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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310696/methods-for-detecting-gemmata-spp-bacteremia-in-the-microbiology-laboratory
#1
Jacques-Robert Christen, Edwin Edmond, Michel Drancourt
OBJECTIVE: Gemmata bacteria are fastidious, Gram-negative and aerobic. The only representatives are Gemmata obscuriglobus and Gemmata massiliana. These Planctomycetes appear to be a part of human digestive tract microbiome, and G. massiliana has been isolated from water. Further specific detection in the blood of two patients with febrile neutropenia suggests that Gemmata bacteremia may remain under-documented. The objective of this study was to develop an effective protocol to document Gemmata spp...
January 8, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281627/an-essential-regulatory-function-of-the-dnak-chaperone-dictates-the-decision-between-proliferation-and-maintenance-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#2
Frederic D Schramm, Kristina Heinrich, Marietta Thüring, Jörg Bernhardt, Kristina Jonas
Hsp70 chaperones are well known for their important functions in maintaining protein homeostasis during thermal stress conditions. In many bacteria the Hsp70 homolog DnaK is also required for growth in the absence of stress. The molecular reasons underlying Hsp70 essentiality remain in most cases unclear. Here, we demonstrate that DnaK is essential in the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus due to its regulatory function in gene expression. Using a suppressor screen we identified mutations that allow growth in the absence of DnaK...
December 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198650/end-in-sight-cell-polarization-by-the-polygamic-organizer-popz
#3
REVIEW
Matthieu Bergé, Patrick H Viollier
Understanding how asymmetries in cellular constituents are achieved and how such positional information directs the construction of structures in a nonrandom fashion is a fundamental problem in cell biology. The recent identification of determinants that self-assemble into macromolecular complexes at the bacterial cell pole provides new insight into the underlying organizational principles in bacterial cells. Specifically, polarity studies in host-associated or free-living α-proteobacteria, a lineage of Gram-negative (diderm) bacteria, reveals that functional and cytological mono- and bipolarity is often conferred by the multivalent polar organizer PopZ, originally identified as a component of a polar chromosome anchor in the cell cycle model system Caulobacter crescentus...
November 29, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195152/d-1-2-4-butanetriol-production-from-renewable-biomass-with-optimization-of-synthetic-pathway-in-engineered-escherichia-coli
#4
Xin Wang, Nana Xu, Shewei Hu, Jianming Yang, Qian Gao, Sheng Xu, Kequan Chen, Pingkai Ouyang
Bio-based production of d-1,2,4-butanetriol (BT) from renewable substrates is increasingly attracting attention. Here, the BT biosynthetic pathway was constructed and optimized in Escherichia coli to produce BT from pure d-xylose or corncob hydrolysates. First, E. coli BL21(DE3) was identified as a more proper host for BT production through host screening. Then, BT pathway was systematically optimized with gene homolog screening strategy, mainly targeting three key steps from xylonic acid to BT catalyzed by d-xylonate dehydratase (XD), 2-keto acid decarboxylase (KDC) and aldehyde reductase (ALR)...
November 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186514/permissive-zones-for-the-centromere-binding-protein-parb-on-the-caulobacter-crescentus-chromosome
#5
Ngat T Tran, Clare E Stevenson, Nicolle F Som, Anyarat Thanapipatsiri, Adam S B Jalal, Tung B K Le
Proper chromosome segregation is essential in all living organisms. In Caulobacter crescentus, the ParA-ParB-parS system is required for proper chromosome segregation and cell viability. The bacterial centromere-like parS DNA locus is the first to be segregated following chromosome replication. parS is bound by ParB protein, which in turn interacts with ParA to partition the ParB-parS nucleoprotein complex to each daughter cell. Here, we investigated the genome-wide distribution of ParB on the Caulobacter chromosome using a combination of in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq) and in vitro DNA affinity purification with deep sequencing (IDAP-seq)...
