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cerebral visual impairment

Charmaine M Teo, Woei Bing Poon, Selina Ky Ho
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal care advances have resulted in improved survival but have raised concerns of increase in neurodevelopmental impairment. This study looked at long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes at ages 5 and 8 years of very low birthweight infants born in the 2000s as compared to the 1990s. Neurodevelopmental assessment at 2 years old was compared to that at 5 and 8 years to determine if assessment at 2 years was predictive of later outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of consecutive infants with birthweight less than 1250 grams admitted to a tertiary centre in Singapore between January 1994 to December 1995 (Epoch I) and January 2004 to December 2005 (Epoch II) were included...
February 2018: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
N Crespo-Eguilaz, P D Dominguez, M Vaquero, J Narbona
AIM: To contribute to neuropsychological profiling of developmental amnesia subsequent to bilateral damage to both hippocampi in early age. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The total sample of 24 schoolchildren from both sexes is distributed in three groups: perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and everyday complaints of memory in school age (n = 8); perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy without memory complaints (n = 7); and a group of typically developing (n = 9)...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
R Espert, M Gadea, M Alino, J Oltra-Cucarella, C Perpina
INTRODUCTION: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is an occlusive cerebrovascular disease characterized by progressive stenosis or occlusion in the terminal portion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries, affecting both children and adults. AIM: To conduct a review and update on MMD from a clinical, neuroradiological, neuropsychological and genetic perspective. DEVELOPMENT: In this pathology, which occurs with ischemia or cerebral hemorrhage, an unusual compensatory vascular network (moyamoya vessels) develops at the base of the brain in the form of collateral channels...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Satoshi Hayashi, Seishi Terada, Etsuko Oshima, Shuhei Sato, Kairi Kurisu, Shintaro Takenoshita, Osamu Yokota, Norihito Yamada
Objective: Among many cognitive function deficits, memory impairment is an initial and cardinal symptom in Alzheimer disease (AD). In most cases, verbal and visual memory scores correlate highly, but in some cases the deficit of verbal or visual memory is very different from that of the other memory. In this study, we examined the neural substrates of verbal and visual memory in patients with AD. Methods: One hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients with AD were recruited from outpatient units...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Carrie W Hoppes, Patrick J Sparto, Susan L Whitney, Joseph M Furman, Theodore J Huppert
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Individuals with visual vertigo describe symptoms of dizziness, disorientation, and/or impaired balance in environments with conflicting visual and vestibular information or complex visual stimuli. Physical therapists often prescribe habituation exercises using optic flow to treat these symptoms, but there are no evidence-based guidelines for delivering optic flow and it is unclear how the brain processes such stimuli. The purposes of this study were to use functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to explore cerebral activation during optic flow, and determine if visual fixation had a modulating effect on brain activity...
2018: PloS One
Vigdis Andersen Eidsvaag, Hans-Arne Hansson, Kjell Heuser, Erlend A Nagelhus, Per Kristian Eide
AIM: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is characterized by symptoms indicative of increased intracranial pressure (ICP), such as headache and visual impairment. We have previously reported that brain biopsies from IIH patients show patchy astrogliosis and increased expression of the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) at perivascular astrocytic endfeet. METHODS: The present study was undertaken to investigate for ultrastructural changes of the cerebral capillaries in individuals with IIH...
February 22, 2018: Brain Research
Dominik Michalski, Anna L Keck, Jens Grosche, Henrik Martens, Wolfgang Härtig
Because stroke therapies are still limited and patients are often concerned by long-term sequelae with significant impairment of daily living, elaborated neuroprotective strategies are needed. During the last decades, research substantially improved the knowledge on cellular pathologies responsible for stroke-related tissue damage. In this context, the neurovascular unit (NVU) concept has been established, summarizing the affections of neurons, associated astrocytes and the vasculature. Although oligodendrocytes were already identified to play a major role in other brain pathologies, their role during stroke evolution and long-lasting tissue damage is poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Fanny Kortüm, Rami Abou Jamra, Malik Alawi, Susan A Berry, Guntram Borck, Katherine L Helbig, Sha Tang, Dagmar Huhle, Georg Christoph Korenke, Malavika Hebbar, Anju Shukla, Katta M Girisha, Maja Steinlin, Sandra Waldmeier-Wilhelm, Martino Montomoli, Renzo Guerrini, Johannes R Lemke, Kerstin Kutsche
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) represents a group of autosomal-recessive progressive neurodegenerative disorders of prenatal onset. Eleven PCH subtypes are classified according to clinical, neuroimaging and genetic findings. Individuals with PCH type 9 (PCH9) have a unique combination of postnatal microcephaly, hypoplastic cerebellum and pons, and hypoplastic or absent corpus callosum. PCH9 is caused by biallelic variants in AMPD2 encoding adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2; however, a homozygous AMPD2 frameshift variant has recently been reported in two family members with spastic paraplegia type 63 (SPG63)...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Céline Julie De Smet, Bernard Sabbe, J F E Oldenburg
The pharmacological treatment of bipolar depression has low response rates. Twenty percent to 30% of patients have an insufficient response to medication. The guidelines suggest that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the next step. The aim of this case study is to evaluate the effect of ECT on the perfusion of the brain in bipolar depression, while monitoring effects on mood and cognition. We present a case study of 56-year-old female patient who suffered from a psychotic depression and cognitive impairment...
