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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938612/magnetic-resonance-imaging-tracking-and-assessing-repair-function-of-the-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-transplantation-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Hongwu Zhang, Liqin Wang, Shihong Wen, Qingfeng Xiang, Xianhong Xiang, Caixia Xu, Yong Wan, Jingnan Wang, Bin Li, Yiqian Wan, Zhiyun Yang, David Y B Deng
The transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to repair spinal cord injury (SCI) has become a promising therapy. However, there is still a lack of visual evidence directly implicating the transplanted cells as the source of the improvement of spinal cord function. In this study, BMSCs were labeled with NF-200 promoter and lipase-activated gadolinium-containing nanoparticles (Gd-DTPA-FA). Double labeled BMSCs were implanted into spinal cord transaction injury in rat models in situ, the function recovery was evaluated on 1st, 7th, 14th, 28 th days by MRI, Diffusion Tensor Imaing, CT imaging and post-processing, and histological observations...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937322/diffusion-tensor-imaging-reveals-morphological-alterations-of-the-lateral-pterygoid-muscle-in-patients-with-mandibular-asymmetry
#2
Enrico Nastro, Lilla Bonanno, Luciano Catalfamo, Michele Runci, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Anastasi, Silvia Marino, Francesco Saverio De Ponte
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate non-invasively the morphological features of both lateral pterygoid (LPM) and masseter muscles by using Diffusion Tensor Imaging on two patients affected by mandibular asymmetry. METHODS: Two female patients with mandibular excess and asymmetry who underwent Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were recruited for this study. Morphological (T1-weighted) and diffusion weighted images were acquired with a 3T scanner one week before (T0) and one month after the surgery (T1)...
September 20, 2017: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937274/visualization-of-the-lumbar-nerve-using-reduced-field-of-view-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#3
Yawara Eguchi, Hirohito Kanamoto, Sumihisa Orita, Kazuhide Inage, Kazuki Fujimoto, Yasuhiro Shiga, Koki Abe, Masahiro Inoue, Hideyuki Kinoshita, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Masao Koda, Yasuchika Aoki, Yasuhiro Oikawa, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Seiji Ohtori, Takeo Furuya, Atsuya Watanabe
OBJECTIVE: We investigated high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of lumbar nerves with reduced field-of-view (rFOV) using 3-Tesla MRI. METHODS: DTI measured with rFOV was compared with conventional FOV (cFOV) 3.0 T MRI in 5 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with degenerative lumbar disorders. The intracanal, foramina, and extraforamina of the L5 nerve were established as the regions-of-interest (ROI) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936158/bayesian-tractography-using-geometric-shape-priors
#4
Xiaoming Dong, Zhengwu Zhang, Anuj Srivastava
The problem of estimating neuronal fiber tracts connecting different brain regions is important for various types of brain studies, including understanding brain functionality and diagnosing cognitive impairments. The popular techniques for tractography are mostly sequential-tracts are grown sequentially following principal directions of local water diffusion profiles. Despite several advancements on this basic idea, the solutions easily get stuck in local solutions, and can't incorporate global shape information...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931825/disrupted-topological-organization-of-structural-brain-networks-in-childhood-absence-epilepsy
#5
Wenchao Qiu, Chuanyong Yu, Yuan Gao, Ailiang Miao, Lu Tang, Shuyang Huang, Wenwen Jiang, Jintao Sun, Jing Xiang, Xiaoshan Wang
Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is the most common paediatric epilepsy syndrome and is characterized by frequent and transient impairment of consciousness. In this study, we explored structural brain network alterations in CAE and their association with clinical characteristics. A whole-brain structural network was constructed for each participant based on diffusion-weighted MRI and probabilistic tractography. The topological metrics were then evaluated. For the first time, we uncovered modular topology in CAE patients that was similar to healthy controls...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930819/recovery-of-an-injured-corticobulbar-tract-in-a-patient-with-stroke-a-case-report
#6
Sungho Jang, Jonghoon Kim, Yousung Seo, Soyoung Kwak
RATIONALE: The corticobulbar tract (CBT) is known to be involved in the motor function of the non-oculomotor cranial nuclei and controls the muscles of the face, head, and neck. Several studies have reported injury of the CBT in patients with brain injury, however, little is known about recovery of the injured CBT. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 59-year-old right-handed male underwent decompressive craniectomy for management of brain swelling and intracerebral hemorrhage following an infarction in the left middle cerebral artery territory...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928638/affective-circuitry-alterations-in-patients-with-trigeminal-neuralgia
#7
Dave J Hayes, David Q Chen, Jidan Zhong, Ariel Lin, Brendan Behan, Matthew Walker, Mojgan Hodaie
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe chronic neuropathic facial pain disorder. Affect-related behavioral and structural brain changes have been noted across chronic pain disorders, but have not been well-studied in TN. We examined the potential impact of TN (37 patients: 23 with right-sided TN, 14 with left-sided TN), compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls, on three major white matter tracts responsible for carrying affect-related signals-i.e., cingulum, fornix, and medial forebrain bundle. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI), deterministic multi-tensor tractography for tract modeling, and a model-driven region-of-interest approach was used...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923274/mapping-orbitofrontal-limbic-maturation-in-non-human-primates-a-longitudinal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#8
Akiko Uematsu, Junichi Hata, Yuji Komaki, Fumiko Seki, Chihoko Yamada, Norio Okahara, Yoko Kurotaki, Erika Sasaki, Hideyuki Okano
Brain development involves spatiotemporally complex microstructural changes. A number of neuropsychiatric disorders are linked to the neural processes of development and aging. Thus, it is important to understanding the typical developmental patterns of various brain structures, which will help to define critical periods of vulnerability for neural maturation, as well as anatomical mechanisms of brain structure-related neuropathology. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to assess development of the orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus in a non-human primate species, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)...
