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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729429/brain-perfusion-imaging-under-acetazolamide-challenge-for-detection-of-impaired-cerebrovascular-reserve-capacity-positive-findings-with-o-15-water-pet-in-patients-with-negative-tc-99m-hmpao-spect
#1
Güliz Acker, Catharina Lange, Imke Schatka, Andreas Pfeifer, Marcus A Czabanka, Peter Vajkoczy, Ralph Buchert
Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) is an important parameter for treatment decisions in chronic cerebrovascular diseases. It can be assessed by measuring the acetazolamide-induced change of regional cerebral blood flow using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Tc-99m-labeled hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) or positron emission tomography (PET) with O-15-water. Methods: Our database was searched for patients with moyamoya vasculopathy (MMV) or atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease who had underwent O-15-water PET after normal Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT with respect to CVRC...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720412/vascular-compression-of-the-anterior-optic-pathway-a-rare-occurrence
#2
Satoshi Tsutsumi, Hideo Ono, Yukimasa Yasumoto
BACKGROUND: Vascular compression of the anterior optic pathway has been documented as an infrequent cause of visual impairments. Here we characterize such vascular compression using magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: A total of 183 patients without pathologies affecting the optic pathways underwent T2-weighted or constructive interference steady-state sequence magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging data from coronal sections were analyzed. RESULTS: A vascular compression of the anterior optic pathway was identified in 20 patients (11%)...
July 15, 2017: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714339/inhaled-and-systemic-steroid-exposure-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-of-preterm-neonates
#3
Edmond N Kelly, Vibhuti S Shah, Jody Levenbach, Michael Vincer, Orlando DaSilva, Prakesh S Shah
OBJECTIVES: To compare death and/or neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants exposed to inhaled and/or systemic steroids with those without exposure, and examine the impact of timing of exposure. METHODS: Retrospective study of infants born <29 weeks gestation and assessed at 18-21 months corrected age (CA). Neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was defined as any Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (BSID-III) score <85, cerebral palsy ≥ grade one, and visual or hearing impairment...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708110/cognitive-changes-in-the-spinocerebellar-ataxias-due-to-expanded-polyglutamine-tracts-a-survey-of-the-literature
#4
REVIEW
Evelyn Lindsay, Elsdon Storey
The dominantly-inherited ataxias characterised by expanded polyglutamine tracts-spinocere bellar ataxias (SCAs) 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 17, dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) and, in part, SCA 8-have all been shown to result in various degrees of cognitive impairment. We survey the literature on the cognitive consequences of each disorder, attempting correlation with their published neuropathological, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical features. We suggest several psychometric instruments for assessment of executive function, whose results are unlikely to be confounded by visual, articulatory or upper limb motor difficulties...
July 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690938/alexia-without-agraphia-a-rare-entity
#5
Chintan Rupareliya, Syeda Naqvi, Seyedali Hejazi
Pure alexia refers to an acquired disorder associated with the damage to medial occipitotemporal gyrus in the dominant hemisphere, which is also known as visual word form area (VWFA). VWFA is involved in rapid word recognition and fluent reading. Alexia without agraphia is a disconnection syndrome that occurs when the splenium is also damaged with the occipital lobe on a dominant side. We report a case of a 72-year-old right-handed male who presented with alexia without agraphia accompanied by right homonymous hemianopia resulting from acute infarct of the left occipital lobe, the splenium of the corpus callosum and posterior thalamus that probably occurred on the previous day...
June 2, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687422/resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-analysis-of-brain-functional-activity-in-rats-with-ischemic-stroke-treated-by-electro-acupuncture
#6
Shengxiang Liang, Yunjiao Lin, Bingbing Lin, Jianhong Li, Weilin Liu, Lidian Chen, Shujun Zhao, Jing Tao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether electro-acupuncture (EA) treatment at acupoints of Zusanli (ST 36) and Quchi (LI 11) could reduce motor impairments and enhance brain functional recovery in rats with ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established. EA at ST 36 and LI 11was started at 24 hours (MCAO + EA group) after ischemic stroke. The nontreatment (MCAO) and sham-operated control (SC) groups were included as controls...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684457/pericortical-enhancement-on-delayed-postgadolinium-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-images-in-normal-aging-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease
#7
W M Freeze, R S Schnerr, W M Palm, J F Jansen, H I Jacobs, E I Hoff, F R Verhey, W H Backes
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breakdown of BBB integrity occurs in dementia and may lead to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. We assessed whether extravasation of gadolinium chelate could be visualized on delayed postcontrast FLAIR images in older individuals with and without cognitive impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-four individuals participated in this study (15 with Alzheimer disease, 33 with mild cognitive impairment, and 26 with normal cognition)...
