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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348532/amygdala-orbitofrontal-structural-and-functional-connectivity-in-females-with-anxiety-disorders-with-and-without-a-history-of-conduct-disorder
#1
Philip Lindner, Pär Flodin, Peter Larm, Meenal Budhiraja, Ivanka Savic-Berglund, Jussi Jokinen, Jari Tiihonen, Sheilagh Hodgins
Conduct disorder (CD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) are often comorbid and both are characterized by hyper-sensitivity to threat, and reduced structural and functional connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies of CD have not taken account of ADs nor directly compared connectivity in the two disorders. We examined three groups of young women: 23 presenting CD and lifetime AD; 30 presenting lifetime AD and not CD; and 17 with neither disorder (ND). Participants completed clinical assessments and diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional MRI scans...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344063/axonal-injury-in-the-lateral-geniculate-body-radiological-diagnosis
#2
Laura Gutiérrez, Jorge Arruga, Juan J Sánchez, Silvia Muñoz, Paloma Puyalto-de-Pablo
Damage to the lateral geniculate body by diffuse axonal injury in brain trauma is uncommon. The authors present the clinical case and in vivo fibre tractography using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging of this lesion in a patient presenting with homonymous sectoranopia after a traumatic head injury.
August 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342192/white-matter-tract-specific-quantitative-analysis-in-multiple-sclerosis-comparison-of-optic-radiation-reconstruction-techniques
#3
Chenyu Wang, Alexander Klistorner, Linda Ly, Michael H Barnett
The posterior visual pathway is commonly affected by multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology that results in measurable clinical and electrophysiological impairment. Due to its highly structured retinotopic mapping, the visual pathway represents an ideal substrate for investigating patho-mechanisms in MS. Therefore, a reliable and robust imaging segmentation method for in-vivo delineation of the optic radiations (OR) is needed. However, diffusion-based tractography approaches, which are typically used for OR segmentation are confounded by the presence of focal white matter lesions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337279/suprathreshold-fiber-cluster-statistics-leveraging-white-matter-geometry-to-enhance-tractography-statistical-analysis
#4
Fan Zhang, Weining Wu, Lipeng Ning, Gloria McAnulty, Deborah Waber, Borjan Gagoski, Kiera Sarill, Hesham M Hamoda, Yang Song, Weidong Cai, Yogesh Rathi, Lauren J O'Donnell
This work presents a suprathreshold fiber cluster (STFC) method that leverages the whole brain fiber geometry to enhance statistical group difference analyses. The proposed method consists of 1) a well-established study-specific data-driven tractography parcellation to obtain white matter tract parcels and 2) a newly proposed nonparametric, permutation-test-based STFC method to identify significant differences between study populations. The basic idea of our method is that a white matter parcel's neighborhood (nearby parcels with similar white matter anatomy) can support the parcel's statistical significance when correcting for multiple comparisons...
January 11, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332985/civility-cloud-based-interactive-visualization-of-tractography-brain-connectome
#5
Danaële Puechmaille, Martin Styner, Juan C Prieto
Cloud based Interactive Visualization of Tractography Brain Connectome (CIVILITY) is an interactive visualization tool of brain connectome in the cloud. This application submits tasks to remote computing grids were the CIVILITY-tractography pipeline is deployed. The application will list the running tasks for the user and once a task is completed the brain connectome is visualized using Hierarchical Edge Bundling. The analysis pipeline uses FSL tools (bedpostx and probtrackx2) to generate a triangular matrix indicating the connectivity strength between different regions in the brain...
