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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712500/use-of-zinc-finger-nucleases-for-crop-improvement
#1
John P Davies, Sandeep Kumar, Lakshmi Sastry-Dent
Over the past two decades, new technologies enabling targeted modification of plant genomes have been developed. Among these are zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) which are composed of engineered zinc-finger DNA-binding domains fused with a nuclease, generally the FokI nuclease. The zinc-finger domains are composed of a series of four to six 30 amino acid domains that can bind to trinucleotide sequences giving the entire DNA-binding domain specificity to 12-18 nucleotides. Since the FokI nuclease functions as a dimer, pairs of zinc-finger domains are designed to bind upstream and downstream of the cut site which increases the specificity of the complete ZFN to 24-36 nucleotides...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705213/the-therapeutic-landscape-of-hiv-1-via-genome-editing
#2
REVIEW
Alexander Kwarteng, Samuel Terkper Ahuno, Godwin Kwakye-Nuako
Current treatment for HIV-1 largely relies on chemotherapy through the administration of antiretroviral drugs. While the search for anti-HIV-1 vaccine remain elusive, the use of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) have been far-reaching and has changed HIV-1 into a manageable chronic infection. There is compelling evidence, including several side-effects of ARTs, suggesting that eradication of HIV-1 cannot depend solely on antiretrovirals. Gene therapy, an expanding treatment strategy, using RNA interference (RNAi) and programmable nucleases such as meganuclease, zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas9) are transforming the therapeutic landscape of HIV-1...
July 14, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643261/genome-editing-of-silkworms
#3
Takuya Tsubota, Hideki Sezutsu
Silkworm is a lepidopteran insect that has been used as a model for a wide variety of biological studies. The microinjection technique is available and it is possible to cause transgenesis as well as target gene disruption via the genome editing technique. TALEN-mediated knock-out is especially effective in this species. We also succeeded in the precise and efficient integration of a donor vector using the Precise Integration into Target Chromosome (PITCh) method. Here, we describe protocols for ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing as well as the PITCh technique in the silkworm...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643258/crispr-cas9-mediated-targeted-knockin-of-exogenous-reporter-genes-in-zebrafish
#4
Atsuo Kawahara
Genome editing technologies such as ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 efficiently induce DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) at a targeted genomic locus, often resulting in a frameshift-mediated target gene disruption. It remains difficult to perform targeted integration of exogenous genes by genome editing technologies. DSBs can be restored through DNA repair mechanisms, such as non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ), and homologous recombination (HR). It is well known that HR facilitates homology-dependent integration of donor DNA template into a targeted locus...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643255/genome-editing-of-pig
#5
Masahito Watanabe, Hiroshi Nagashima
Pigs are important livestock for food and have been used in various biomedical studies, particularly translational research, as experimental animals because of their anatomical and physiological similarity to humans. The recent development of genome editing techniques, such as ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9, has rapidly expanded the use of genome editing tools in a variety of animals, resulting in the relatively easy and efficient generation of gene knock-out pigs. In the past few years, there has been a sustained increase in reports describing the development of genetically modified pigs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643253/genome-editing-of-rat
#6
Takehito Kaneko
Many genetically engineered rat strains have been produced for biomedical research. The simple and quick production of knock-out and knock-in rats is currently possible using genome editing techniques incorporating zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), or clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9. Genome-edited animals have been produced by the introduction of endonucleases into embryos using conventional microinjection and a new electroporation method named Technique for Animal Knockout system by Electroporation (TAKE)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643251/genome-editing-in-mouse-and-rat-by-electroporation
#7
Takehito Kaneko
Many knock-out/knock-in mouse and rat strains have been produced by genome editing techniques using engineered endonucleases, including zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), or clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9. Microinjection of engineered endonucleases into pronuclear-stage embryos is required to produce genome-edited rodents and the development of easy, rapid, and high-efficiency methods that do not require special skills such as microinjection is needed...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643245/construction-and-evaluation-of-zinc-finger-nucleases
#8
Hiroshi Ochiai, Takashi Yamamoto
Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are programmable nucleases that have opened the door to the genome editing era. The construction of ZFNs recognizing a target sequence of interest is laborious, and has not been widely used recently. However, key ZFN patents are expiring over the next 2-4 years, enabling a wide range of deployments for clinical and industrial applications. This article introduces a ZFN construction protocol that uses bacterial one-hybrid (B1H) selection and single-stranded annealing (SSA) assay.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596158/molecular-imaging-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-stably-expressing-human-pet-reporter-genes-after-zinc-finger-nucleases-mediated-genome-editing
