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cerebral visual impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137029/neural-reorganization-between-injured-cingula-and-the-brainstem-cholinergic-nuclei-in-a-patient-with-cerebral-concussion-a-case-report
#1
Sung Ho Jang, Young Hyeon Kwon
RATIONALE: We report on a patient who showed neural reorganization between injured cingula and the brainstem cholinergic nuclei following cerebral concussion. PATIENT CONCERNS: The main concern of the patient is memory impairment. DIAGNOSES: Cerebral concussion. OUTCOMES: When she visited our hospital at 2 years after onset, cognitive function was evaluated using 2 scales; the Wechsler Intelligence Scale, and the Seoul neuropsychological screening battery: total IQ 97, verbal immediate recall 5...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136305/neural-basis-of-exertional-fatigue-in-the-heat-a-review-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-methods
#2
REVIEW
X R Tan, Ivan C C Low, Mary C Stephenson, T W Soong, Jason K W Lee
The central nervous system, specifically the brain, is implicated in the development of exertional fatigue under a hot environment. Diverse neuroimaging techniques have been used to visualize the brain activity during or after exercise. Notably, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become prevalent due to its excellent spatial resolution and versatility. This review evaluates the significance and limitations of various brain MRI techniques in exercise studies - brain volumetric analysis, functional MRI, functional connectivity MRI and arterial spin labelling...
November 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123845/cortical-blindness-induced-by-hepatic-encephalopathy-case-report-and-review-of-published-case-reports
#3
Shaohua Cheng-Tagome, Akitaka Yamamoto, Kei Suzuki, Naoyuki Katayama, Hiroshi Imai
Case: Cortical blindness induced by hepatic encephalopathy is an extremely rare complication and its epidemiology has not been studied in great detail. We report a 63-year-old man with liver cirrhosis who developed sudden bilateral visual impairment. Outcome: On arrival at hospital, the patient had orientation disturbance, slurred speech, and mild disturbance of consciousness with impaired vision (light sense). He had no focal neurological deficits except for bilateral blindness...
January 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108712/cognitive-functioning-in-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy-its-relation-to-motor-function-communication-and-epilepsy
#4
Júlia Ballester-Plané, Olga Laporta-Hoyos, Alfons Macaya, Pilar Póo, Mar Meléndez-Plumed, Esther Toro-Tamargo, Francisca Gimeno, Ana Narberhaus, Dolors Segarra, Roser Pueyo
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of motor function often accompanied by cognitive impairment. There is a paucity of research focused on cognition in dyskinetic CP and on the potential effect of related factors. AIM: To describe the cognitive profile in dyskinetic CP and to assess its relationship with motor function and associated impairments. METHOD: Fifty-two subjects with dyskinetic CP (28 males, mean age 24 y 10 mo, SD 13 y) and 52 typically-developing controls (age- and gender-matched) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment...
October 24, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100949/plasticity-of-the-human-visual-brain-after-early-cortical-lesion
#5
K Mikellidou, R Arrighi, G Aghakhanyan, F Tinelli, F Frijia, S Crespi, F De Masi, D Montanaro, M C Morrone
In adults, partial damage to V1 or optic radiations abolishes perception in the corresponding part of the visual field, causing a scotoma. However, it is widely accepted that the developing cortex has superior capacities to reorganize following an early lesion to endorse adaptive plasticity. Here we report a single patient case (G.S.) with near normal central field vision despite a massive unilateral lesion to the optic radiations acquired early in life. The patient underwent surgical removal of a right hemisphere parieto-temporal-occipital atypical choroid plexus papilloma of the right lateral ventricle at four months of age, which presumably altered the visual pathways during in utero development...
October 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089437/transient-hypoxemia-chronically-disrupts-maturation-of-preterm-fetal-ovine-subplate-neuron-arborization-and-activity
#6
Evelyn McClendon, Daniel C Shaver, Kiera Degener-O'Brien, Xi Gong, Thuan Nguyen, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Zoltán Molnár, Claudia Mohr, Ben D Richardson, David J Rossi, Stephen A Back
Preterm infants are at risk for a broad spectrum of neurobehavioral disabilities associated with diffuse disturbances in cortical growth and development. During brain development, subplate neurons (SPNs) are a largely transient population that serves a critical role to establish functional cortical circuits. By dynamically integrating into developing cortical circuits they assist in consolidation of intra and extracortical circuits. Although SPNs reside in close proximity to cerebral white matter, which is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress, the susceptibility of SPNs remains controversial...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075018/impact-of-healthcare-strategies-on-patterns-of-paediatric-sight-impairment-in-a-developed-population-1984-2011
#7
K Shirley, S Chamney, P Satkurunathan, S McLoone, E McLoone
PurposeThe aim of our study was to analyse paediatric sight-impairment trends in Northern Ireland (NI) over a 28-year period to better understand the impact which changes in health-care provision may be having on childhood blindness and to enable us to assess our progress towards achieving the World Health Organisation (WHO) aims.MethodsA database of Certificates of Visual Impairment completed for NI children aged <16 years was used to determine the cause of sight impairment from 1984 to 2011. Causes were classified into preventable or treatable conditions and analysed for trends...