November 23, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167986/amidase-activity-is-essential-for-medial-localization-of-amic-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#6
Amrita Dubey, Richa Priyadarshini
Bacterial cell division is a complex process brought about by the coordinated action of multiple proteins. Separation of daughter cells during the final stages of division involves cleavage of new cell wall laid down at the division septum. In E. coli, this process is governed by the action of N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidases AmiA/B/C, which are regulated by their LytM activators EnvC and NlpD. While much is known about the regulation of septum cleavage in E. coli, the mechanism of daughter cell separation is not clear in Caulobacter crescentus, a dimorphic crescent-shaped bacterium...
November 22, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161615/more-than-a-tad-spatiotemporal-control-of-caulobacter-pili
#7
REVIEW
Johann Mignolet, Gaël Panis, Patrick H Viollier
The Type IV pilus (T4P) is a powerful and sophisticated bacterial nanomachine involved in numerous cellular processes, including adhesion, DNA uptake and motility. Aside from the well-described subtype T4aP of the Gram-negative genera, including Myxococcus, Pseudomonas and Neisseria, the Tad (tight adherence) pilus secretion system re-shuffles homologous parts from other secretion systems along with uncharacterized components into a new type of protein translocation apparatus. A representative of the Tad apparatus, the Caulobacter crescentus pilus assembly (Cpa) machine is built exclusively at the newborn cell pole once per cell cycle...
November 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158242/mutations-in-sugar-nucleotide-synthesis-genes-restore-holdfast-polysaccharide-anchoring-to-caulobacter-crescentus-holdfast-anchor-mutants
#8
Gail G Hardy, Evelyn Toh, Cécile Berne, Yves V Brun
Attachment is essential for microorganisms to establish interactions with both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Stable attachment of Caulobacter crescentus to surfaces requires an adhesive polysaccharide holdfast, but the exact composition of holdfast is unknown. The holdfast is anchored to the cell envelope by outer membrane proteins HfaA, HfaB and HfaD. Holdfast anchor gene mutations result in holdfast shedding and reduced cell adherence. Translocation of HfaA and HfaD to the cell surface requires HfaB. The Wzx homolog, HfsF, is predicted to be a bacterial polysaccharide flippase...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147660/analytical-validation-of-a-new-enzymatic-and-automatable-method-for-d-xylose-measurement-in-human-urine-samples
#9
Israel Sánchez-Moreno, Carmen Monsalve-Hernando, Ana Godino, Luis Illa, María Jesús Gaspar, Guillermo Manuel Muñoz, Ana Díaz, José Luis Martín, Eduardo García-Junceda, Alfonso Fernández-Mayoralas, Carmen Hermida
Hypolactasia, or intestinal lactase deficiency, affects more than half of the world population. Currently, xylose quantification in urine after gaxilose oral administration for the noninvasive diagnosis of hypolactasia is performed with the hand-operated nonautomatable phloroglucinol reaction. This work demonstrates that a new enzymatic xylose quantification method, based on the activity of xylose dehydrogenase from Caulobacter crescentus, represents an excellent alternative to the manual phloroglucinol reaction...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138309/loss-of-popz-at-activity-in-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-by-deletion-or-depletion-leads-to-multiple-growth-poles-minicells-and-growth-defects
#10
Romain Grangeon, John Zupan, Yeonji Jeon, Patricia C Zambryski
Agrobacterium tumefaciens grows by addition of peptidoglycan (PG) at one pole of the bacterium. During the cell cycle, the cell needs to maintain two different developmental programs, one at the growth pole and another at the inert old pole. Proteins involved in this process are not yet well characterized. To further characterize the role of pole-organizing protein A. tumefaciens PopZ (PopZ At ), we created deletions of the five PopZ At domains and assayed their localization. In addition, we created a popZAt deletion strain (ΔpopZAt ) that exhibited growth and cell division defects with ectopic growth poles and minicells, but the strain is unstable...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131976/purification-of-eutrophic-water-containing-chlorpyrifos-by-aquatic-plants-and-its-effects-on-planktonic-bacteria
#11
Xing-Jian Xu, Guo-Li Lai, Chang-Qiao Chi, Jie-Yu Zhao, Ying-Chun Yan, Yong Nie, Xiao-Lei Wu
In this study, the removal of nutrients and chlorpyrifos as well as shifts of planktonic bacterial communities in constructed microcosms were investigated to evaluate the influence of Phragmites australis, Nymphaea alba, and Myriophyllum verticillatum, and their combination, on the restoration of eutrophic water containing chlorpyrifos. Plant-treated groups showed a higher pollutant removal rate than did no-remediation controls, indicating that treatment with plants is effective at remediation of eutrophic water containing chlorpyrifos...
