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Hematology, bone marrow

Dhanya Lakshmi Narayanan, Shubha R Phadke
Stem cell transplantation and cord blood banking have received much popularity among general public and medical professionals in the recent past. But information about the scientific aspects, its utility and limitations is incomplete amongst laypersons as well as many medical practitioners. Stem cells differ from all other types of cells in the human body because of their ability to multiply in order to self perpetuate and differentiate into specialized cells. Stems cells could be totipotent, multipotent, pluripotent, oligopotent or unipotent depending on the type of cells that can arise or differentiate from them...
March 20, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Sinem Civriz Bozdağ, Meltem Kurt Yüksel, Taner Demirer
Stem cells can be either totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent or unipotent. Totipotent cells have the capability to produce all cell types of the developing organism, including both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. The Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC) are the first defined adult stem cells (ASC) that give rise to all blood cells and immune system. Use of HSCs for treatment of hematologic malignancies, which is also called bone marrow (BM) transplantation or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) transplantation is the pioneer of cellular therapy and translational research...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Rit Bahadur Gurung, Dae Hee Kim, Lila Kim, Albert W Lee, Yonglin Gao, Zhenhua Wang
We performed a series of toxicity studies on the safety of 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) sodium salt as a food ingredient. 6'-SL sodium salt, up to a maximum dose of 5000 μg/plate, did not increase the number of revertant colonies in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium in the presence or absence of S9 metabolic activation. A chromosomal aberration assay (using Chinese hamster lung cells) found no clastogenic effects at any concentration of 6'-SL sodium salt in the presence or absence of S9 metabolic activation...
March 16, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
V Moalic-Allain
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a common procedure potentially beneficial to many individuals with cancer, hematological, or inherited disorders, and has highlighted the need of related or unrelated donors to perform allograft. Donation of hematopoietic stem cells, either through bone marrow harvest or peripheral blood stem cell collection, is well-established and widespread. Over the past two decades, the peripheral blood stem cell collection by aphaeresis has become the main source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation, due to faster engraftment and practicability and lower risk of relapse for high-risk patients...
March 16, 2018: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
Tetsuo Saito, Ryo Toya, Tomohiko Matsuyama, Satoshi Ninomura, Natsuo Oya
PURPOSE: As predictors of hematologic toxicity (HT) after palliative radiotherapy (RT) have been studied insufficiently, we explored predictors of leukopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia attributable to palliative RT. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed patients with various solid tumors who had received palliative RT at our institution. Excluded from our study were patients who had undergone chemotherapy from one month before to one month after the start of RT...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Douglas A Salguero, Pamela A Barletta, Willaim Sierraalta
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a hematologic disease with high mortality rates all over the world. The diagnosis has always been challenging since the first case was reported in 1844. For that reason the diagnostic criteria have evolved over years to include the features of the disease more comprehensively. Unusual presentations are infrequent and a diagnostic challenge. For this reason we report this rare case in which diarrhea and abdominal pain were the initial presenting symptoms of multiple myeloma with a plasmacytoma...
March 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Manuela Germeshausen, Phil Ancliff, Jaime Estrada, Markus Metzler, Eva Ponstingl, Horst Rütschle, Dirk Schwabe, Richard H Scott, Sule Unal, Angela Wawer, Bernward Zeller, Matthias Ballmaier
Heterozygous mutations in MECOM (MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus) have been reported to be causative of a rare association of congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and radioulnar synostosis. Here we report on 12 patients with congenital hypomegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia caused by MECOM mutations (including 10 novel mutations). The mutations affected different functional domains of the EVI1 protein. The spectrum of phenotypes was much broader than initially reported for the first 3 patients; we found familial as well as sporadic cases, and the clinical spectrum ranged from isolated radioulnar synostosis with no or mild hematological involvement to severe bone marrow failure without obvious skeletal abnormality...
