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Rasha Khatib, Yurany A Arevalo, Mark A Berendsen, Shyam Prabhakaran, Mark D Huffman
AIMS: We performed a systematic review to evaluate stroke presentation, evaluation, management, and outcomes among studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Elsevier), and the Global Health (EBSCOhost) databases between January 2005 and June 2017 for studies conducted in LMICs defined by the World Bank. We pooled prevalence estimates using an inverse-variance weighting method and stratified by the country income group...
July 19, 2018: Neuroepidemiology
Liwen Chen, Mu Li, Zhaoxia Luo, Xiaoqin Yan, Ke Yao, Yin Zhao, Hong Zhang
Purpose: To investigate the roles of vasoactive intestinal peptides (VIPs) in regulating the morphology and F-actin distribution of Schlemm's canal (SC) of rat eyes. Methods: Chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) hypertension models with episcleral venous cauterization (EVC) were treated with topical VIP or PG99-465 (vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors 2 [VPAC2] antagonist). IOPs were measured with Tono-Pen, and the SC parameters, including the cross-section area, circumference, and length, were statistically evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin and CD31 immunohistochemical staining...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Dietrich Rothenbacher, Stefanie Braig, Chad A Logan, Gertrud Feike, Miriam Müller, Wolfgang Koenig, Frank Reister, Jon Genuneit
PURPOSE: In utero exposure to cardiometabolic risk factors may determine health related outcomes at birth and in later life. The aim of this analysis was to describe the relationship of maternal serum uric acid (SUA) and cystatin C with maternal and neonatal cardiometabolic risk markers and with birth weight and risk of small-for-gestational age (SGA) as well as large-for gestational age (LGA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Ulm SPATZ Health Study, 934 singleton newborns and their mothers were recruited during their hospital stay in the University Medical Center Ulm between 04/2012 and 05/2013 (overall response 49%)...
2018: PloS One
Shreya S Revadi, V Kavitha, A Mooventhan
A 39-year-old, married man was diagnosed with hepatic cirrhosis with portal hypertension and ascites in February 2016. His symptoms as described by him began with generalized body weakness, breathlessness and sudden weight gain of 16 kg within 3 weeks. History of regular intake of alcohol since 7 years and tremendous family stress were present. Patient underwent conventional medication for 6 months and ayurvedic medications for 4 months. In January 2017, he visited our hospital with the same complaints and underwent integrated naturopathy and yoga therapies (INYTs) for 4 weeks along with Ayurveda and conventional medications...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Julia L Marcus, Kenneth Levine, Chris Grasso, Douglas S Krakower, Victoria Powell, Kyle T Bernstein, Stephen Boswell, Kenneth H Mayer
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use is associated with use of non-HIV-related health care. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of potential PrEP candidates at a Boston, Massachusetts, community health clinic during 2012 to 2016, comparing the proportion of PrEP users and non-PrEP users receiving primary care. RESULTS: Of 5857 PrEP candidates, 2047 (35%) were prescribed PrEP. After adjustment for demographics and number of visits, more PrEP users received influenza vaccination (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Isabelle Cote, Hale Z Toklu, Sara M Green, Drake Morgan, Christy S Carter, Nihal Tumer, Philip J Scarpace
Reducing body weight has been shown to lower blood pressure in obesity-related hypertension. However, success of those lifestyle interventions is limited due to poor long-term compliance. Emerging evidence indicate that feeding schedule plays a role on the regulation of blood pressure. With two studies, we examined the role of feeding schedule on energy homeostasis and blood pressure. In Study 1, rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 24 hours (Control) or for 12 hours during the dark phase (time-restricted feeding; TRF)...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Amrita V Pai, Crystal A West, Aline Maria Arlindo de Souza, Xi Cheng, David A West, Hong Ji, Xie Wu, Chris Baylis, Kathryn Sandberg
Inbred salt-sensitive (SS) rats developed by John Rapp and distributed by Harlan (SS/JrHsd) were shown to model ovariectomy-induced hypertension since on a low sodium (LS) diet, ovariectomized SS (SS-OVX) animals became hypertensive in contrast to their sham-operated (SS-SHAM) normotensive littermates. After Harlan merged with Envigo in 2015, inconsistencies in the LS normotensive phenotype were reported. To further investigate these inconsistencies, we studied the effects of ovariectomy on SS and salt-resistant (SR) rats purchased from Envigo (SS/JrHsd/Env) between 2015-2017...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Marinko Marušić, Antonio Klemenčić, Rosana Troskot Perić, Goran Hauser
Gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage is the most important clinical event that results from portal hypertension. It is a lifethreatening condition that demands rapid and efficient treatment. The first step in bleeding control is hemodynamic stabilization and pharmacological treatment, which includes administration of vasoactive drugs and short-term antibiotic prophylaxis. After initial hemodynamic stabilization, endoscopic therapy should be performed. The first choice of endoscopic treatment for esophageal bleeding is endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL), or endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) if EVL cannot be performed...
