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Esophageal disorders /cancers

E Savarino, N de Bortoli, C De Cassan, M Della Coletta, O Bartolo, M Furnari, A Ottonello, E Marabotto, G Bodini, V Savarino
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract which is typically characterized by heartburn and acid regurgitation. These symptoms are widespread in the community and range from 2.5% to more than 25%. Economic analyses showed an increase in direct and indirect costs related to the diagnosis, treatment and surveillance of GERD and its complications. The aim of this review is to provide current information regarding the natural history of GERD, taking into account the evolution of its definition and the worldwide gradual change of its epidemiology...
November 9, 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Hao Jin, Shaobo Zhou
The study of the heparanase has long been paid wide attention. Heparanase ,an endo-β-D-glucuronidase, is capable of specifically degrading heparan sulfate(HS), one of the excellular matrix(ECM) components. It exerts its enzymatic activity catalyzing the cleavage of the β (1,4)-glycosidic bond between glucuronic acid and glucosamine residue. HS cleavage results in remodelling of the extracellular matrix as well as in regulating the release of many HS-linked molecules such as growth factors, cytokines and enzymes involved in inflammation, wound healing and tumour invasion...
November 1, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Shao-Hua Xie, Jesper Lagergren
The Chinese famine in 1958-1962 was one of the worst in human history, but its potential influence on cancer risks is uncertain. Using cancer incidence data in Shanghai, China, during 1983-2007, we calculated age-specific incidence rates of gastrointestinal cancers in birth cohorts exposed to the Chinese famine in different periods of life and a non-exposed reference cohort. Age-period-cohort regressions estimated the overall relative risks of gastrointestinal cancers in each birth cohort. A total of 212,098 new cases of gastrointestinal cancer were identified during the study period (129,233 males and 82,865 females), among whom 18,146 had esophageal cancer, 71,011 gastric cancer, 55,864 colorectal cancer, 42,751 liver cancer, 9,382 gallbladder cancer, and 14,944 had pancreatic cancer...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Sang-Wook Yi, Jae-Seok Hong, Jee-Jeon Yi, Heechoul Ohrr
Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for the global disease burden including liver diseases. However, the combined effect of alcohol use and body mass index (BMI) on alcohol-related diseases has seldom been examined. We examined whether alcohol consumption and BMI could act together to increase mortality from nonneoplastic liver diseases, upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers, and alcohol use disorders (AUD) in middle-aged Korean men.107,735 men (mean age, 58.8 years) participated in a postal survey in 2004 and were followed until 2010, by linkage to national death records...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
S Goetze, A K Dumke, D Zillikens, U C Hipler, P Elsner
Anti-laminin γ1-pemphigoid (formerly known as anti-p200 pemphigoid) is a rare subepidermal autoimmunobullous disorder first described by Zillikens et al. in 1996 (1,2). Clinically, it mimics bullous pemphigoid, linear IgA dermatosis, dermatitis herpetiformis, pompholyx or the inflammatory variant of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, respectively (1,3). The laminin γ1-chain has been identified as the major targeting antigen (1,4,5). Histologically, a subepidermal split is seen accompanied by neutrophils and eosinophils as well as linear deposits of IgG and/or C3 along the dermoepidermal junction in direct immunofluorescence microscopy (1)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Yung Fong Tsai, Hsiu Pin Chen, Fu Chao Liu, Shih Hao Liu, Chun Yu Chen, Chih Wen Cheng, Jr Rung Lin
Post-transplant malignancy is a major cause of late mortality for liver transplant recipients (LTRs). This nationwide population-based cohort study investigated the cancer type, incidence, and risk factors associated with post-transplant malignancies in 2938 Taiwanese LTRs who underwent transplantation between 1998 and 2012. Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database were extracted on the basis of the International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Among these patients, 284 post-transplant malignancies were diagnosed...