July 6, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682863/increased-interhemispheric-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-healthy-participants-with-insomnia-symptoms-a-randomized-clinical-consort-study
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Xuhua Li, Shougang Guo, Chunjuan Wang, Baojie Wang, Hao Sun, Xiaoting Zhang
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities within the insular cortex of the salience and thalamus of the hyperarousal network have been increasingly reported in healthy participants with insomnia symptoms by recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) studies. However, little is known about the changes in functional interaction between the bilateral cerebral hemispheres in healthy participants with insomnia symptoms. METHODS: In a randomized trial, 27 healthy participants with insomnia symptoms and 27 age-, gender-, and educational level-matched healthy participants without insomnia symptoms underwent rsfMRI...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682567/-pres-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-potential-complication-of-hypertensive-crisis-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Michele Vergura, Michele Prencipe, Antonio Maria Del Giudice, Rachele Grifa, Filomena Miscio, Anna Maria Pennelli, Teresa Popolizio, Anna Simeone, Mariangela Ferrara, Maurizio Leone, Filippo Aucella
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological syndrome, usually reversible, characterized by vasogenic oedema in cerebral posterior regions in patients with autoimmune diseases, nephropathies, hypertensive crisis, eclampsia and exposure to cytotoxic drugs. The main symptoms are: headache, nausea, vomiting, seizures, visual disturbance and altered consciousness. Complications as cerebral hemorrhage and recurrences are rare. We describe a case of a 65 years old woman, affected by chronic kidney disease, recently exacerbated, diabetes and hypertension in treatment, who showed an heterogeneous clinical presentation with vomiting, headache, blurred vision and impaired consciousness during an episode of acute hypertension...
April 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680270/parents-assessments-of-disability-in-their-children-using-world-health-organization-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-child-and-youth-version-joined-body-functions-and-activity-codes-related-to-everyday-life
#10
Niels Ove Illum, Kim Oren Gradel
AIM: To help parents assess disability in their own children using World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth Version (ICF-CY) code qualifier scoring and to assess the validity and reliability of the data sets obtained. METHOD: Parents of 162 children with spina bifida, spinal muscular atrophy, muscular disorders, cerebral palsy, visual impairment, hearing impairment, mental disability, or disability following brain tumours performed scoring for 26 body functions qualifiers (b codes) and activities and participation qualifiers (d codes)...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632466/neuropsychological-profiles-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#11
Kristine Stadskleiv, Reidun Jahnsen, Guro L Andersen, Stephen von Tetzchner
PURPOSE: To explore factors contributing to variability in cognitive functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: A geographical cohort of 70 children with CP was assessed with tests of language comprehension, visual-spatial reasoning, attention, working memory, memory, and executive functioning. Mean age was 9;9 years (range 5;1-17;7), 54.3% were girls, and 50.0% had hemiplegic, 25.7% diplegic, 12.9% quadriplegic, and 11.4% dyskinetic CP. For the participants with severe motor impairments, assessments were adapted for gaze pointing...
February 21, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622418/severe-apparently-isolated-fetal-ventriculomegaly-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome
#12
Mathilde Letouzey, Alexandra Chadie, Marie Brasseur-Daudruy, François Proust, Eric Verspyck, Pascal Boileau, Stéphane Marret
OBJECTIVE: To assess the neurodevelopmental outcome of children with a prenatal diagnosis of apparently isolated severe ventriculomegaly (SVM). METHOD: Retrospective cohort study from 1994 to 2011. We included fetuses with unilateral or bilateral ventriculomegaly equal to or greater than 15 mm at prenatal ultrasound and confirmed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging, whose parents chose continuation of pregnancy past 22 weeks, and with no associated findings at diagnosis (i...
June 16, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615047/sensitivity-to-sevoflurane-anesthesia-is-decreased-in-mice-with-a-congenital-deletion-of-guanylyl-cyclase-1-alpha
#13
Yasuko Nagasaka, Martin Wepler, Robrecht Thoonen, Patrick Y Sips, Kaitlin Allen, Jan A Graw, Vincent Yao, Sara M Burns, Stefan Muenster, Peter Brouckaert, Keith Miller, Ken Solt, Emmanuel S Buys, Fumito Ichinose, Warren M Zapol
BACKGROUND: Volatile anesthetics increase levels of the neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO) and the secondary messenger molecule cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the brain. NO activates the enzyme guanylyl cyclase (GC) to produce cGMP. We hypothesized that the NO-GC-cGMP pathway contributes to anesthesia-induced unconsciousness. METHODS: Sevoflurane-induced loss and return of righting reflex (LORR and RORR, respectively) were studied in wild-type mice (WT) and in mice congenitally deficient in the GC-1α subunit (GC-1(-/-) mice)...