March 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332074/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-the-basal-ganglia-for-functional-neurosurgery-applications
#6
Francesco Sammartino, Mojgan Hodaie
Since its introduction, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become an important tool in neuroscience given its unprecedented ability to image brain white matter in vivo. The interest in understanding the mechanisms of action of Deep Brain Stimulation in different targets and indications, together with the constant drive towards the improvement in long-term clinical outcomes, has found a logical complement in the application of tractography in this field. Diffusion tensor imaging has been traditionally associated with an increased susceptibility to MRI artifacts, and expensive computational resources...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324910/deep-brain-nucleus-targeting-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-essential-tremor-by-image-guided-surgery-using-neuronavigation-system-with-tractography-and-volume-of-tissue-of-activated-assessment
#7
Amir Nikouei, Pooya Torkian, Tohid Emami Meybodi, Arash Javad Mousavi, Amir Saied Seddighi
OBJECTIVE: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an effective surgical approach for treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia and essential tremor (ET). Traditionally, DBS is performed using frame-based stereotactic technique. Recently, image guided surgery (IGS) using neuronavigation has gained popularity in neurosurgical procedures. We aim to investigate whether DBS using neuronavigation is capable of improving patient's outcome and minimize its complications. SUBJECT AND METHODS: From February 2011 to October 2016, 20 patients with PD and 6 patients with ET were enrolled in the study...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323041/central-post-stroke-pain-due-to-injury-of-the-spinothalamic-tract-in-patients-with-cerebral-infarction-a-diffusion-tensor-tractography-imaging-study
#8
Sung Ho Jang, Jun Lee, Sang Seok Yeo
Many studies using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) have demonstrated that injury of the spinothalamic tract (STT) is the pathogenetic mechanism of central post-stroke pain (CPSP) in intracerebral hemorrhage; however, there is no DTT study reporting the pathogenetic mechanism of CPSP in cerebral infarction. In this study, we investigated injury of the STT in patients with CPSP following cerebral infarction, using DTT. Five patients with CPSP following cerebral infarction and eight age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were recruited for this study...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322239/the-lateralized-arcuate-fasciculus-in-developmental-pitch-disorders-among-mandarin-amusics-left-for-speech-and-right-for-music
#9
Xizhuo Chen, Yanxin Zhao, Suyu Zhong, Zaixu Cui, Jiaqi Li, Gaolang Gong, Qi Dong, Yun Nan
The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a neural fiber tract that is critical to speech and music development. Although the predominant role of the left AF in speech development is relatively clear, how the AF engages in music development is not understood. Congenital amusia is a special neurodevelopmental condition, which not only affects musical pitch but also speech tone processing. Using diffusion tensor tractography, we aimed at understanding the role of AF in music and speech processing by examining the neural connectivity characteristics of the bilateral AF among thirty Mandarin amusics...
January 10, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320715/subcortical-pathways-to-extrastriate-visual-cortex-underlie-residual-vision-following-bilateral-damage-to-v1
#10
Sara Ajina, Holly Bridge
Residual vision, or blindsight, following damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) has been investigated for almost half a century. While there have been many studies of patients with unilateral damage to V1, far fewer have examined bilateral damage, mainly due to the rarity of such patients. Here we re-examine the residual visual function and underlying pathways of previously studied patient SBR who, as a young adult, suffered bilateral damage restricted to V1 which rendered him cortically blind. While earlier work compared his visual cortex to healthy, sighted participants, here we consider how his visual responses and connections compare to patients with unilateral damage to V1 in addition to sighted participants...
January 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314725/automatic-quantification-of-microscopic-heart-damage-in-a-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-using-optical-polarization-tractography
#11
Yuanbo Wang, Mohammadreza Ravanfar, Keqing Zhang, Dongsheng Duan, Gang Yao
Quantification of microscopic myocardium damage in a diseased heart is important in studying disease progression and evaluating treatment outcome. However, it is challenging to use traditional histology and existing medical imaging modalities to quantify all microscopic damages in a small animal heart. Here, a method was developed for fast visualization and quantification of focal tissue damage in the mouse heart based on the fiber alignment index of the local myofiber organization obtained in optical polarization tractography (OPT)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311540/diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-diagnosis-of-post-traumatic-syringomyelia-in-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#12
Chao Zhang, Kai Chen, Xiuxin Han, Jiayuanyuan Fu, Patricia Douglas, Anna Y Morozova, Maxim A Abakumov, Ilya L Gubsky, Dejin Li, Jin Guo, Xuening Zhang, Guowen Wang, Vladimir P Chekhonin
BACKGROUND Post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS) is a common disease after spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study was performed to evaluate the advantages of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in estimating SCI and prognosing PTS in SCI rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty rats were divided into 3 groups based on the extent of the individual SCI and PTS: a control group (n=10), a PTS group (n=8), and an SCI group (n=22). BBB tests were performed preoperatively and postoperatively at (1 d, 3 d, 5 d, 1 w, 2 w, 1 w, 2 w, 3 w, 4 w, 5 w, and 6 w)...
January 9, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309858/white-matter-tractography-of-the-neural-network-for-speech-motor-control-in-children-who-stutter
#13
Ehsan Misaghi, Zhaoran Zhang, Vincent L Gracco, Luc F De Nil, Deryk S Beal
Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental speech disorder with a phenotype characterized by speech sound repetitions, prolongations and silent blocks during speech production. Developmental stuttering affects 1% of the population and 5% of children. Neuroanatomical abnormalities in the major white matter tracts, including the arcuate fasciculus, corpus callosum, corticospinal, and frontal aslant tracts (FAT), are associated with the disorder in adults who stutter (AWS) but are less well studied in children who stutter (CWS)...