September 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Eishika Dissanayake, Yuzaburo Inoue
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single-stranded, non-coding RNAs that are increasingly being recognized as important epigenetic regulators. They have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, connective tissue diseases, and neuromuscular disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: A few miRNAs have already been recognized as a core set of miRNAs important in allergic inflammation. These include let-7, miR-21, miR-142, and miR-146...
September 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Yun Hee Kang, Hye Kyung Lee, Geon Park
Cowden syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple hamartomas in various tissues and cancers (breast, thyroid, and endometrium). We report CS of the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract that was incidentally detected by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) at postoperative surveillance in an endometrial cancer patient. PET/CT showed mildly increased FDG uptake along the entire esophagus and stomach. Upper GI endoscopy and histologic examination revealed glycogenic acanthosis of the esophagus and several hundred gastric polyps...
September 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Anna Paeschke, Christian Bojarski, Susanne Küpferling, Thomas Hucklenbroich, Britta Siegmund, Severin Daum
Endoscopic stent implantation is a common short-treatment option in palliative settings in patients with esophageal cancer. Advanced disease is associated with low survival rates; therefore, data on the long-term outcome are limited. So far, cases of long-term remission or even cure of metastasized adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction or stomach (AGS) have only been reported from Asia. A 51-year-old male patient primarily diagnosed with metastasized adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) [type I, cT3cN+cM1 (hep), CEA positive, UICC stage IV] received palliative esophageal stenting with a self-expandable metal stent...
May 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Hartmut Schaefer, Carlo Vivaldi, Till Herbold, Sebastian Brinkmann, Martin Maus, Marc Bludau, Ulrich Töx, Tobias Goeser, Arnulf H Hoelscher, Jessica M Leers
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placed in the pull through (PT) technique is a common procedure to restore enteral feeding in patients with swallowing disorders. Limitations of this technique are patients with obstruction of the pharynx or esophagus or with an esophageal stent. We report our experience with the direct puncture (DP) PEG device. METHODS: We included 154 patients (55 women). One hundred forty patients had cancer. After passing the endoscope into the stomach, 4 gastropexies were performed with a gastropexy device and the PEG was placed with the introducer method...
2017: Digestive Surgery
Federica Branchi, Andrea Tenca, Claudia Bareggi, Carolina Mensi, Aurelio Mauro, Dario Conte, Roberto Penagini
PURPOSE: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare cancer with a poor prognosis. We describe a case of MPM with an uncommon onset, characterized by pseudoachalasia as demonstrated with high-resolution manometry (HRM). METHODS: A 56-year-old man was referred to our hospital reporting worsening dysphagia. On the hypothesis of an esophageal motor disorder, the patient was referred for an HRM examination, which revealed features consistent with a diagnosis of type II achalasia...
July 2, 2016: Tumori
Masaaki Yamamoto, Makoto Yamasaki, Ken Sugimoto, Yoshihiro Maekawa, Yasuhiro Miyazaki, Tomoki Makino, Tsuyoshi Takahashi, Yukinori Kurokawa, Kiyokazu Nakajima, Shuji Takiguchi, Hiromi Rakugi, Masaki Mori, Yuichiro Doki
BACKGROUND: The number of geriatric patients with esophageal cancer is increasing in step with the aging of the population. Geriatric patients have a higher risk of postoperative complications, including delirium that can cause a fall or impact survival. Therefore, it is very important that we evaluate risks of postoperative complications before surgery. The aim of this study was to predict postoperative delirium in elderly patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 91 patients aged 75 years and over who underwent esophagectomy between January 2006 and December 2014...
