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cerebral visual impairment

David Jacquier, Christopher John Newman
AIM: To determine the prevalence and determinants of co-sleeping in school-aged children with a motor disability compared with the school-aged general population. METHOD: A questionnaire on demographic characteristics and co-sleeping habits, along with the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC), was sent to parents of children aged between 4 years and 18 years followed in our tertiary paediatric neurorehabilitation clinic, and to school-aged children in a representative sample of state schools...
October 25, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Stuti Joshi, Wayne Yau, Allan Kermode
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited small vessel disease, manifesting as recurrent ischaemic events, migraine with aura, behavioural disturbance and cognitive decline. We report two patients with CADASIL masquerading as multiple sclerosis (MS). A 23year old female presented with a visual scotoma and was discovered to have a corresponding retinal cotton wool spot. MRI brain revealed diffuse T2 hyperintensities suggestive of demyelination...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
M Salavati, E A A Rameckers, A Waninge, W P Krijnen, B Steenbergen, C P van der Schans
PURPOSE: To investigate whether the adapted version of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) results in higher scores. This is most likely to be a reflection of their gross motor function, however it may be the result of a better comprehension of the instruction of the adapted version. METHOD: The scores of the original and adapted GMFM-88 were compared in the same group of children (n=21 boys and n=16 girls), mean (SD) age 113 (30) months with CP and CVI, within a time span of two weeks...
October 19, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Anne Synnes, Thuy Mai Luu, Diane Moddemann, Paige Church, David Lee, Michael Vincer, Marilyn Ballantyne, Annette Majnemer, Dianne Creighton, Junmin Yang, Reginald Sauve, Saroj Saigal, Prakesh Shah, Shoo K Lee
OBJECTIVES: Identify determinants of neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm children. METHODS: Prospective national cohort study of children born between 2009 and 2011 at <29 weeks gestational age, admitted to one of 28 Canadian neonatal intensive care units and assessed at a Canadian Neonatal Follow-up Network site at 21 months corrected age for cerebral palsy (CP), visual, hearing and developmental status using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (Bayley-III)...
October 6, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
J Wu, S Dehkharghani, F Nahab, J Allen, D Qiu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Measuring cerebrovascular reactivity with the use of vasodilatory stimuli, such as acetazolamide, is useful for chronic cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of acetazolamide on the assessment of hemodynamic impairment and functional connectivity by using noninvasive resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 20-minute resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging scan was acquired with infusion of acetazolamide starting at 5 minutes after scan initiation...
October 6, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Sylvie Chokron, Gordon N Dutton
Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) has become the primary cause of visual impairment and blindness in children in industrialized countries. Its prevalence has increased sharply, due to increased survival rates of children who sustain severe neurological conditions during the perinatal period. Improved diagnosis has probably contributed to this increase. As in adults, the nature and severity of CVI in children relate to the cause, location and extent of damage to the brain. In the present paper, we define CVI and how this impacts on visual function...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
T A Polyakova, O S Levin
AIM: To study a role of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) in the diagnosis of main cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases with cognitive impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CMB were studied in 120 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and vascular dementia using 1.5T MRI in T2 * gradient echo. An impact of CMB on cognitive functions and the relationship with signs of vascular and neurodegenerative lesions of the brain were studied as well...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Ying Cui, Xia Liang, Hong Gu, Yuzheng Hu, Zhen Zhao, Xiang-Yu Yang, Cheng Qian, Yihong Yang, Gao-Jun Teng
To explore the effect of T2DM on cerebral perfusion, and the relationship between cerebral perfusion changes and cognitive impairment as well as diabetic variables, by using a whole-brain arterial spin-labeling (ASL) MRI technique. This prospective study was approved by the local institutional review board and was performed between November 2012 and October 2013. All subjects provided informed consent. Forty T2DM patients and 41 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls were included. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) map was obtained by pulsed ASL perfusion imaging at 3 T MRI...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Patrick M House, Stefan R G Stodieck
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is characterized by elevated intracranial pressure without a space-occupying cerebral lesion, venous sinus thrombosis or hydrocephalus and with normally composited cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Main symptoms are headache, sight disturbances and potential visual impairment. Weight loss, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, lumbar punctures with CSF drain, CSF shunting, optic nerve sheath fenestration, and venous sinus stenting are common IIH therapies...
November 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Danica Grujicic, Luigi Maria Cavallo, Teresa Somma, Rosanda Illic, Mihailo Milicevic, Savo Raicevic, Milica Skender Gazibara, Alessandro Villa, Dragan Savic, Domenico Solari, Paolo Cappabianca
BACKGROUND: Primary intraventricular meningiomas (IVMs) make up 0.5-5% of all intracranial meningiomas and represent one of the most challenging lesions in neurosurgery. METHODS: Between 1990 and 2013, 42 patients (30 female, 12 male, mean age of 43.6 years) underwent the resection of their IVM. The removal was performed by posterior-parietal approach in 19 of the 40 lateral ventricle tumors, and one in the third ventricle meningioma. The transcallosal approach was used for three meningiomas, while other lesions underwent temporal (7 cases) and temporo-parietal approaches (12 pts) respectively...