January 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307012/a-method-for-pre-operative-single-subject-thalamic-segmentation-based-on-probabilistic-tractography-for-essential-tremor-deep-brain-stimulation
#14
Erik H Middlebrooks, Vanessa M Holanda, Ibrahim S Tuna, Hrishikesh D Deshpande, Markus Bredel, Leonardo Almeida, Harrison C Walker, Barton L Guthrie, Kelly D Foote, Michael S Okun
PURPOSE: Deep brain stimulation is a common treatment for medication-refractory essential tremor. Current coordinate-based targeting methods result in variable outcomes due to variation in thalamic structure and the optimal patient-specific functional location. The purpose of this study was to compare the coordinate-based pre-operative targets to patient-specific thalamic segmentation utilizing a probabilistic tractography methodology. METHODS: Using available diffusion MRI of 32 subjects from the Human Connectome Project database, probabilistic tractography was performed...
January 6, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305127/7-0tesla-mri-tractography-in-patients-with-trigeminal-neuralgia
#15
Hyeong Cheol Moon, Soon-Tae You, Hyeon Man Baek, Young Jai Jeon, Chan-A Park, Jei Jun Cheong, Youn Joo Lee, Young Seok Park
7.0Tesla(T) high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can supply information on changing microstructures in cranial nerves. We investigated DTI parameters and the feasibility of DTI criteria for diagnosing trigeminal neuralgia (TN). In this study, 14 patients (28 hemispheres) of mean age 49.0years (range, 31-64) with TN underwent DTI using 7.0TMRI. We compared fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), mean diffusivity (MD), and radial diffusivity (RD) of affected-side and unaffected-side trigeminal nerves using DTI...
January 2, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302916/white-matter-integrity-in-the-fronto-striatal-accumbofrontal-tract-predicts-impulsivity
#16
Toshikazu Ikuta, Alberto Del Arco, Katherine H Karlsgodt
Frontostriatal projections have been shown to mediate impulsivity. Recent findings have demonstrated that the projection from the prefrontal cortex to the nucleus accumbens (the accumbofrontal tract) can be isolated by using probabilistic tractography on human brain MRI data, specifically, diffusion tensor images (DTI). Using DTI tractography, we isolated the tract and tested its association with the impulsivity. DTI data from 143 individuals obtained from Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample was used along with the impulsivity measure assessed by the UPPS (urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking) impulsive behavior total score...
January 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300881/causal-contributions-of-the-sma-to-alertness-and-consciousness-interactions
#17
Mar Martín-Signes, Carlos Pérez-Serrano, Ana B Chica
Phasic alertness facilitates conscious perception through a fronto-striatal network, including the supplementary motor area (SMA). The functioning of the ventral attentional network has been related to the alerting system, overlapping with the ventral branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF III). In this study, we use repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and a conscious detection task with near-threshold stimuli that could be preceded by an alerting tone to explore the causal implication of the SMA in the relationship between phasic alertness and conscious perception...
December 29, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299739/nonlinear-deformation-of-tractography-in-ultrasound-guided-low-grade-gliomas-resection
#18
Yiming Xiao, Live Eikenes, Ingerid Reinertsen, Hassan Rivaz
PURPOSE: In brain tumor surgeries, maximum removal of cancerous tissue without compromising normal brain functions can improve the patient's survival rate and therapeutic benefits. To achieve this, diffusion MRI and intra-operative ultrasound (iUS) can be highly instrumental. While diffusion MRI allows the visualization of white matter tracts and helps define the resection plan to best preserve the eloquent areas, iUS can effectively track the brain shift after craniotomy that often renders the pre-surgical plan invalid, ensuring the accuracy and safety of the intervention...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285657/inter-individual-variations-and-hemispheric-asymmetries-in-structural-connectivity-patterns-of-the-inferior-fronto-occipital-fascicle-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-tractography-study
#19
François Vassal, Benjamin Pommier, Anna Sontheimer, Jean-Jacques Lemaire
PURPOSE: Precise knowledge of the structural connectivity of white matter fascicles could yield new insights into function and is important for neurosurgical planning. Therefore, we aimed to provide a detailed map of the cortical terminations of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle (IFOF), with special emphasis on putative inter-individual variations and hemispheric asymmetries. METHODS: Deterministic diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography was used to perform virtual dissection of the IFOF in 20 healthy subjects...
December 28, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274744/analytic-tractography-a-closed-form-solution-for-estimating-local-white-matter-connectivity-with-diffusion-mri
#20
Matthew Cieslak, Tegan Brennan, Wendy Meiring, Lukas J Volz, Clint Greene, Alexander Asturias, Subhash Suri, Scott T Grafton
White matter structures composed of myelinated axons in the living human brain are primarily studied by diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI). These long-range projections are typically characterized in a two-step process: dMRI signal is used to estimate the orientation of axon segments within each voxel, then these local orientations are linked together to estimate the spatial extent of putative white matter bundles. Tractography, the process of tracing bundles across voxels, either requires computationally expensive (probabilistic) simulations to model uncertainty in fiber orientation or ignores it completely (deterministic)...
December 21, 2017: NeuroImage
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