserved σ(54)-dependent transcriptional activator TacA as a global regulator in Caulobacter whose activation by phosphorylation is indirectly down-regulated by SpmX...
October 17, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791060/caulobacter-popz-forms-an-intrinsically-disordered-hub-in-organizing-bacterial-cell-poles
#16
Joshua A Holmes, Shelby E Follett, Haibi Wang, Christopher P Meadows, Krisztina Varga, Grant R Bowman
Despite their relative simplicity, bacteria have complex anatomy at the subcellular level. At the cell poles of Caulobacter crescentus, a 177-amino acid (aa) protein called PopZ self-assembles into 3D polymeric superstructures. Remarkably, we find that this assemblage interacts directly with at least eight different proteins, which are involved in cell cycle regulation and chromosome segregation. The binding determinants within PopZ include 24 aa at the N terminus, a 32-aa region near the C-terminal homo-oligomeric assembly domain, and portions of an intervening linker region...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759043/structural-insights-into-bacterial-flagellar-hooks-similarities-and-specificities
#17
Young-Ho Yoon, Clive S Barker, Paula V Bulieris, Hideyuki Matsunami, Fadel A Samatey
Across bacteria, the protein that makes the flagellar hook, FlgE, has a high variability in amino acid residue composition and sequence length. We hereby present the structure of two fragments of FlgE protein from Campylobacter jejuni and from Caulobacter crescentus, which were obtained by X-ray crystallography, and a high-resolution model of the hook from Caulobacter. By comparing these new structures of FlgE proteins, we show that bacterial hook can be divided in two distinct parts. The first part comprises domains that are found in all FlgE proteins and that will make the basic structure of the hook that is common to all flagellated bacteria...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742440/influence-of-perfluorooctanoic-acid-on-proteomic-expression-and-cell-membrane-fatty-acid-of-escherichia-coli
#18
Meng Yang, Jinshao Ye, Huaming Qin, Yan Long, Yi Li
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has received an increasing attention in the agricultural and food industries due to its risk to human health. To facilitate the development of novel biomarkers of Escherichia coli against PFOA through multi-omics technologies, and to reveal the resistance mechanism of E. coli against PFOA at protein levels, the interactions among pollutant stress, protein expression and cell metabolism was investigated by using iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis. The results revealed that the 63 up-regulated proteins mainly involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and fatty acid biosynthesis, whereas, the 69 down-regulated proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate metabolism and the cell cycle-caulobacter pathway, were also associated with the increase of membrane permeability, excessive expenditure of ATP, disruption of fatty acid biosynthesis under PFOA stress...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734567/stored-canine-whole-blood-units-what-is-the-real-risk-of-bacterial-contamination
#19
A Miglio, V Stefanetti, M T Antognoni, K Cappelli, S Capomaccio, M Coletti, F Passamonti
BACKGROUND: Bacterial contamination of whole blood (WB) units can result in transfusion-transmitted infection, but the extent of the risk has not been established and may be underestimated in veterinary medicine. OBJECTIVES: To detect, quantify, and identify bacterial microorganisms in 49 canine WB units during their shelf life. ANIMALS: Forty-nine healthy adult dogs. METHODS: Forty-nine WB units were included in the study...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706629/trans-translation-ensures-timely-initiation-of-dna-replication-and-dnaa-synthesis-in-escherichia-coli
#20
W Wurihan, W Wunier, H Li, L F Fan, M Morigen
The trans-translation pathway, mediated by the transfer messenger RNA (tmRNA; encoded by the ssrA gene) and the SmpB protein (tmRNA-binding protein expressed in Salmonella enterica), which is conserved in bacteria, is required for various cellular processes. A previous study has shown that trans-translation is required to ensure timely (non-delayed) dnaA transcription and consequent initiation of DNA replication in Caulobacter crescentus. In this study, we observed that initiation of chromosome replication was delayed in Escherichia coli lacking the smpB and/or ssrA genes (DssrA, DsmpB, or DsmpBDssrA mutants)...
August 29, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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