November 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051732/age-related-frontal-periventricular-white-matter-hyperintensities-and-mir-92a-3p-are-associated-with-early-onset-post-stroke-depression
#8
Ji-Rong He, Yu Zhang, Wen-Jing Lu, Huai-Bin Liang, Xuan-Qiang Tu, Fei-Yue Ma, Guo-Yuan Yang, Li-Li Zeng
Objective: To explore the correlationship among white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), miR-92a-3p and early-onset post-stroke depression (PSD). Methods: We recruited consecutively 238 patients with acute cerebral infarction and MRI examination in the Department of neurology, Ruijin hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine. The diagnosis of early-onset PSD was made in accordance with DSM-IV criteria for depression in 2 weeks after stroke. Clinical information and assessments of stroke severity were recorded on admission...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043919/beyond-survival-5-year-neurodevelopmental-follow-up-of-a-cohort-of-preterm-infants-in-colombo-sri-lanka
#9
S P Sumanasena, D V Vipulaguna, M M Mendis, N S Gunawardena
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information on long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm neonates in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To describe the developmental attainments of preterm neonates followed up for 5 years and to identify the risk factors for impairment. METHOD: A prospective descriptive cohort study was undertaken in neonates of 34 weeks gestation born within a period of 12 months at a single tertiary maternity and neonatal unit in Colombo, Sri Lanka...
October 18, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040698/clinical-outcome-after-endoscopic-endonasal-resection-of-tuberculum-sella-meningiomas
#10
Khaled Elshazly, Varun R Kshettry, Christopher J Farrell, Gurston Nyquist, Marc Rosen, James J Evans
BACKGROUND: In select cases, the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has distinct advantages for resection of tuberculum sella meningiomas (TSM). OBJECTIVE: To report the extent of resection (EOR), complication rates, and outcomes in a large series of TSM treated by the EEA. METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive TSM cases treated by EEA from 2008 to 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient history, imaging, volumetric EOR, complications, and outcomes are presented...
October 10, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023666/nutritional-intervention-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-infants-with-suspected-cerebral-palsy-the-dolphin-infant-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Morag J Andrew, Jeremy R Parr, Christine Montague-Johnson, Karen Laler, Cathy Qi, Bonny Baker, Peter B Sullivan
AIM: To investigate whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), choline, and uridine-5-monophosphate (UMP) supplementation improves neurodevelopmental outcome in infants with suspected cerebral palsy (CP) versus a comparison group of children. METHOD: Infants aged 1 to 18 months with suspected CP were recruited from UK child development centres. Participants received daily treatment or control supplementation for 2 years (double-blind randomized control design). Stratification was by age, sex, predominant pattern of motor involvement (four limbs or other), and visual impairment (or not)...
October 12, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993725/laser-speckle-imaging-of-rat-pial-microvasculature-during-hypoperfusion-reperfusion-damage
#12
Teresa Mastantuono, Noemy Starita, Laura Battiloro, Martina Di Maro, Martina Chiurazzi, Gilda Nasti, Espedita Muscariello, Mario Cesarelli, Luigi Iuppariello, Gianni D'Addio, Alexander Gorbach, Antonio Colantuoni, Dominga Lapi
The present study was aimed to in vivo assess the blood flow oscillatory patterns in rat pial microvessels during 30 min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) and 60 min reperfusion by laser speckle imaging (LSI). Pial microcirculation was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. The blood flow oscillations of single microvessels were recorded by LSI; spectral analysis was performed by Wavelet transform. Under baseline conditions, arterioles and venules were characterized by blood flow oscillations in the frequency ranges 0...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992987/the-resting-perfusion-pattern-associates-with-functional-decline-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
Weiying Dai, Wenna Duan, Freddy J Alfaro, Anna Gavrieli, Fotini Kourtelidis, Vera Novak
We investigated the relationships between cerebral blood flow (CBF), cognitive, and mobility decline in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) over a 2-year period. Seventy-three participants (41 T2DM and 32 controls) were evaluated using volumetric CBF with arterial spin labeling perfusion magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and at the 2-year follow-up. Regions with significant CBF differences between T2DM participants and controls at baseline were detected using voxel-wise analysis. Correlation analysis was performed to investigate the association between regional CBF and cognitive or mobility performance over the 2-year span...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987495/late-ophthalmological-manifestations-in-patients-with-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-and-coiling-of-cerebral-aneurysm
#14
Iwona Obuchowska, Grzegorz Turek, Jan Kochanowicz, Andrzej Lewszuk, Zofia Mariak, Zenon Mariak
Late ocular manifestations of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have not been previously investigated except for one study which demonstrated that one half of patients subjected to aneurysm clipping suffer from symptoms of visual pathway impairment. We assessed ophthalmological status of patients after 1-4.5 years from SAH and aneurysm embolization to identify predictors of damage to the visual pathways. Complete ophthalmological examination, static perimetry, and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were performed in 74 patients (26 men, 48 women, aged 19-76 years), who constituted a consecutive sample of 129 patients treated with aneurysm embolization in the years 2008-2010...
