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M Leppänen, K Pasanen, J-P Kulmala, U M Kujala, T Krosshaug, P Kannus, J Perttunen, T Vasankari, J Parkkari
Poor knee alignment is associated with increased loading of the joints, ligaments and tendons, and may increase the risk of injury. The study purpose was to compare differences in knee kinematics between basketball and floorball players during a vertical drop jump (VDJ) task. We wanted to investigate whether basketball players, whose sport includes frequent jump-landings, exhibited better knee control compared with floorball players, whose sport involves less jumping. Complete data was obtained from 173 basketball and 141 floorball players...
April 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Brian Horsak, David Artner, Arnold Baca, Barbara Pobatschnig, Susanne Greber-Platzer, Stefan Nehrer, Barbara Wondrasch
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is one of the most critical and accelerating health challenges throughout the world. It is a major risk factor for developing varus/valgus misalignments of the knee joint. The combination of misalignment at the knee and excess body mass may result in increased joint stresses and damage to articular cartilage. A training programme, which aims at developing a more neutral alignment of the trunk and lower limbs during movement tasks may be able to reduce knee loading during locomotion...
December 23, 2015: Trials
Tianbo Sun, Weijian Yang, Connie Chang-Hasnain
We demonstrate enhanced four-wave mixing using a silicon high contrast grating (HCG) resonator on a SOI (silicon-on-insulator) wafer directly coupled with free space Gaussian beam in surface-normal direction. The measured quality factor for HCG resonator is ~7330. Peak conversion efficiency of -19.5dB is achieved at low pumping power ~900µW. Surface-normal coupling allows for easily and robust alignment system. The very small footprint and high efficiency of our device provide an effective method for wavelength conversion in chip-scale integrated optics...
November 16, 2015: Optics Express
Steven S Klara, Patrick O Saboe, Ian T Sines, Mahnoush Babaei, Po-Lin Chiu, Rita DeZorzi, Kaushik Dayal, Thomas Walz, Manish Kumar, Meagan S Mauter
Two-dimensional (2D) alignment and crystallization of membrane proteins (MPs) is increasingly important in characterizing their three-dimensional (3D) structure, in designing pharmacological agents, and in leveraging MPs for biomimetic devices. Large, highly ordered MP 2D crystals in block copolymer (BCP) matrices are challenging to fabricate, but a facile and scalable technique for aligning and crystallizing MPs in thin-film geometries would rapidly translate into applications. This work introduces a novel method to grow larger and potentially better ordered 2D crystals by performing the crystallization process in the presence of a strong magnetic field...
January 13, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Hiroaki Hayashi, Yuta Konno, Katsumi Kishino
We demonstrated the self-organization of high-density GaN nanocolumns on multilayer graphene (MLG)/SiO2 covered with a thin AlN buffer layer by RF-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. MLG/SiO2 substrates were prepared by the transfer of CVD graphene onto thermally oxidized SiO2/Si [100] substrates. Employing the MLG with an AlN buffer layer enabled the self-organization of high-density and vertically aligned nanocolumns. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that no threading dislocations, stacking faults, or twinning defects were included in the self-organized nanocolumns...
February 5, 2016: Nanotechnology
Daiki Nishiguchi, Masaki Sano
To elucidate mechanisms of mesoscopic turbulence exhibited by active particles, we experimentally study turbulent states of nonliving self-propelled particles. We realize an experimental system with dense suspensions of asymmetrical colloidal particles (Janus particles) self-propelling on a two-dimensional surface under an ac electric field. Velocity fields of the Janus particles in the crowded situation can be regarded as a sort of turbulence because it contains many vortices and their velocities change abruptly...
November 2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Marvulli Riccardo, Lopopolo Angela, Dantone Angela, Palmisano Vita, Lancioni Giulio, Fiore Pietroq, Ianieri Giancarlo, Megna Marisa
The Hereditary Spastic Paraparesis (HSP) or Strumpell-Lorrain disease is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease of the spinal cord. It is genetically transmitted and characterized by a progressive muscle weakness, spasticity of the lower limbs and awkward gain. There is no specific pharmacological treatment. The pharmacological therapy decreases the muscle tone and prevents stiffening). Physiotherapy restrains the progression of muscle atrophy, delays contraction of the tendons and gives greater mobility to people affected by the disease...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ryan M Castile, Nathan W Skelley, Behzad Babaei, Robert H Brophy, Spencer P Lake
Previous studies have shown different elastic properties between the anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) bundles of the human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). However, it is unknown if the two bundles of the ACL exhibit distinct time-dependent properties and microstructural organization, which have important implications for fully understanding the structure-function relationships of this oft-injured ligament. The goal of this study was to quantify the viscoelastic material properties and collagen fiber alignment of the AM and PL bundles in 16 human ACLs during stress-relaxation mechanical tests using the quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model and a quantitative polarization imaging technique...
