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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425205/engineering-the-xylose-catabolizing-dahms-pathway-for-production-of-poly-d-lactate-co-glycolate-and-poly-d-lactate-co-glycolate-co-d-2-hydroxybutyrate-in-escherichia-coli
#1
So Young Choi, Won Jun Kim, Seung Jung Yu, Si Jae Park, Sung Gap Im, Sang Yup Lee
Poly(lactate-co-glycolate), PLGA, is a representative synthetic biopolymer widely used in medical applications. Recently, we reported one-step direct fermentative production of PLGA and its copolymers by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli from xylose and glucose. In this study, we report development of metabolically engineered E. coli strains for the production of PLGA and poly(d-lactate-co-glycolate-co-d-2-hydroxybutyrate) having various monomer compositions from xylose as a sole carbon source. To achieve this, the metabolic flux towards Dahms pathway was modulated using five different synthetic promoters for the expression of Caulobacter crescentus XylBC...
April 19, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418382/structure-of-the-hexagonal-surface-layer-on-caulobacter-crescentus-cells
#2
Tanmay A M Bharat, Danguole Kureisaite-Ciziene, Gail G Hardy, Ellen W Yu, Jessica M Devant, Wim J H Hagen, Yves V Brun, John A G Briggs, Jan Löwe
Many prokaryotic cells are encapsulated by a surface layer (S-layer) consisting of repeating units of S-layer proteins. S-layer proteins are a diverse class of molecules found in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and most archaea(1-5). S-layers protect cells from the outside, provide mechanical stability and also play roles in pathogenicity. In situ structural information about this highly abundant class of proteins is scarce, so atomic details of how S-layers are arranged on the surface of cells have remained elusive...
April 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409299/spatiotemporal-models-of-the-asymmetric-division-cycle-of-caulobacter-crescentus
#3
Kartik Subramanian, John J Tyson
The spatial localization of proteins within the cytoplasm of bacteria is an underappreciated but critical aspect of cell cycle regulation for many prokaryotes. In Caulobacter crescentus-a model organism for the study of asymmetric cell reproduction in prokaryotes-heterogeneous localization of proteins has been identified as the underlying cause of asymmetry in cell morphology, DNA replication, and cell division. However, significant questions remain. Firstly, the mechanisms by which proteins localize in the organelle-free prokaryotic cytoplasm remain obscure...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409298/modeling-asymmetric-cell-division-in-caulobacter-crescentus-using-a-boolean-logic-approach
#4
Ismael Sánchez-Osorio, Carlos A Hernández-Martínez, Agustino Martínez-Antonio
Caulobacter crescentus is a model organism for the study of asymmetric division and cell type differentiation, as its cell division cycle generates a pair of daughter cells that differ from one another in their morphology and behavior. One of these cells (called stalked) develops a structure that allows it to attach to solid surfaces and is the only one capable of dividing, while the other (called swarmer) develops a flagellum that allows it to move in liquid media and divides only after differentiating into a stalked cell type...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396352/association-of-the-cold-shock-dead-box-rna-helicase-rhle-to-the-rna-degradosome-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#5
Angel A Aguirre, Alexandre M Vicente, Steven W Hardwick, Daniela M Alvelos, Ricardo R Mazzon, Ben F Luisi, Marilis V Marques
In diverse bacterial lineages, multi-enzyme assemblies have evolved that are central elements of RNA metabolism and RNA-mediated regulation. The aquatic, Gram-negative bacteria Caulobacter crescentus, which has been a model system for studying the bacterial cell cycle, has an RNA degradosome assembly that is formed by the endoribonuclease RNase E and includes the DEAD-box RNA helicase RhlB. Immunoprecipitations of extracts from cells expressing an epitope-tagged RNase E reveal that RhlE, another member of the DEAD-box helicase family, associates with the degradosome at temperatures below the optimum for growth...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393629/exploring-the-sequence-structure-function-relationship-for-the-intrinsically-disordered-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-crystallin-hahellin
#6
Meng Gao, Fei Yang, Lei Zhang, Zhengding Su, Yongqi Huang
βγ-Crystallins are a superfamily of proteins containing crystallin-type Greek key motifs. Some βγ-crystallin domains have been shown to bind Ca(2+). Hahellin is a newly identified intrinsically disordered βγ-crystallin domain from Hahella chejuensis. It folds into a typical βγ-crystallin structure upon Ca(2+) binding and acts as a Ca(2+)-regulated conformational switch. Besides Hahellin, another two putative βγ-crystallins from Caulobacter crescentus and Yersinia pestis are shown to be partially disordered in their apo-form and undergo large conformational changes upon Ca(2+) binding, although whether they acquire a βγ-crystallin fold is not known...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393265/genomic-diversity-of-type-b3-bacteriophages-of-caulobacter-crescentus
#7
Kurt T Ash, Kristina M Drake, Whitney S Gibbs, Bert Ely
The genomes of the type B3 bacteriophages that infect Caulobacter crescentus are among the largest phage genomes thus far deposited into GenBank with sizes over 200 kb. In this study, we introduce six new bacteriophage genomes which were obtained from phage collected from various water systems in the southeastern United States and from tropical locations across the globe. A comparative analysis of the 12 available genomes revealed a "core genome" which accounts for roughly 1/3 of these bacteriophage genomes and is predominately localized to the head, tail, and lysis gene regions...