October 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119622/fzla-an-essential-regulator-of-ftsz-filament-curvature-controls-constriction-rate-during-caulobacter-division
#12
Patrick J Lariviere, Piotr Szwedziak, Christopher R Mahone, Jan Löwe, Erin D Goley
During bacterial division, polymers of the tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ assemble at midcell to form the cytokinetic Z-ring, which coordinates peptidoglycan (PG) remodeling and envelope constriction. Curvature of FtsZ filaments promotes membrane deformation in vitro, but its role in division in vivo remains undefined. Inside cells, FtsZ directs PG insertion at the division plane, though it is unclear how FtsZ structure and dynamics are mechanistically coupled to PG metabolism. Here we study FzlA, a division protein that stabilizes highly curved FtsZ filaments, as a tool for assessing the contribution of FtsZ filament curvature to constriction...
November 9, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110989/repurposing-hsp90-inhibitors-as-antibiotics-targeting-histidine-kinases
#13
Chau D Vo, Hanna L Shebert, Shannon Zikovich, Rebecca A Dryer, Tony P Huang, Lindsey J Moran, Juno Cho, Douglas R Wassarman, Bryn E Falahee, Peter D Young, Garrick H Gu, James F Heinl, John W Hammond, Taylor N Jackvony, Thomas E Frederick, Jimmy A Blair
To address the growing need for new antimicrobial agents, we explored whether inhibition of bacterial signaling machinery could inhibit bacterial growth. Because bacteria rely on two-component signaling systems to respond to environmental changes, and because these systems are both highly conserved and mediated by histidine kinases, inhibiting histidine kinases may provide broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. The histidine kinase ATP binding domain is conserved with the ATPase domain of eukaryotic Hsp90 molecular chaperones...
December 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091032/cyclic-di-gmp-differentially-tunes-a-bacterial-flagellar-motor-through-a-novel-class-of-chey-like-regulators
#14
Jutta Nesper, Isabelle Hug, Setsu Kato, Chee-Seng Hee, Judith Maria Habazettl, Pablo Manfredi, Stephan Grzesiek, Tilman Schirmer, Thierry Emonet, Urs Jenal
The flagellar motor is a sophisticated rotary machine facilitating locomotion and signal transduction. Owing to its important role in bacterial behavior, its assembly and activity are tightly regulated. For example, chemotaxis relies on a sensory pathway coupling chemical information to rotational bias of the motor through phosphorylation of the motor switch protein CheY. Using a chemical proteomics approach, we identified a novel family of CheY-like (Cle) proteins in Caulobacter crescentus, which tune flagellar activity in response to binding of the second messenger c-di-GMP to a C-terminal extension...
November 1, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089389/the-intrinsically-disordered-c-terminal-linker-of-ftsz-regulates-protofilament-dynamics-and-superstructure-in-vitro
#15
Kousik Sundararajan, Erin D Goley
The bacterial tubulin FtsZ polymerizes to form a discontinuous ring that drives bacterial cell division by directing local cell wall synthesis. FtsZ comprises a polymerizing GTPase domain, an intrinsically disordered C-terminal linker (CTL), and a C-terminal conserved peptide (CTC). FtsZ protofilaments align circumferentially in the cell, with the CTC mediating attachment to membrane-associated division proteins. The assembly of FtsZ protofilaments into dynamic clusters is critical for cell division, but the interactions between protofilaments and regulatory mechanisms that mediate cluster assembly and dynamics are unknown...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074778/obstruction-of-pilus-retraction-stimulates-bacterial-surface-sensing
#16
Courtney K Ellison, Jingbo Kan, Rebecca S Dillard, David T Kysela, Adrien Ducret, Cecile Berne, Cheri M Hampton, Zunlong Ke, Elizabeth R Wright, Nicolas Biais, Ankur B Dalia, Yves V Brun
It is critical for bacteria to recognize surface contact and initiate physiological changes required for surface-associated lifestyles. Ubiquitous microbial appendages called pili are involved in sensing surfaces and facilitating downstream behaviors, but the mechanism by which pili mediate surface sensing has been unclear. We visualized Caulobacter crescentus pili undergoing dynamic cycles of extension and retraction. Within seconds of surface contact, these cycles ceased, which coincided with synthesis of the adhesive holdfast required for attachment...