January 4, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Qian Wang, Haojie Wei, Juan Du, Yan Cao, Nana Zhang, Xiaoyun Liu, Xiaoyu Liu, Dandan Chen, Wei Ma
Haspin-catalyzed histone H3 threonine 3 (Thr3) phosphorylation facilitates chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) docking at centromeres, regulating indirectly chromosome behavior during somatic mitosis. It is not fully known about the expression and function of H3 with phosphorylated Thr3 (H3T3-P) during meiosis in oocytes. In this study, we investigated the expression and sub-cellular distribution of H3T3-P, as well as its function in mouse oocytes during meiotic division. Western blot analysis revealed that H3T3-P expression was only detected after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), and gradually increased to peak level at metaphase I (MI), but sharply decreased at metaphase II (MII)...
2016: Cell Cycle
Thomas R Sharples, Thomas F M Luxford, Dave Townsend, Kenneth G McKendrick, Matthew L Costen
We present the implementation of a new crossed-molecular beam, velocity-map ion-imaging apparatus, optimized for collisions of electronically excited molecules. We have applied this apparatus to rotational energy transfer in NO(A(2)Σ(+), v = 0, N = 0, j = 0.5) + Ar collisions, at an average energy of 525 cm(-1). We report differential cross sections for scattering into NO(A(2)Σ(+), v = 0, N' = 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9), together with quantum scattering calculations of the differential cross sections and angle dependent rotational alignment...
November 28, 2015: Journal of Chemical Physics
Julián Betancur, Antoine Simon, Edgar Halbert, François Tavard, François Carré, Alfredo Hernández, Erwan Donal, Frédéric Schnell, Mireille Garreau
Describing and analyzing heart multiphysics requires the acquisition and fusion of multisensor cardiac images. Multisensor image fusion enables a combined analysis of these heterogeneous modalities. We propose to register intra-patient multiview 2D+t ultrasound (US) images with multiview late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) images acquired during cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in order to fuse mechanical and tissue state information. The proposed procedure registers both US and LGE to cine MRI. The correction of slice misalignment and the rigid registration of multiview LGE and cine MRI are studied, to select the most appropriate similarity measure...
February 2016: Medical Image Analysis
Christopher M Lee, James D Kubicki, Bingxin Fan, Linghao Zhong, Michael C Jarvis, Seong H Kim
Hydrogen bonds play critical roles in noncovalent directional interactions determining the crystal structure of cellulose. Although diffraction studies accurately determined the coordinates of carbon and oxygen atoms in crystalline cellulose, the structural information on hydrogen atoms involved in hydrogen-bonding is still elusive. This could be complemented by vibrational spectroscopy; but the assignment of the OH stretch peaks has been controversial. In this study, we performed calculations using density functional theory with dispersion corrections (DFT-D2) for the cellulose Iβ crystal lattices with the experimentally determined carbon and oxygen coordinates...
December 10, 2015: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Si Woo Lee, Hee-Sung Keum, Han Seong Kim, Hyo Jung Kim, Kwangseok Ahn, Dong Ryeol Lee, Je Han Kim, Hyun Hwi Lee
UNLABELLED: The structure of P3HT in P3HT:PCBM films is examined on a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate ( PEDOT: PSS) substrate subjected to cryo-cooling to low temperature (-143 °C) followed by gradual heating to 50 °C. The behavior of these systems is examined in the absence and presence of an Al electrode on top of the P3HT:PCBM film. At temperatures below -10 °C, only the type-I phase of P3HT is observed. However, the type-II phase of P3HT starts to form near -10 °C, in both the presence and absence of the Al layer...