April 10, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359631/shapeshifting-to-survive-shape-determination-and-regulation-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#8
REVIEW
Selamawit Abi Woldemeskel, Erin D Goley
Bacterial cell shape is a genetically encoded and inherited feature that is optimized for efficient growth, survival, and propagation of bacteria. In addition, bacterial cell morphology is adaptable to changes in environmental conditions. Work in recent years has demonstrated that individual features of cell shape, such as length or curvature, arise through the spatial regulation of cell wall synthesis by cytoskeletal proteins. However, the mechanisms by which these different morphogenetic factors are coordinated and how they may be globally regulated in response to cell cycle and environmental cues are only beginning to emerge...
March 27, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325767/cohesive-properties-of-the-caulobacter-crescentus-holdfast-adhesin-are-regulated-by-a-novel-c-di-gmp-effector-protein
#9
Kathrin S Sprecher, Isabelle Hug, Jutta Nesper, Eva Potthoff, Mohamed-Ali Mahi, Matteo Sangermani, Volkhard Kaever, Torsten Schwede, Julia Vorholt, Urs Jenal
When encountering surfaces, many bacteria produce adhesins to facilitate their initial attachment and to irreversibly glue themselves to the solid substrate. A central molecule regulating the processes of this motile-sessile transition is the second messenger c-di-GMP, which stimulates the production of a variety of exopolysaccharide adhesins in different bacterial model organisms. In Caulobacter crescentus, c-di-GMP regulates the synthesis of the polar holdfast adhesin during the cell cycle, yet the molecular and cellular details of this control are currently unknown...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323618/contact-dependent-killing-by-caulobacter-crescentus-via-cell-surface-associated-glycine-zipper-proteins
#10
Leonor García-Bayona, Monica S Guo, Michael T Laub
Most bacteria are in fierce competition with other species for limited nutrients. Some bacteria can kill nearby cells by secreting bacteriocins, a diverse group of proteinaceous antimicrobials. However, bacteriocins are typically freely diffusible, and so of little value to planktonic cells in aqueous environments. Here, we identify an atypical two-protein bacteriocin in the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus that is retained on the surface of producer cells where it mediates cell contact-dependent killing...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288813/a-genomically-modified-escherichia-coli-strain-carrying-an-orthogonal-e-coli-histidyl-trna-synthetase%C3%A2-trna-his-pair
#11
Markus Englert, Oscar Vargas-Rodriguez, Noah M Reynolds, Yane-Shih Wang, Dieter Söll, Takuya Umehara
BACKGROUND: Development of new aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS)•tRNA pairs is central for incorporation of novel non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins via genetic code expansion (GCE). The Escherichia coli and Caulobacter crescentus histidyl-tRNA synthetases (HisRS) evolved divergent mechanisms of tRNA(His) recognition that prevent their cross-reactivity. Although the E. coli HisRS•tRNA(His) pair is a good candidate for GCE, its use in C. crescentus is limited by the lack of established genetic selection methods and by the low transformation efficiency of C...
March 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274196/asymmetric-cellular-memory-in-bacteria-exposed-to-antibiotics
#12
Roland Mathis, Martin Ackermann
BACKGROUND: The ability to form a cellular memory and use it for cellular decision-making could help bacteria to cope with recurrent stress conditions. We analyzed whether bacteria would form a cellular memory specifically if past events are predictive of future conditions. We worked with the asymmetrically dividing bacterium Caulobacter crescentus where past events are expected to only be informative for one of the two cells emerging from division, the sessile cell that remains in the same microenvironment and does not migrate...
March 9, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256791/conformational-behaviour-of-azasugars-based-on-mannuronic-acid
#13
Erwin R van Rijssel, Antonius P A Janssen, Alexandra Males, Gideon J Davies, Gijsbert A van der Marel, Herman S Overkleeft, Jeroen D C Codée
A set of mannuronic-acid-based iminosugars, consisting of the C-5-carboxylic acid, methyl ester and amide analogues of 1deoxymannorjirimicin (DMJ), was synthesised and their pH-dependent conformational behaviour was studied. Under acidic conditions the methyl ester and the carboxylic acid adopted an "inverted" (1) C4 chair conformation as opposed to the "normal" (4) C1 chair at basic pH. This conformational change is explained in terms of the stereoelectronic effects of the ring substituents and it parallels the behaviour of the mannuronic acid ester oxocarbenium ion...