October 27, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074777/second-messenger-mediated-tactile-response-by-a-bacterial-rotary-motor
#17
Isabelle Hug, Siddharth Deshpande, Kathrin S Sprecher, Thomas Pfohl, Urs Jenal
When bacteria encounter surfaces, they respond with surface colonization and virulence induction. The mechanisms of bacterial mechanosensation and downstream signaling remain poorly understood. Here, we describe a tactile sensing cascade in Caulobacter crescentus in which the flagellar motor acts as sensor. Surface-induced motor interference stimulated the production of the second messenger cyclic diguanylate by the motor-associated diguanylate cyclase DgcB. This led to the allosteric activation of the glycosyltransferase HfsJ to promote rapid synthesis of a polysaccharide adhesin and surface anchoring...
October 27, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038973/production-of-ethylene-glycol-or-glycolic-acid-from-d-xylose-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#18
Laura Salusjärvi, Mervi Toivari, Maija-Leena Vehkomäki, Outi Koivistoinen, Dominik Mojzita, Klaus Niemelä, Merja Penttilä, Laura Ruohonen
The important platform chemicals ethylene glycol and glycolic acid were produced via the oxidative D-xylose pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression of genes encoding D-xylose dehydrogenase (XylB) and D-xylonate dehydratase (XylD) from Caulobacter crescentus and YagE or YjhH aldolase and aldehyde dehydrogenase AldA from Escherichia coli enabled glycolic acid production from D-xylose up to 150 mg/L. In strains expressing only xylB and xylD, 29 mg/L 2-keto-3-deoxyxylonic acid [(S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2-oxopentanoic acid] (2K3DXA) was produced and D-xylonic acid accumulated to ca...
October 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938097/effect-of-sos-induced-levels-of-imuabc-on-spontaneous-and-damage-induced-mutagenesis-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#19
Ingrid R Alves, Marco A Lima-Noronha, Larissa G Silva, Frank S Fernández-Silva, Aline Luiza D Freitas, Marilis V Marques, Rodrigo S Galhardo
imuABC (imuAB dnaE2) genes are responsible for SOS-mutagenesis in Caulobacter crescentus and other bacterial species devoid of umuDC. In this work, we have constructed operator-constitutive mutants of the imuABC operon. We used this genetic tool to investigate the effect of SOS-induced levels of these genes upon both spontaneous and damage-induced mutagenesis. We showed that constitutive expression of imuABC does not increase spontaneous or damage-induced mutagenesis, nor increases cellular resistance to DNA-damaging agents...
September 14, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911105/a-novel-nucleoid-associated-protein-coordinates-chromosome-replication-and-chromosome-partition
#20
James A Taylor, Gaël Panis, Patrick H Viollier, Gregory T Marczynski
We searched for regulators of chromosome replication in the cell cycle model Caulobacter crescentus and found a novel DNA-binding protein (GapR) that selectively aids the initiation of chromosome replication and the initial steps of chromosome partitioning. The protein binds the chromosome origin of replication (Cori) and has higher-affinity binding to mutated Cori-DNA that increases Cori-plasmid replication in vivo. gapR gene expression is essential for normal rapid growth and sufficient GapR levels are required for the correct timing of chromosome replication...
September 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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