June 14, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600679/resting-state-bold-oscillation-frequency-predicts-vigilance-task-performance-at-both-normal-and-high-environmental-temperatures
#14
Xiaopeng Song, Shaowen Qian, Kai Liu, Shuqin Zhou, Huaiqiu Zhu, Qihong Zou, Yijun Liu, Gang Sun, Jia-Hong Gao
Hyperthermia may impair vigilance functions and lead to slower reaction times (RTs) in the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and possibly disturbing cerebral hemodynamic rhythms. To test these hypotheses, we acquired the resting-state BOLD and cerebral blood flow (CBF) data, as well as PVTRTs from 15 participants in two simulated environmental thermal conditions (50 °C/25 °C). We adopted a data-driven method, frequency component analysis, to quantify the mean frequency of the BOLD series of each voxel. Across-subject correlation analysis was employed to detect the brain areas whose BOLD oscillation frequency was correlated with the RTs...
June 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599331/-the-aging-retina-in-the-context-of-cerebral-neurodegenerative-diseases
#15
Michael R R Böhm, Solon Thanos
Background Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) consist of divers affections of the central nervous system related to etiology, localization, and of course of the disease. Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias are best investigated together with socioeconomic conditions and play an important role in its high prevalence. This work will present ND diseases in the context of analogous retinal degeneration mechanisms and ophthalmological diseases. Methods Based on epidemiological data, the current neurological bibliography of ND has been considered...
June 9, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591477/reduced-glucose-metabolism-in-neocortical-network-nodes-remote-from-hypothalamic-hamartomas-reflects-cognitive-impairment
#16
Kathrin Wagner, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Horst Urbach, Michael Trippel, Timo S Spehl, Franziska Buschmann, Birgitta Metternich, Isabell Ofer, Philipp T Meyer, Lars Frings
The clinical appearance of patients with hypothalamic hamartomas is very heterogeneous, and interindividual variability of intellectual abilities is not completely understood. We retrospectively investigated cerebral dysfunction as indicated by reduced regional glucose metabolism in 29 patients (age range 7-49 years) with epilepsy due to hypothalamic hamartomas. Brain metabolism assessed by [(18) F]FDG-PET was compared between patients with and without cognitive impairment controlled for unevenly distributed hamartoma lateralization seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
June 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578467/demonstration-of-impaired-neurovascular-coupling-responses-in-tg2576-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-using-functional-laser-speckle-contrast-imaging
#17
Stefano Tarantini, Gabor A Fulop, Tamas Kiss, Eszter Farkas, Dániel Zölei-Szénási, Veronica Galvan, Peter Toth, Anna Csiszar, Zoltan Ungvari, Andriy Yabluchanskiy
Increasing evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies indicates that cerebromicrovascular dysfunction and microcirculatory damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of many types of dementia in the elderly, including both vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and Alzheimer's disease. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) include impairment of neurovascular coupling responses/functional hyperemia ("neurovascular uncoupling"). Due to the growing interest in understanding and pharmacologically targeting pathophysiological mechanisms of VCID, there is an increasing need for sensitive, easy-to-establish methods to assess neurovascular coupling responses...
June 3, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574044/-autotransplantation-of-the-internal-carotid-artery-in-patients-with-high-localization-of-an-atherosclerotic-plaque
#18
E V Rosseĭkin, A B Voevodin, D A Radzhabov, V V Bazylev
Acute and chronic cerebral circulatory impairment is a very commonly encountered type of neurological diseases, annually affecting more than six million people worldwide. The absolute majority of all cases are associated with atherosclerosis of cerebral arteries. Surgical intervention in a stenotic lesion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a method of preventive treatment with confirmed efficacy. Eversion carotid endarterectomy (ECEA) is currently the most commonly used 'open' operation for this cohort of patients...
2017: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562079/improved-visual-acuity-after-microsurgical-clipping-of-a-symptomatic-anterior-cerebral-artery-aneurysm-case-report
#19
Fatih Arcan, Andreas W Unterberg, Klaus Zweckberger
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic aneurysms of the anterior cerebral artery causing visual impairments are rare and preponderantly lacking in the literature. It is further under discussion, whether operative clipping or endovascular coiling might be superior in order to achieve visual recovery. We therefore present a case of a patient with progressive visual loss caused by an aneurysm of the right A1-A2 segment compressing the ipsilateral optic nerve. METHODS: A 57-year-old woman was admitted to our neurosurgical department with visual impairment of the right eye...
May 31, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560333/learning-to-read-alters-cortico-subcortical-cross-talk-in-the-visual-system-of-illiterates
#20
Michael A Skeide, Uttam Kumar, Ramesh K Mishra, Viveka N Tripathi, Anupam Guleria, Jay P Singh, Frank Eisner, Falk Huettig
Learning to read is known to result in a reorganization of the developing cerebral cortex. In this longitudinal resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study in illiterate adults, we show that only 6 months of literacy training can lead to neuroplastic changes in the mature brain. We observed that literacy-induced neuroplasticity is not confined to the cortex but increases the functional connectivity between the occipital lobe and subcortical areas in the midbrain and the thalamus. Individual rates of connectivity increase were significantly related to the individual decoding skill gains...
May 2017: Science Advances
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