September 26, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Yuka Kato, Kenichi Meguro, Masahiro Nakatsuka, Kei Nakamura, Masahiro Tsuboi, Satoshi Yamaguchi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients manifest not only memory impairment but also deficit of social judgment. However, contrary to frequently recognized deficit, only two neuropsychological tests have been established for assessing "judgment" : the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument domain Abstraction & judgment and the Picture Arrangement subscale of WAIS-III. For the former, we previously reported an association with decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left parietal lobe. Herein, we analyzed the scores of the Picture Arrangement test...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Anine H Stam, Parul H Kothari, Aisha Shaikh, Andreas Gschwendter, Joanna C Jen, Suzanne Hodgkinson, Todd A Hardy, Michael Hayes, Peter A Kempster, Katya E Kotschet, Ingeborg M Bajema, Sjoerd G van Duinen, Marion L C Maat-Schieman, Paulus T V M de Jong, Marc D de Smet, Didi de Wolff-Rouendaal, Greet Dijkman, Nadine Pelzer, Grant R Kolar, Robert E Schmidt, JoAnne Lacey, Daniel Joseph, David R Fintak, M Gilbert Grand, Elizabeth M Brunt, Helen Liapis, Rula A Hajj-Ali, Mark C Kruit, Mark A van Buchem, Martin Dichgans, Rune R Frants, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Joost Haan, Robert W Baloh, John P Atkinson, Gisela M Terwindt, Michel D Ferrari
Cerebroretinal vasculopathy, hereditary vascular retinopathy, and hereditary endotheliopathy, retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke are neurovascular syndromes initially described as distinct entities. Recently they were shown to be one disease caused by C-terminal frame-shift mutations in TREX1, which was termed 'retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy'. Here we defined the genetic and clinicopathologic spectrum of this clinically and pathophysiologically poorly characterized and frequently misdiagnosed fatal neurovascular disorder...
September 6, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Cecilia Lidbeck, Åsa Bartonek, Priti Yadav, Kristina Tedroff, Per Åstrand, Kerstin Hellgren, Elena M Gutierrez-Farewik
BACKGROUND: In children with bilateral cerebral palsy (CP) maintaining a standing position can be difficult. The fundamental motor task of standing independently is achieved by an interaction between the visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. In CP, the motor disorders are commonly accompanied by sensory and perceptual disturbances. Our aims were to examine the influence of visual stimuli on standing posture in relation to standing ability. METHODS: Three dimensional motion analysis with surface electromyography was recorded to describe body position, body movement, and muscle activity during three standing tasks: in a self-selected position, while blindfolded, and during an attention-demanding task...
2016: BMC Neurology
Steffen W Kluckow, Jan-Gerrit Rehbein, Matthias Schwab, Otto W Witte, Peter Bublak
Multiple sclerosis (MS(1)) is a diffusely disseminated inflammatory disease affecting widespread cerebral networks. Major cognitive impairments are a reduction of processing capacity and mental fatigue, i.e., an "abnormal sense of tiredness or lack of energy". Here, the present study provides the first assessment of the distinct components of visual processing capacity based on a 'theory of visual attention' (TVA(2)) in MS patients and relates it to measures of subjective as well as (more) objective fatigue...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Rani A Bashir, Vineet Bhandari, Sakeer Vayalthrikkovil, Yacov Rabi, Amuchou Soraisham, Selphee Tang, Essa Al Awad, Abhay Lodha
AIM: To compare preterm infants with no bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), BPD with chorioamnionitis (BPDC) and BPD with no chorioamnionitis (BPDNC) for the association with neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) at three years corrected age. METHODS: Demographic and outcome data of infants with birthweight (BW) ≤1250 g born during two epochs (1995-2000 and 2002-2007 with an interim washout period of one year) were compared on the basis of whether they had BPD, chorioamnionitis or both...
November 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Yorito Hattori, Jun-Ichiro Enmi, Satoshi Iguchi, Satoshi Saito, Yumi Yamamoto, Kazuyuki Nagatsuka, Hidehiro Iida, Masafumi Ihara
The bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) mouse model, which replicates chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and white matter ischemic lesions, is considered to model some aspects of vascular cognitive impairment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the brain surface post-BCAS have been demonstrated by laser speckle flowmetry, but CBF levels in the brain parenchyma remain unknown. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were subjected to BCAS using external microcoils. Brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was conducted to visualize the intracranial main arteries while arterial spin labeling (ASL) was used to measure cortical and subcortical parenchymal CBF levels before and after BCAS...
2016: Scientific Reports
Qiong Zhang, Yun-Qin Wu, Yan Zhuang, Jing Cao, Xi-Rong Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at a corrected age (CA) of 18 months and related factors influencing the outcomes. METHODS: The ELBW and VLBW infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, survived, and discharged between January 2013 June 2014 were enrolled. These infants were followed up at CAs of 40 weeks and 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months to evaluate the neurodevelopmental outcomes...
August 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Cornelia Kranczioch, Anja Lindig, Markus Hausmann
The functional cerebral asymmetry (FCA) in processing targets within rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) streams has been reported to fluctuate across the menstrual cycle, with identification of the second of two closely spaced targets being impaired when both targets occur in the left or the right hemifield stream during the luteal phase, while during the menstrual phase identification of the second target is only impaired for target pairs presented in the right hemifield stream. This fluctuation has been proposed to result from variations in estradiol levels...
August 5, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Wouter W Jansen Klomp, Linda M Peelen, George J Brandon Bravo Bruinsma, Arnoud W J Van't Hof, Jan G Grandjean, Arno P Nierich
BACKGROUND: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a key diagnostic modality in patients with acute aortic dissection, yet its sensitivity is limited by a "blind-spot" caused by air in the trachea. After placement of a fluid-filled balloon in the trachea visualization of the thoracic aorta becomes possible. This method, modified TEE, has been shown to be an accurate test for the diagnosis of upper aortic atherosclerosis. In this study we discuss how we use modified TEE for the diagnosis and management of patients with (suspected) acute aortic dissection...
2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
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