September 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922736/reduced-white-matter-integrity-in-borderline-personality-disorder-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#9
Taiga Ninomiya, Harumi Oshita, Yoshihisa Kawano, Chiharu Goto, Mai Matsuhashi, Koji Masuda, Fuku Takita, Toshihiko Izumi, Ayako Inoue, Haruka Higuma, Masayuki Kanehisa, Jotaro Akiyoshi
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions. BPD may be linked to an abnormal brain anatomy, but little is known about possible impairments of the white matter microstructure in BPD or their relationship with impulsivity or risky behaviors. The aims of the present study were to explore the relationship between BPD and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters and psychological tests. METHODS: We evaluated 35 un-medicated BPD patients in a medication-free state and 50 healthy controls (HCs)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918257/pathways-of-the-inferior-frontal-occipital-fasciculus-in-overt-speech-and-reading
#10
Claire Rollans, Kulpreet Cheema, George K Georgiou, Jacqueline Cummine
In this study, we examined the relationship between tractography-based measures of white matter integrity (ex. fractional anisotropy [FA]) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and five reading-related tasks, including rapid automatized naming (RAN) of letters, digits, and objects, and reading of real words and nonwords. Twenty university students with no reported history of reading difficulties were tested on all five tasks and their performance was correlated with diffusion measures extracted through DTI tractography...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913326/improvement-in-white-matter-tract-reconstruction-with-constrained-spherical-deconvolution-and-track-density-mapping-in-low-angular-resolution-data-a-pediatric-study-and-literature-review
#11
Benedetta Toselli, Domenico Tortora, Mariasavina Severino, Gabriele Arnulfo, Andrea Canessa, Giovanni Morana, Andrea Rossi, Marco Massimo Fato
INTRODUCTION: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) allows noninvasive investigation of brain structure in vivo. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a frequently used application of DW-MRI that assumes a single main diffusion direction per voxel, and is therefore not well suited for reconstructing crossing fiber tracts. Among the solutions developed to overcome this problem, constrained spherical deconvolution with probabilistic tractography (CSD-PT) has provided superior quality results in clinical settings on adult subjects; however, it requires particular acquisition parameters and long sequences, which may limit clinical usage in the pediatric age group...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905126/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-haptic-object-processing-combined-evidence-from-tractography-and-functional-neuroimaging
#12
Haemy Lee Masson, Hyeok-Mook Kang, Laurent Petit, Christian Wallraven
Touch delivers a wealth of information already from birth, helping infants to acquire knowledge about a variety of important object properties using their hands. Despite the fact that we are touch experts as much as we are visual experts, surprisingly, little is known how our perceptual ability in touch is linked to either functional or structural aspects of the brain. The present study, therefore, investigates and identifies neuroanatomical correlates of haptic perceptual performance using a novel, multi-modal approach...
September 13, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904382/multidimensional-encoding-of-brain-connectomes
#13
Cesar F Caiafa, Franco Pestilli
The ability to map brain networks in living individuals is fundamental in efforts to chart the relation between human behavior, health and disease. Advances in network neuroscience may benefit from developing new frameworks for mapping brain connectomes. We present a framework to encode structural brain connectomes and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (dMRI) data using multidimensional arrays. The framework integrates the relation between connectome nodes, edges, white matter fascicles and diffusion data...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904231/interactions-between-the-corticospinal-tract-and-premotor-motor-pathways-for-residual-motor-output-after-stroke
#14
Robert Schulz, Eunhee Park, Jungsoo Lee, Won Hyuk Chang, Ahee Lee, Yun-Hee Kim, Friedhelm C Hummel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain imaging has continuously enhanced our understanding how different brain networks contribute to motor recovery after stroke. However, the present models are still incomplete and do not fit for every patient. The interaction between the degree of damage of the corticospinal tract (CST) and of corticocortical motor connections, that is, the influence of the microstructural state of one connection on the importance of another has been largely neglected. METHODS: Applying diffusion-weighted imaging and probabilistic tractography, we investigated cross-network interactions between the integrity of ipsilesional CST and ipsilesional corticocortical motor pathways for variance in residual motor outcome in 53 patients with subacute stroke...