April 2018: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Kallirroi Kotilea, Tania Mahler, Patrick Bontems, Jacques Devière, Hubert Louis
Diagnostic criteria for esophageal motor disorders have recently been updated with the advent of high-resolution manometry that gives a precise mapping of peristaltic abnormalities and an indirect view of bolus transit problems. Achalasia, the best-defined motor disorder, is now divided in subsets of manometric phenotypes that predict outcome of treatment and guide our therapeutic approach. Pharmacological therapy using smooth muscle relaxants for spastic esophageal disorders remains poorly effective and used only as a bridge to more effective therapies : endoscopic balloon dilation and surgical myotomy are both effective therapies in achalasia, myotomy being considered as the preferred approach in children because it is aimed to be definitive, while dilations usually have to be repeated...
April 2018: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
I Papachatzakis, L Velentza, P Zarogoulidis, A Kallianos, G Trakada
OBJECTIVE: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) are separately associated with several comorbidities. The coexistence of the two diseases, referred to as overlap syndrome, may act as a predisposing factor for a higher prevalence of comorbidities compared to those associated with each disease separately. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relative prevalence of cardiovascular as well as other comorbidities, in patients with the overlap syndrome, as compared to patients that are diagnosed solely with OSA...
July 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Akram Saleh, Hanna Makhamreh, Tareq Qoussoos, Izzat Alawwa, Moath Alsmady, Zaid A Salah, Ali Shakhatreh, Lewa Alhazaymeh, Mohammed Jabber
Coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are serious manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis. A considerable proportion of patients with CAD have associated PAD; however, many are asymptomatic and this condition remains underdiagnosed. Little is known about the prevalence and clinical implication of PAD in patients undergoing coronary angiography in the Middle East with no history of the disease.To study the prevalence of previously unrecognized PAD of the lower limbs in patients undergoing coronary angiography, and to determine the correlation with CAD...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yue Shi, Bin Zhang, Fanbin Kong, Xilian Li
To analyze prenatal ultrasound data for fetal limb deformities in high-risk pregnant women and the risk factors for prenatal limb defects in high-risk pregnant women.This was a retrospective study of high-risk pregnant women at the multidisciplinary consultation center from January 2006 to December 2015. When deformities were definitively diagnosed in the first trimester by ultrasound, patients were recommended to undergo an abortion, and fetal abnormalities were confirmed by pathological examination (both gross anatomic examinations and fetal chromosome and genetic tests)...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Gwan Hee Han, Min-A Kim
RATIONALE: Spontaneous and repeated hepatic ruptures caused by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome are uncommon but life-threatening conditions that rarely occur early in the second trimester of pregnancy. PATIENT CONCERNS: We describe a patient who experienced spontaneous hepatic ruptures in the absence of hypertension during the early second trimesters of both her first and second pregnancies. DIAGNOSES: A 34-year-old multiparous woman without hypertension was admitted at 21 weeks' gestation because of a spontaneous hepatic rupture with hemoperitoneum...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bedia Samanci, Güneş Altıokka-Uzun, Elif Kocasoy Orhan, Esme Ekizoğlu, Ali Emre Öge, Betül Baykan
PURPOSE: To compare blink reflex examination findings in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) with migraineurs and controls and to investigate the role of blink reflex data in the follow-up by evaluating their relationship with clinical symptoms. METHODS: We included 23 patients with IIH, 15 migraineurs, and 16 controls. Blink reflex was studied with bilateral paired stimulations, and the 2R2/1R2 and 2R2c/1R2c area ratios, 1R2, 2R2, 1R2c, and 2R2c latencies were compared (R2:ipsilateral R2 response, R2c:contralateral R2 response)...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Jack Garland, Kilak Kesha, Dianne Vertes, Lucy Modahl, David Milne, Thomas Ruder, Simon Stables, Rexson Tse
Cerebral venous thrombosis is a rare condition which constitutes 0.5% to 2% of all types of stroke and carries a mortality of up to 20% to 50%. It leads to cerebral edema, infarction, hemorrhage and venous hypertension. Clinically the diagnosis is confirmed using enhanced computed tomography (CT) angiography which demonstrates an empty delta sign in cerebral veins, particularly in the superior sagittal sinus. However, postmortem CT (PMCT) findings on cerebral venous thrombosis have not been documented in the literature...