February 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Derek Nankivil, Gar Waterman, Francesco LaRocca, Brenton Keller, Anthony N Kuo, Joseph A Izatt
We describe the first handheld, swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system capable of imaging both the anterior and posterior segments of the eye in rapid succession. A single 2D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner was utilized for both imaging modes, and the optical paths for each imaging mode were optimized for their respective application using a combination of commercial and custom optics. The system has a working distance of 26.1 mm and a measured axial resolution of 8 μm (in air)...
November 1, 2015: Biomedical Optics Express
R Scott Smith, R Alan May, Bruce D Kay
The desorption kinetics for Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, O2, CO, methane, ethane, and propane from graphene-covered Pt(111) and amorphous solid water (ASW) surfaces are investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). The TPD spectra for all of the adsorbates from graphene have well-resolved first, second, third, and multilayer desorption peaks. The alignment of the leading edges is consistent the zero-order desorption for all of the adsorbates. An Arrhenius analysis is used to obtain desorption energies and prefactors for desorption from graphene for all of the adsorbates...
March 3, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Reinier Gesto-Borroto, Miriam Sánchez-Sánchez, Raúl Arredondo-Peter
Globins (Glbs) are proteins widely distributed in organisms. Three evolutionary families have been identified in Glbs: the M, S and T Glb families. The M Glbs include flavohemoglobins (fHbs) and single-domain Glbs (SDgbs); the S Glbs include globin-coupled sensors (GCSs), protoglobins and sensor single domain globins, and the T Glbs include truncated Glbs (tHbs). Structurally, the M and S Glbs exhibit 3/3-folding whereas the T Glbs exhibit 2/2-folding. Glbs are widespread in bacteria, including several rhizobial genomes...
2015: F1000Research
Mohamed Ebaid, Jin-Ho Kang, Yang-Seok Yoo, Seung-Hyuk Lim, Yong-Hoon Cho, Sang-Wan Ryu
We report on the fabrication of novel InGaN nanowires (NWs) with improved crystalline quality and high radiative efficiency for applications as nanoscale visible light emitters. Pristine InGaN NWs grown under a uniform In/Ga molar flow ratio (UIF) exhibited multi-peak white-like emission and a high density of dislocation-like defects. A phase separation and broad emission with non-uniform luminescent clusters were also observed for a single UIF NW investigated by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence. Hence, we proposed a simple approach based on engineering the axial In content by increasing the In/Ga molar flow ratio at the end of NW growth...
2015: Scientific Reports
Nienke van Atteveldt, Gabriella Musacchia, Elana Zion-Golumbic, Pejman Sehatpour, Daniel C Javitt, Charles Schroeder
The brain's fascinating ability to adapt its internal neural dynamics to the temporal structure of the sensory environment is becoming increasingly clear. It is thought to be metabolically beneficial to align ongoing oscillatory activity to the relevant inputs in a predictable stream, so that they will enter at optimal processing phases of the spontaneously occurring rhythmic excitability fluctuations. However, some contexts have a more predictable temporal structure than others. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the processing of rhythmic sounds is more efficient than the processing of irregularly timed sounds...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Annapaola Migani, Duncan J Mowbray, Jin Zhao, Hrvoje Petek
Knowledge of the frontier levels' alignment prior to photoirradiation is necessary to achieve a complete quantitative description of H2O photocatalysis on TiO2(110). Although H2O on rutile TiO2(110) has been thoroughly studied both experimentally and theoretically, a quantitative value for the energy of the highest H2O occupied levels is still lacking. For experiment, this is due to the H2O levels being obscured by hybridization with TiO2(110) levels in the difference spectra obtained via ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS)...
January 13, 2015: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Philip W Kuchel, Dmitry Shishmarev, Max Puckeridge, Malcolm H Levitt, Christoph Naumann, Bogdan E Chapman
(133)Cs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was conducted on (133)Cs(+) in gelatin hydrogels that were either relaxed or stretched. Stretching generated a septet from this spin-7/2 nucleus, and its nuclear magnetic relaxation was studied via z-spectra, and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser (NOESY) spectroscopy. Various spectral features were well simulated by using Mathematica and the software package SpinDynamica. Spectra of CsCl in suspensions of human erythrocytes embedded in gelatin gel showed separation of the resonances from the cation inside and outside the cells...
December 2015: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
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