February 14, 2018: Journal of ECT
Hannah G Caldwell, Geoff B Coombs, Michael M Tymko, Daniela Nowak-Flück, Philip N Ainslie
With exposure to acute normobaric hypoxia, global cerebral oxygen delivery is maintained via increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF); therefore, regional and localized changes in oxygen tension may explain neurocognitive impairment. Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the close temporal and regional relationship of CBF to changes in neural activity and may aid in explaining the localized CBF response with cognitive activation. High-altitude related cognitive impairment is likely affected by hypocapnic cerebral vasoconstriction that may influence regional CBF regulation independent of hypoxia...
February 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Jenny Bolk, Nelly Padilla, Lea Forsman, Lina Broström, Kerstin Hellgren, Ulrika Åden
OBJECTIVES: This exploratory study aimed to investigate associations between neonatal brain volumes and visual-motor integration (VMI) and fine motor skills in children born extremely preterm (EPT) when they reached 6½ years of age. SETTING: Prospective population-based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden, during 3 years. PARTICIPANTS: All children born before gestational age, 27 weeks, during 2004-2007 in Stockholm, without major morbidities and impairments, and who underwent MRI at term-equivalent age...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Guillaume Herbet, Sylvie Moritz-Gasser, Hugues Duffau
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prefrontal cortical structures causally involved in verbal and nonverbal semantic cognition in both cerebral hemispheres. METHODS: We retrospectively screened the intraoperative brain mapping data of 584 patients who underwent neurosurgery for neoplastic tumor under local anesthesia with direct cortical electrostimulation. Patients were included if they were right-handed, recently diagnosed with a diffuse low-grade glioma, and had a positive language mapping for verbal (naming task) and nonverbal (visual semantic association task) semantic cognition in the prefrontal cortex (n = 49)...
February 14, 2018: Neurology
Philip Benjamin, Sarah Trippier, Andrew J Lawrence, Christian Lambert, Eva Zeestraten, Owen A Williams, Bhavini Patel, Robin G Morris, Thomas R Barrick, Andrew D MacKinnon, Hugh S Markus
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral small-vessel disease is a major cause of cognitive impairment. Perivascular spaces (PvS) occur in small-vessel disease, but their relationship to cognitive impairment remains uncertain. One reason may be difficulty in distinguishing between lacunes and PvS. We determined the relationship between baseline PvS score and PvS volume with change in cognition over a 5-year follow-up. We compared this to the relationship between baseline lacune count and total lacune volume with cognition...
February 2, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Fang-Fei Wei, Anke Raaijmakers, Zhen-Yu Zhang, Theun Pieter van Tienoven, Qi-Fang Huang, Wen-Yi Yang, Lutgarde Thijs, Harry A J Struijker-Boudier, Peter Verhamme, Karel Allegaert, Jan A Staessen
BACKGROUND: Retinal microvessels can be visualized non-invasively and mirror the status of the cerebral microvasculature. AIMS: To investigate whether in young children born prematurely or at term cognitive performance is related to retinal microvascular traits. STUDY DESIGN, SUBJECTS: In 93 prematurely born infants (birth weight < 1000 g) and 87 controls born at term, we measured head circumference (HC) and determined intelligence quotient (IQ) by combining matrix reasoning and spatial span (Wechsler Non-Verbal test, Dutch version) and post-processed retinal photographs using Singapore I Vessel Assessment software (version 3...