March 27, 2018: Blood Advances
Mutlu Kasar, Mahmut Yeral, Soner Solmaz, Nurhilal Büyükkurt, Suheyl Asma, Çiğdem Gereklioğlu, Can Boğa, Hakan Özdoğu, Bilkay Baştürk
OBJECTIVES: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant is a curative treatment option for many hematologic diseases. The existence of a fully compatible donor for recipients is the first condition for minimized transplant-related mortality and morbidity. The best donor for hematopoietic stem cell transplant is an HLA-matched sibling donor. The possibility of finding an HLA-matched sibling is less than 30% worldwide. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is needed for an increasing number of patients every year, but the ability to find a fully compatible donor has limited its use...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Francesca Re, Ilenia Manfra, Filomena Russo, Caterina Plenteda, Angelica Spolzino, Elena Follini, Maria Gullo, Claudia Romano, Maria Cristina Baroni, Franco Aversa
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, life-threatening blood disorder characterized by intravascular hemolysis, thrombosis and bone marrow failure. Acute kidney injury, including acute renal failure, have been reported in patients with PNH. We report the case of a 36-year-old male patient with PNH who developed acute kidney injury following an infection of undetermined diagnosis. Although hemolysis was initially controlled and renal function stabilized following packed red blood cell transfusion and empirical levofloxacin and prednisone, he later experienced recurrent episodes of hemolysis and hematuria requiring monthly red blood cell support...
March 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Hailian Wang, Wei Ge, Yong Zhuang, Jinqiu Fu, Dong Li, Xiuli Ju
Background: Cord blood transplantation (CBT) can be a life-saving procedure in the treatment of a broad variety of disorders, including hematologic, immune, and genetic diseases. However, delayed platelet recovery hinders the application of CBT. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the optimal combination of cytokines to amplify megakaryocyte (Mk). Methods: CB CD34+ cells were obtained by immunomagnetic isolation and amplified under four different cytokine combinations...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Pingnan Xiao, Monika Dolinska, Lakshmi Sandhow, Makoto Kondo, Anne-Sofie Johansson, Thibault Bouderlique, Ying Zhao, Xidan Li, Marios Dimitriou, George Z Rassidakis, Eva Hellström-Lindberg, Nagahiro Minato, Julian Walfridsson, David T Scadden, Mikael Sigvardsson, Hong Qian
Mutations of signal-induced proliferation-associated gene 1 ( SIPA1 ), a RAP1 GTPase-activating protein, were reported in patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, a childhood myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN). Sipa1 deficiency in mice leads to the development of age-dependent MPN. However, Sipa1 expression in bone marrow (BM) microenvironment and its effect on the pathogenesis of MPN remain unclear. We here report that Sipa1 is expressed in human and mouse BM stromal cells and downregulated in these cells from patients with MPN or MDS/MPN at diagnosis...
March 13, 2018: Blood Advances
Latifa Mohammadi, Noria Harir, Mohamed Brahimi, Soraya Moulessehoul, Mohamed Amine Bekadja
BACKGROUND: Multiple Myeloma (MM) represent about 1 to 2% of cancers and 15% of all hematological malignancies. It is characterized by malignant proliferation of plasmocytes in bone marrow and an excess of secreted monoclonal immunoglobulins (Ig) Objective: Describe the epidemiological, clinical, biological and prognosis of patients with MM treated with autologous peripheral hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (APHSCT) in the Algerian West. METHODS: It is a retrospective descriptive study covering all MM patients treated with APHSCT over a period of 7 years (2008-2015) at service of Haematology and Cell Therapy of the EHU "1er November 1954 of Oran, Algeria...