#9
Esther Wolfs, Bryan Holvoet, Laura Ordovas, Natacha Breuls, Nicky Helsen, Matthias Schönberger, Susanna Raitano, Tom Struys, Bert Vanbilloen, Cindy Casteels, Maurilio Sampaolesi, Koen Van Laere, Ivo Lambrichts, Catherine M Verfaillie, Christophe M Deroose
Molecular imaging is indispensable for determining the fate and persistence of engrafted stem cells. Standard strategies for transgene induction involve the use of viral vectors prone to silencing and insertional mutagenesis or the use of non-human genes. We used zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) to induce stable expression of human imaging reporter genes into the safe harbor locus adeno-associated virus integration site 1 (AAVS1) in human embryonic stem cells (ESC). Plasmids were generated carrying reporter genes for fluorescence, bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and human positron emission tomography (PET) reporter genes...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589393/a-history-of-genome-editing-in-mammals
#10
Almudena Fernández, Santiago Josa, Lluis Montoliu
Genome editing is now a routine procedure in many mammalian genetics laboratories. The ostensibly short but intense history of genome-editing approaches illustrates how a disruptive technology can universally colonize a field when this new methodology, conceived to alter mammalian genomes at specific locations, is found to efficiently and robustly deliver results. This review summarizes the early development of genome editing using nucleases, from the pioneering experiments using yeast meganucleases, to the latest prokaryotic nucleases used for precise genome manipulation...
June 6, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588449/long-term-assessment-of-aav-mediated-zinc-finger-nuclease-expression-in-the-mouse-brain
#11
Muzna Zahur, Johan Tolö, Mathias Bähr, Sebastian Kügler
Gene editing tools like TALENs, ZFNs and Crispr/Cas now offer unprecedented opportunities for targeted genetic manipulations in virtually all species. Most of the recent research in this area has concentrated on manipulation of the genome in isolated cells, which then give rise to transgenic animals or modified stem cell lines. Much less is known about applicability of genetic scissors in terminally differentiated, non-dividing cells like neurons of the adult brain. We addressed this question by expression of a pair of ZFNs targeting the murine cathepsin D gene in CNS neurons by means of an optimized AAV viral vector...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530652/cd34-cells-from-dental-pulp-stem-cells-with-a-zfn-mediated-and-homology-driven-repair-mediated-locus-specific-knock-in-of-an-artificial-%C3%AE-globin-gene
#12
S Chattong, O Ruangwattanasuk, W Yindeedej, A Setpakdee, K Manotham
In humans, mutations in the β-globin gene (HBB) have two important clinical manifestations: β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. The progress in genome editing and stem cell research may be relevant to the treatment of β-globin-related diseases. In this work, we employed zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated gene integration of synthetic β-globin cDNA into HBB loci, thus correcting almost all β-globin mutations. The integration was achieved in both HEK 293 cells and isolated dental pulp stem cell (DPSCs)...
July 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479163/cell-penetrating-peptides-cpps-from-delivery-of-nucleic-acids-and-antigens-to-transduction-of-engineered-nucleases-for-application-in-transgenesis
#13
REVIEW
Gandhi Rádis-Baptista, Iana S Campelo, Jean-Étienne R L Morlighem, Luciana M Melo, Vicente J F Freitas
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been studied for their capacity to translocate across the lipid membrane of several cell types. In membrane translocation, these peptides can remarkably transport biologically active hydrophilic molecules, such as pharmaceuticals, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and even high-molecular-weight proteins, Fig. 3 into the cell cytoplasm and organelles. The development of CPPs as transduction agents includes the modification of gene and protein expression, the reprogramming and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells and the preparation of cellular vaccines...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412228/temperature-effect-on-crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing
#14
Guanghai Xiang, Xingying Zhang, Chenrui An, Chen Cheng, Haoyi Wang
Zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) are the most commonly used genome editing tools. Previous studies demonstrated that hypothermia treatment increased the mutation rates induced by ZFNs and TALENs in mammalian cells. Here, we characterize the effect of different culture temperatures on CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing and find that the genome editing efficiency of CRISPR-Cas9 is significantly hampered by hypothermia treatment, unlike ZFN and TALEN...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386301/new-traits-in-crops-produced-by-genome-editing-techniques-based-on-deletions
#15
REVIEW
C C M van de Wiel, J G Schaart, L A P Lotz, M J M Smulders
One of the most promising New Plant Breeding Techniques is genome editing (also called gene editing) with the help of a programmable site-directed nuclease (SDN). In this review, we focus on SDN-1, which is the generation of small deletions or insertions (indels) at a precisely defined location in the genome with zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), TALENs, or CRISPR-Cas9. The programmable nuclease is used to induce a double-strand break in the DNA, while the repair is left to the plant cell itself, and mistakes are introduced, while the cell is repairing the double-strand break using the relatively error-prone NHEJ pathway...