September 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899757/segmentation-of-the-inferior-longitudinal-fasciculus-in-the-human-brain-a-white-matter-dissection-and-diffusion-tensor-tractography-study
#15
Francesco Latini, Johanna Mårtensson, Elna-Marie Larsson, Mats Fredrikson, Fredrik Åhs, Mats Hjortberg, Håkan Aldskogius, Mats Ryttlefors
The inferior longitudinal fascicle (ILF) is one of the major occipital-temporal association pathways. Several studies have mapped its hierarchical segmentation to specific functions. There is, however, no consensus regarding a detailed description of ILF fibre organisation. The aim of this study was to establish whether the ILF has a constant number of subcomponents. A secondary aim was to determine the quantitative diffusion proprieties of each subcomponent and assess their anatomical trajectories and connectivity patterns...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889005/a-flexible-graphical-model-for-multi-modal-parcellation-of-the-cortex
#16
Sarah Parisot, Ben Glocker, Sofia Ira Ktena, Salim Arslan, Markus D Schirmer, Daniel Rueckert
Advances in neuroimaging have provided a tremendous amount of in-vivo information on the brain's organisation. Its anatomy and cortical organisation can be investigated from the point of view of several imaging modalities, many of which have been studied for mapping functionally specialised cortical areas. There is strong evidence that a single modality is not sufficient to fully identify the brain's cortical organisation. Combining multiple modalities in the same parcellation task has the potential to provide more accurate and robust subdivisions of the cortex...
September 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882599/a-network-level-approach-of-cognitive-flexibility-impairment-after-surgery-of-a-right-temporo-parietal-glioma
#17
E Mandonnet, L Cerliani, K Siuda-Krzywicka, I Poisson, N Zhi, E Volle, M T de Schotten
OBJECTIVE: The right "non-dominant" temporo-parietal junction is usually not considered as a highly eloquent area. This contrasts with its mirrored left "dominant" counterpart, which is known as highly eloquent regarding language function. The question arises about which functions should be monitored when operating lesions of the right temporo-parietal junction under awake conditions. METHODS: We report the case of a patient who underwent a surgical resection of a glioma located in the right temporo-parietal junction...
September 4, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882420/age-related-differences-in-the-topological-efficiency-of-the-brain-structural-connectome-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#18
Tengda Zhao, Can Sheng, Qiuhui Bi, Weili Niu, Ni Shu, Ying Han
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is accompanied by the accelerated cognitive decline and rapid brain degeneration with aging. However, the age-related alterations of the topological organization of the brain connectome in aMCI patients remained largely unknown. In this study, we constructed the brain structural connectome in 51 aMCI patients and 51 healthy controls by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and deterministic tractography. The different age-related alteration patterns of the global and regional network metrics between aMCI patients and healthy controls were assessed by a linear regression model...
August 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879883/the-role-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-spinal-pathology-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Dan C Li, James G Malcolm, Rima S Rindler, Griffin R Baum, Avinash Rao, Shekar N Khurpad, Faiz U Ahmad
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows for noninvasive, in vivo visualization of white matter fiber tracts in the central nervous system by measuring the diffusion of water molecules. It provides both quantitative and qualitative (i.e., tractography) means to describe a region-of-interest. While protocols for the use of DTI are better established in the brain, the efficacy and potential applications of DTI in spinal cord pathology are less understood. In this review, we examine the current literature regarding the use of DTI in the spinal cord pathology, and in particular its diagnostic and prognostic value in traumatic injury, spinal tumors, cervical myelopathies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis...
September 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878322/altered-topology-of-structural-brain-networks-in-patients-with-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#20
E Schlemm, B Cheng, F Fischer, C Hilgetag, C Gerloff, G Thomalla
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics. Abnormal neuronal circuits in a wide-spread structural and functional network involved in planning, execution and control of motor functions are thought to represent the underlying pathology. We therefore studied changes of structural brain networks in 13 adult GTS patients reconstructed by diffusion tensor imaging and probabilistic tractography. Structural connectivity and network topology were characterized by graph theoretical measures and compared to 13 age-matched controls...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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