November 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Peter Haubjerg Asdahl, Jeanette Falck Winther, Trine Gade Bonnesen, Sofie De Fine Licht, Thorgerdur Gudmundsdottir, Anna Sällfors Holmqvist, Nea Malila, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Finn Wesenberg, Jens Frederik Dahlerup, Jørgen Helge Olsen, Henrik Hasle
Survival after childhood cancer diagnosis has remarkably improved, but emerging evidence suggests that cancer-directed therapy may have adverse gastrointestinal late effects. We aimed to comprehensively assess the frequency of gastrointestinal and liver late effects among childhood cancer survivors and compare this frequency with the general population. Our population-based cohort study included all 1-year survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden diagnosed from the 1940s and 1950s...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Machi Tsukamoto, Noriaki Manabe, Tomoari Kamada, Toshihiro Hirai, Jiro Hata, Ken Haruma, Kazuhiko Inoue
Dysphagia is a symptom suggestive of severe underlying pathology, although its causes include organic and non-organic disorders. The epidemiology of dysphagia is, however, poorly understood. We evaluated the prevalence of dysphagia in outpatients in Japan, measured the proportion ultimately found to have an organic cause, and recorded the nature of their symptoms and the underlying disorder. Of 5362 consecutive outpatients attending the Digestive Center at our hospital between June 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012, 186 patients (3...
August 2016: Dysphagia
Philip Bolduc, Navid Roder, Emily Colgate, Sarah H Cheeseman
Care of patients with HIV infection starts with diagnosis as soon as possible, preferably at or near the time of acute infection. Opportunistic infections, malignancies, and other conditions develop progressively over time, particularly in untreated patients. The AIDS-defining opportunistic infections most common in the United States include Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, Candida esophagitis, toxoplasmic encephalitis, tuberculosis, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex, cryptococcal meningitis, and cytomegalovirus retinitis...
April 2016: FP Essentials
Tadayuki Oshima, Hiroto Miwa
The gastrointestinal mucosal barrier plays an essential role in the separation of the inside of the body from the outside environment. Tight junctions (TJs) are the most important component for construction of a constitutive barrier of epithelial cells, and they regulate the permeability of the barrier by tightly sealing the cell-cell junctions. TJ proteins are represented by claudins, occludin, junctional adhesion molecules, and scaffold protein zonula occludens. Among these TJ proteins, claudins are the major components of TJs and are responsible for the barrier and the polarity of the epithelial cells...
August 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Antonio Galvao Neto, April Whitaker, Zhiheng Pei
Esophageal cancer is one of the deadliest cancers, with a dismal prognosis. It is increasingly recognized that esophageal cancer is a heterogeneous disease. It can be subdivided into two distinct groups: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, based on histological appearance. In the Western world, the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma was considerably higher than esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) until the 1990s when, due to a dramatic increase, the incidence of EA surpassed that of squamous cell carcinoma...
February 2016: Seminars in Oncology
Jianguang Ji, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Alcohol consumption is associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, but little is known about whether alcohol consumption is associated with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cancer, which we attempt to clarify in this study. Individuals with alcohol use disorders were identified from the nation-wide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and Outpatient Register, the Crime Register, and the Prescription Drug Register, and they were linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry to calculate standardized incidence ratios of esophageal and gastric cancers using those without alcohol use disorders (AUDs) as a reference...
February 16, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Tomohiko Sasaki, Satoru Motoyama, Atsushi Komatsuda, Hiroyuki Shibata, Yusuke Sato, Kei Yoshino, Akiyuki Wakita, Hajime Saito, Akira Anbai, Mario Jin, Yoshihiro Minamiya
INTRODUCTION: We experienced two esophageal cancer patients who developed severe acute renal failure after neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorourasil. PRESENTATION OF CASE: After administration of cisplatin, their serum creatinine increased gradually until they required hemodialysis and their renal failure was permanent. In both cases, renal biopsy examination indicated partial recovery of the proximal tubule, but renal function did not recover. After these events, one patient underwent definitive radiotherapy and the other underwent esophagectomy for their esophageal cancers, while continuing dialysis...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Shumei Xu, Ying Xue
Pediatric or childhood obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Approximately 43 million individuals are obese, 21-24% children and adolescents are overweight, and 16-18% of individuals have abdominal obesity. The prevalence of obesity is highest among specific ethnic groups. Obesity increases the risk of heart diseases in children and adults. Childhood obesity predisposes the individual to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, liver and kidney diseases and causes reproductive dysfunction in adults...
January 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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