July 17, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Demet Özkaramanlı Gür, Aydın Akyüz, Şeref Alpsoy, Niyazi Güler
OBJECTIVE: Although frequently utilized, an exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) provides limited diagnostic accuracy in patients with atypical angina pectoris. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible incremental value of pretest probability (PTP) scores and exercise parameters in discriminating coronary artery disease (CAD) and to identify PTP cutoff values. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort of 207 patients with atypical angina (76 women, 131 men; mean age: 57...
July 2018: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Alaa Quisi, Gökhan Alıcı, Samir Allahverdiyev, Ömer Genç, Ahmet Oytun Baykan, Süleyman Özbiçer, Mevlüt Koç
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the oscillometric measurements of the elastic properties of the aorta in patients with isolated coronary artery ectasia (CAE). METHODS: This study included 137 patients (92 men and 45 women; mean age: 60.8±11.7 years) who underwent coronary angiography to investigate ischemic heart disease. The patients were divided into 3 groups; the first group consisted of 51 patients with CAE, the second group comprised 36 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and the third group was made up of 50 patients with normal coronary arteries...
July 2018: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Yalçın Velibey, Ahmet İlker Tekkeşin, Hakan Barutca, Özlem Yıldırımtürk, Emrah Bozbeyoğlu, Yasin Çakıllı, Özge Güzelburç, Seviye Bora Şişman, Göksel Çinier, Sinan Şahin, Ahmet Taha Alper
OBJECTIVE: The present study is an investigation of the association between high on-treatment platelet reactivity to clopidogrel (HTPRC) and hepatosteatosis in patients who had elective stent implantation due to coronary artery disease. METHODS: A total of 190 consecutive patients who underwent an elective coronary stent implantation due to coronary artery disease were prospectively enrolled in the study. Eligible patients were given a 300 mg loading dose of clopidogrel before percutaneous coronary intervention...
July 2018: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Heath G Gasier, Ivan T Demchenko, Sergei Yu Zhilyaev, Alexander N Moskvin, Alexander I Krivchenko, Claude A Piantadosi
Exposure to extreme-hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2), > 5-6 atmospheres absolute (ATA), produces baroreflex impairment, sympathetic hyperactivation, hypertension, tachycardia, and cerebral hyperemia, known as Phase II, culminating in seizures. We hypothesized that attenuation of the effects of high sympathetic outflow would preserve regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and protect against HBO2-induced seizures. To explore this possibility, we tested four adrenoceptor antagonists in conscious and anesthetized rats exposed to HBO2 at 5 and 6 ATA, respectively: phentolamine (nonselective α1 and 2), prazosin (selective α1), propranolol (nonselective β1 and 2) and atenolol (selective β1)...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Nirmeen A Kishk, Asmaa M Ebraheim, Amal S Ashour, Nashwa M Badr, Mohamed A Eshra
Purpose Monitoring of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is required to prevent secondary optic nerve damage. Sonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) is a noninvasive method to evaluate intracranial hypertension. Different ONSD cut-off values have been reported probably due to ethnic variations. Our aim was to determine optic nerve sonographic examination cut-off points to predict raised ICP in IIH patients. Methods This case-control study was conducted on 99 IIH post-pubertal female patients (both probable and definite) and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
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