2017: Plant Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362093/selective-and-robust-stabilization-of-triplex-dna-structures-using-cationic-comb-type-copolymers
#16
Asako Yamayoshi, Daisuke Miyoshi, Yu-Ki Zouzumi, Yohei Matsuyama, Jumpei Ariyoshi, Naohiko Shimada, Akira Murakami, Takehiko Wada, Atsushi Maruyama
DNA sequences capable of forming triplexes induce DNA double-strand breaks that have attracted attention in genome editing technologies (e.g., CRISPR/Cas9 system, TALEN, and ZFN). Therefore, novel functional tools that stabilize triplex DNA structures must be further investigated to spark renewed interest. In this study, we investigated the unique character of cationic comb-type copolymers for the selective stabilization of triplex DNA. The melting temperature (Tm) of triplex DNA increased from 24.5 to 73.0 °C (ΔTm = 48...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339300/genetic-manipulation-by-zinc-finger-nucleases-in-rat-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
Sheng Yang, Shufang Ding, Qianhua Xu, Xiong Li, Qiong Xiong
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have an extensive application in regenerative medicine, pharmaceutical discovery, and basic research. With the recent derivation of rat iPSCs, it is now feasible to apply genetic manipulation in this species. But such tools do not yet exist for many rat strains, especially for disease model rat. The Sprague Dawley (SD) rat is an inbred disease model for hypertension, nephropathy, pulmonary hypertension, depression, and alcohol consumption. In this study, the SD rat iPSCs were generated using lentiviral method...
June 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261237/progress-in-genome-editing-technology-and-its-application-in-plants
#18
REVIEW
Kai Zhang, Nadia Raboanatahiry, Bin Zhu, Maoteng Li
Genome editing technology (GET) is a versatile approach that has progressed rapidly as a mechanism to alter the genotype and phenotype of organisms. However, conventional genome modification using GET cannot satisfy current demand for high-efficiency and site-directed mutagenesis, retrofitting of artificial nucleases has developed into a new avenue within this field. Based on mechanisms to recognize target genes, newly-developed GETs can generally be subdivided into three cleavage systems, protein-dependent DNA cleavage systems (i...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182397/comeback-of-the-rat-in-biomedical-research
#19
Judith R Homberg, Markus Wöhr, Natalia Alenina
Rats were the first mammalian species domesticated for scientific purposes, and they soon became the most widely used animal model in biomedical sciences, including cardiovascular research and behavioral neuroscience. Yet, after the development of technologies to manipulate genes, researchers largely shifted to the use of mice. However, as we lay out with examples from drug addiction, social behavior, and cardiovascular research, rats have experimental advantages over mice. With the introduction of zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) methodologies, and, specifically, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) associated system, gene targeting is no longer limited to mice...
February 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178187/may-i-cut-in-gene-editing-approaches-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
REVIEW
Nicholas Brookhouser, Sreedevi Raman, Christopher Potts, David A Brafman
In the decade since Yamanaka and colleagues described methods to reprogram somatic cells into a pluripotent state, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have demonstrated tremendous promise in numerous disease modeling, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine applications. More recently, the development and refinement of advanced gene transduction and editing technologies have further accelerated the potential of hiPSCs. In this review, we discuss the various gene editing technologies that are being implemented with hiPSCs...
February 6, 2017: Cells
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