September 22, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983277/evidence-of-asymptomatic-visual-losses-after-surgical-repair-of-cerebral-aneurysm
#15
Albedy Moreira Bastos, Anderson Raiol Rodrigues, Maria Izabel Tentes Côrtes, Eliza Maria da Costa Brito Lacerda, Mônica Gomes Lima, Cláudio Eduardo Corrêa Teixeira, Luiz Carlos de Lima Silveira
Deficits in visual acuity, visual field, and oculomotor function are commonly detected after repair of cerebral aneurysms. However, when these deficits are absent, it does not mean that other potential visual deficits also are absent. Here, we report three cases that after complete recover from surgical repair of cerebral aneurysms presented minimal visual acuities of about 20/20 and no visual disturbances. While two of them (Cases 1 and 2) showed visual fields with no relevant central defects, two of them showed relevant impairments in spatial contrast sensitivity (Cases 2 and 3)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979174/delayed-onset-of-isolated-unilateral-oculomotor-nerve-palsy-caused-by-post-traumatic-pituitary-apoplexy-a-case-report
#16
Tomoki Ishigaki, Yotaro Kitano, Hirofumi Nishikawa, Genshin Mouri, Shigetoshi Shimizu, Fumitaka Miya, Hidenori Suzuki
Post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy is uncommon, most of which present with a sudden onset of severe headache and visual impairments associated with a dumbbell-shaped pituitary tumor. We experienced an unusual case of post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy with atypical clinical features. A 66-year-old man presented with mild cerebral contusion and an incidentally diagnosed intrasellar tumor after a fall accident with no loss of consciousness. The patients denied any symptoms before the accident. After 4 days, the left oculomotor nerve palsy developed and deteriorated associated with no severe headache...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972396/intranasal-nerve-growth-factor-administration-improves-cerebral-functions-in-a-child-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#17
Antonio Chiaretti, Giorgio Conti, Benedetto Falsini, Danilo Buonsenso, Matteo Crasti, Luigi Manni, Marzia Soligo, Claudia Fantacci, Orazio Genovese, Maria Lucia Calcagni, Daniela Di Giuda, Maria Vittoria Mattoli, Fabrizio Cocciolillo, Pietro Ferrara, Antonio Ruggiero, Susanna Staccioli, Giovanna Stefania Colafati, Riccardo Riccardi
BACKGROUND: Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes neural recovery after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) supporting neuronal growth, differentiation and survival of brain cells and up-regulating the neurogenesis-associated protein Doublecortin (DCX). Only a few studies reported NGF administration in paediatric patients with severe TBI. METHODS: A four-year-old boy in a persistent unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) was treated with intranasal murine NGF administration 6 months after severe TBI...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965918/stability-in-neurovascular-function-at-3800m
#18
Hannah G Caldwell, Philip N Ainslie, Lindsay A Ellis, Aaron A Phillips, Daniela Flück
Hypoxia-induced neurocognitive impairments have been of clinical interest for centuries. The mechanisms responsible for these neurocognitive impairments at altitude are unclear, but may relate to the uncoupling of local neural activity with appropriate changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF; i.e., functional hyperemia). At both sea level and following 3 and 7days at 3800m (Barcroft Research Lab, White Mountain, CA, USA), transcranial Doppler was used to index CBF during three separate tasks designed to evoke cerebral functional hyperemia in 11 healthy individuals (26...
December 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964939/face-perception-in-pure-alexia-complementary-contributions-of-the-left-fusiform-gyrus-to-facial-identity-and-facial-speech-processing
#19
Andrea Albonico, Jason J S Barton
Recent concepts of cerebral visual processing predict from overlapping patterns of face and word activation in cortex that left fusiform lesions will not only cause pure alexia but also lead to mild impairments of face processing. Our goal was to determine if alexic subjects had deficits in facial identity processing similar to those seen after right fusiform lesions, or complementary deficits affecting different aspects of face processing. We studied four alexic patients whose lesions involved the left fusiform gyrus and one prosopagnosic subject with a right fusiform lesion, on standard tests of face perception and recognition...
September 4, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954586/night-duty-and-decreased-brain-activity-of-medical-residents-a-wearable-optical-topography-study
#20
Masaki Nishida, Senichiro Kikuchi, Fumikazu Miwakeichi, Shiro Suda
BACKGROUND: Overwork, fatigue, and sleep deprivation due to night duty are likely to be detrimental to the performance of medical residents and can consequently affect patient safety. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of deterioration of cerebral function of sleep-deprived, fatigued residents using neuroimaging techniques. DESIGN: Six medical residents were instructed to draw blood from artificial vessels installed on the arm of a normal cooperator...
2017: Medical Education Online
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