June 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
P Nambiar, E Cober, L Johnson, K D Brizendine
Invasive fusariosis in solid organ transplant is uncommon and usually presents as localized infection with favorable outcomes compared to hematologic malignancies or bone marrow transplants. We report the first case of Fusarium osteomyelitis in a patient following multi-visceral transplant and review Fusarium in organ transplant recipients and Fusarium bone and joint infections. Our case underscores the importance of early recognition and multidisciplinary approach to treatment and highlights potential failure to eradicate with amphotericin B monotherapy...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Charlotte Cosemans, Bénedith Oben, Ingrid Arijs, Annick Daniëls, Jeroen Declercq, Kimberly Vanhees, Guy Froyen, Brigitte Maes, Jeroen Mebis, Jean-Luc Rummens
Multiple myeloma (MM), characterized by malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, is consistently preceded by asymptomatic premalignant stage monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). These MGUS patients have an annual risk of 1% to progress to MM. Clinical, imaging, and genomic (genetic and epigenetic) factors were identified, whose presence increased the risk of progression from MGUS to MM. In this systematic review we summarize the currently identified clinical, imaging, and genomic biomarkers suggested to increase the progression risk or shown to be differentially expressed/present between both cohorts of patients...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Chamara Dalugama, Indika Bandara Gawarammana
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a major health problem in the developing world. Diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is delayed because the presentation is nonspecific. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis can present with various hematological manifestations, including pancytopenia. Pancytopenia could be due to hypersplenism, maturation arrest, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, or infiltration of the bone marrow by caseating or noncaseating granulomas causing reversible or irreversible fibrosis...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Xiangchou Yang, Haihao Ye, Muqing He, Xiaohai Zhou, Ni Sun, Wenjian Guo, Xiaoji Lin, He Huang, Ying Lin, Rongxin Yao, Hong Wang
Multiple myeloma (MM), the second most common hematologic malignancy, is an incurable disease characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow. Though great progresses have been made in understanding the mechanisms of MM, metabolic plasticity and drug resistance remain largely unknown. In this study, we found lncRNA Protein disulfide isomerase family A member 3 pseudogene 1 (PDIA3P) is highly expressed in MM and is associated with the survival rate of MM patients. PDIA3P regulates MM growth and drug resistance through Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP)...
March 25, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Qing-Bing Zhou, Xiao-Hong Yang, Hong-Zhi Wang, De-Xiu Wang, Yong-Gang Xu, Xiao-Mei Hu, Feng-Qin Xu, Rou Ma
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of Qinghuang Powder (QHP, ) combined with Bupi Yishen Decoction (BPYS, ) on myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD) and determine the change of DNA methylation in MDS-RCMD patients after the treatment of Chinese medicine formula. METHODS: All 308 MDS-RCMD patients were treated with QHP combined with BPYS for 2 months at least, absolute neutrophil count (ANC), hemoglobin (Hb), platelets (PLT), primitive bone marrow cells and chromosome karyotype were chosen as the main evaluation indexes to analyze the treatment effect according to criteria from the MDS International Working Group...
March 2, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Maria Maryanovich, Shoichiro Takeishi, Paul S Frenette
Bones provide both skeletal scaffolding and space for hematopoiesis in its marrow. Previous work has shown that these functions were tightly regulated by the nervous system. The central and peripheral nervous systems tightly regulate compact bone remodeling, its metabolism, and hematopoietic homeostasis in the bone marrow (BM). Accumulating evidence indicates that the nervous system, which fine-tunes inflammatory responses and alterations in neural functions, may regulate autoimmune diseases. Neural signals also influence the progression of hematological malignancies such as acute and chronic myeloid leukemias...
March 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Rohtesh S Mehta, Katayoun Rezvani
Adoptive cell therapy has emerged as a powerful treatment for advanced cancers resistant to conventional agents. Most notable are the remarkable responses seen in patients receiving autologous CD19-redirected chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells for the treatment of B lymphoid malignancies; however, the generation of autologous products for each patient is logistically cumbersome and has restricted widespread clinical use. A banked allogeneic product has the potential to overcome these limitations, yet allogeneic T-cells (even if human leukocyte antigen-matched) carry a major risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Christopher Maximilian Arends, Joel Galan-Sousa, Kaja Hoyer, Willy Chan, Marten Jäger, Kenichi Yoshida, Ricarda Seemann, Daniel Noerenberg, Nils Waldhueter, Helga Fleischer-Notter, Friederike Christen, Clemens A Schmitt, Bernd Dörken, Uwe Pelzer, Marianne Sinn, Tomasz Zemojtel, Seishi Ogawa, Sven Märdian, Adrian Schreiber, Annegret Kunitz, Ulrike Krüger, Lars Bullinger, Elena Mylonas, Mareike Frick, Frederik Damm
Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) occurs in an age-related manner and associates with an increased risk of hematologic cancer, atherosclerotic disease, and shorter overall survival. Little is known about the cell of origin, repartition patterns of clonal mutations within the hematopoietic differentiation tree, and its dynamics under evolutionary pressure. Using targeted sequencing, CHIP was identified in 121 out of 437 elderly individuals (27.7%). Variant allele frequencies (VAFs) of 91 mutations were studied in six peripheral blood cell fractions...
March 1, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
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