March 3, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246363/a-localized-complex-of-two-protein-oligomers-controls-the-orientation-of-cell-polarity
#14
Adam M Perez, Thomas H Mann, Keren Lasker, Daniel G Ahrens, Michael R Eckart, Lucy Shapiro
Signaling hubs at bacterial cell poles establish cell polarity in the absence of membrane-bound compartments. In the asymmetrically dividing bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, cell polarity stems from the cell cycle-regulated localization and turnover of signaling protein complexes in these hubs, and yet the mechanisms that establish the identity of the two cell poles have not been established. Here, we recapitulate the tripartite assembly of a cell fate signaling complex that forms during the G1-S transition...
February 28, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167520/a-new-essential-cell-division-protein-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#15
Aurora Osorio, Laura Camarena, Miguel Angel Cevallos, Sebastian Poggio
Bacterial cell division is a complex process that relies on a multiprotein complex composed of a core of widely conserved and generally essential proteins and on accessory proteins that vary in number and identity in different bacteria. The assembly of this complex and, particularly, the initiation of constriction are regulated processes that have come under intensive study. In this work, we characterize the function of DipI, a protein conserved in Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria that is essential in Caulobacter crescentus Our results show that DipI is a periplasmic protein that is recruited late to the division site and that it is required for the initiation of constriction...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138140/hit-the-right-spots-cell-cycle-control-by-phosphorylated-guanosines-in-alphaproteobacteria
#16
REVIEW
Régis Hallez, Marie Delaby, Stefano Sanselicio, Patrick H Viollier
The class Alphaproteobacteria includes Gram-negative free-living, symbiotic and obligate intracellular bacteria, as well as important plant, animal and human pathogens. Recent work has established the key antagonistic roles that phosphorylated guanosines, cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and the alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp), have in the regulation of the cell cycle in these bacteria. In this Review, we discuss the insights that have been gained into the regulation of the initiation of DNA replication and cytokinesis by these second messengers, with a particular focus on the cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus...
January 31, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104475/effects-of-cry1ab-bt-maize-straw-return-on-bacterial-community-of-earthworm-eisenia-fetida
#17
Yinghua Shu, Yanyan Zhang, Huilan Zeng, Yahui Zhang, Jianwu Wang
The eco-toxicological effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize on earthworm life-history traits were widely studied and the results were controversial, while their effects on earthworm bacterial community have been rarely studied. Here, effects of two hybrids of Bt maize [5422Bt1 (event Bt11) and 5422CBCL (MON810)] straw return on Eisenia fetida bacterial community were investigated by the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) combing with DNA sequencing, compared to near-isogenic non-Bt maize (5422)...
April 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035693/identification-of-a-u-zn-cu-responsive-global-regulatory-two-component-system-in-caulobacter-crescentus
#18
Dan M Park, K Wesley Overton, Megan J Liou, Yongqin Jiao
Despite the well-known toxicity of uranium (U) to bacteria, little is known about how cells sense and respond to U. The recent finding of a U-specific stress response in Caulobacter crescentus has provided a foundation for studying the mechanisms of U- perception in bacteria. To gain insight into this process, we used a forward genetic screen to identify the regulatory components governing expression of the urcA promoter (PurcA ) that is strongly induced by U. This approach unearthed a previously uncharacterized two-component system, named UzcRS, which is responsible for U-dependent activation of PurcA ...
December 30, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031282/tonb-dependent-heme-hemoglobin-utilization-by-caulobacter-crescentus-huta
#19
Heloise Balhesteros, Yan Shipelskiy, Noah J Long, Aritri Majumdar, Benjamin B Katz, Naara M Santos, Laura Leaden, Salete M Newton, Marilis V Marques, Phillip E Klebba
Siderophore nutrition tests with Caulobacter crescentus strain NA1000 revealed that it utilized a variety of ferric hydroxamate siderophores, including asperchromes, ferrichromes, ferrichrome A, malonichrome, and ferric aerobactin, as well as hemin and hemoglobin. C. crescentus did not transport ferrioxamine B or ferric catecholates. Because it did not use ferric enterobactin, the catecholate aposiderophore was an effective agent for iron deprivation. We determined the kinetics and thermodynamics of [(59)Fe]apoferrichrome and (59)Fe-citrate binding and transport by NA1000...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012062/a-synthetic-hybrid-promoter-for-xylose-regulated-control-of-gene-expression-in-saccharomyces-yeasts
#20
Ronald E Hector, Jeffrey A Mertens
Metabolism of non-glucose carbon sources is often highly regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. This level of regulation is lacking in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains engineered to metabolize xylose. To better control transcription in S. cerevisiae, the xylose-dependent, DNA-binding repressor (XylR) from Caulobacter crescentus was used to block transcription from synthetic promoters based on the constitutive Ashbya gossypii TEF promoter. The new hybrid promoters were repressed in the absence of xylose and showed up to a 25-fold increase in the presence of xylose...
December 23, 2016: Molecular Biotechnology
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