February 3, 2018: Early Human Development
Ronald M Lazar, Marykathryn A Pavol, Tobias Bormann, Michael G Dwyer, Carlye Kraemer, Roseann White, Robert Zivadinov, Jeffrey C Wertheimer, Angelika Thöne-Otto, Lisa D Ravdin, Richard Naugle, Dawn Mechanic-Hamilton, William S Garmoe, Anthony Y Stringer, Heidi A Bender, Samir R Kapadia, Susheel Kodali, Alexander Ghanem, Axel Linke, Roxana Mehran, Renu Virmani, Tamim Nazif, Azin Parhizgar, Martin B Leon
OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to determine baseline neurocognition before transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and its correlations with pre-TAVR brain imaging. BACKGROUND: TAVR studies have not shown a correlation between diffusion-weighted image changes and neurocognition. The authors wanted to determine the extent to which there was already impairment at baseline that correlated with cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: SENTINEL (Cerebral Protection in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement) trial patients had cognitive assessments of attention, processing speed, executive function, and verbal and visual memory...
January 27, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Haruhiko Nakamura, Mitsugu Uematsu, Yurika Numata-Uematsu, Yu Abe, Wakaba Endo, Atsuo Kikuchi, Yusuke Takezawa, Ryo Funayama, Matsuyuki Shirota, Keiko Nakayama, Tetsuya Niihori, Yoko Aoki, Kazuhiro Haginoya, Shigeo Kure
Numerous genetic syndromes that include intellectual disability (ID) have been reported. Recently, HECW2 mutations were detected in patients with ID and growth development disorders. Four de novo missense mutations have been reported. Here, we report a Japanese girl with Rett-like symptoms of severe ID, hypotonia, refractory epilepsy, and stereotypical hand movement (hand tapping, flapping, and wringing) after the age of 1 year. Characteristically, she had cortical visual impairment. She had difficulty swallowing since the age of 4 years, and diminished activity was noticeable since the age of 12 years, suggesting neurodevelopmental regression...
January 26, 2018: Brain & Development
Michael Adamaszek, Federico D'Agata, Christopher J Steele, Bernhard Sehm, Cornelia Schoppe, Karl Strecker, Hartwig Woldag, Horst Hummelsheim, Ken C Kirkby
Introduction Research indicates that widespread cortical-subcortical networks are involved in the recognition and discrimination of emotional contents of facial and vocal expression. The cerebellum and basal ganglia are two subcortical regions implicated in these networks but evidence as to their specific contributions is limited. To investigate this we compared patients with circumscribed cerebellar lesions and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) on a range of neuropsychological measures, we studied subjects of both clinical entities by an approved test battery...
January 29, 2018: Social Neuroscience
Gil D Hoftman, Samuel J Dienel, Holly H Bazmi, Yun Zhang, Kehui Chen, David A Lewis
BACKGROUND: Visuospatial working memory (vsWM), which is impaired in schizophrenia, requires information transfer across multiple nodes in the cerebral cortex, including visual, posterior parietal, and dorsolateral prefrontal regions. Information is conveyed across these regions via the excitatory projections of glutamatergic pyramidal neurons located in layer 3, whose activity is modulated by local inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) neurons. Key properties of these neurons differ across these cortical regions...
December 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
Yawen Yu, Richard T Lauer, Carole A Tucker, Elizabeth D Thompson, Emily A Keshner
The current study aimed to explore the impact of visual dependence on sensorimotor coupling of postural sway and visual motion in adults and teens with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). We hypothesized that individuals with CP would exhibit greater magnitudes of sway than healthy individuals, and the presence of visual dependence (VD) would produce instability in the direction of visual motion. Participants stood in a virtual environment in which the visual scene remained static or continuously rotated 30 degree/second in pitch-up or pitch-down...
January 17, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
Ichiro Kuki, Kazumi Matsuda, Yuko Kubota, Tetsuhiro Fukuyama, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Yushi Inoue, Haruo Shintaku
PURPOSE: For a diagnosis of Rasmussen syndrome (RS), clinical course together with electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are considered important, but there are few reports on functional neuroimaging. This study investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF)-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), central benzodiazepine receptor (BZR)-SPECT, and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxy glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in RS patients, and correlated neuroimaging results with MRI and pathological findings...
February 2018: Epilepsy Research
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