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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915118/a-streamlined-acquisition-for-mapping-baseline-brain-oxygenation-using-quantitative-bold
#1
Alan J Stone, Nicholas P Blockley
Quantitative BOLD (qBOLD) is a non-invasive MR technique capable of producing quantitative measurements of the haemodynamic and metabolic properties of the brain. Here we propose a refinement of the qBOLD methodology, dubbed streamlined-qBOLD, in order to provide a clinically feasible method for mapping baseline brain oxygenation. In streamlined-qBOLD confounding signal contributions are minimised during data acquisition through the application of (i) a Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) preparation to remove cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) signal contamination, (ii) a Gradient Echo Slice Excitation Profile Imaging (GESEPI) acquisition to reduce the effect of macroscopic magnetic field gradients and (iii) an Asymmetric Spin Echo (ASE) pulse sequence to directly measure the reversible transverse relaxation rate, R2'...
November 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911697/science-and-culture-crafting-prostheses-with-form-function-and-flair
#2
Esther Landhuis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910089/bilateral-endolymphatic-hydrops-in-a-patient-with-migraine-variant-without-vertigo-a-case-report
#3
Isabelle Y Liu, Akira Ishiyama, Ali R Sepahdari, Kevin Johnson, Gail Ishiyama
OBJECTIVE: To use modern high-resolution inner ear imaging modalities to evaluate for endolymphatic hydrops (EH) in a patient with migraine-associated fluctuating hearing loss without vertigo spells or dizziness. BACKGROUND: EH has been well described in patients with Meniere's disease on both human temporal bone studies and modern high-resolution imaging; however, there is no study to date, to our knowledge, that examines the presence of EH in a patient with migraine and bilateral hearing loss...
December 2, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908171/automated-detection-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-of-all-sizes-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#4
Mohsen Ghafoorian, Nico Karssemeijer, Inge W M van Uden, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Tom Heskes, Elena Marchiori, Bram Platel
PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are seen on FLAIR-MRI in several neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, dementia, Parkinsonism, stroke and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). WMHs are often used as biomarkers for prognosis or disease progression in these diseases, and additionally longitudinal quantification of WMHs is used to evaluate therapeutic strategies. Human readers show considerable disagreement and inconsistency on detection of small lesions. A multitude of automated detection algorithms for WMHs exists, but since most of the current automated approaches are tuned to optimize segmentation performance according to Jaccard or Dice scores, smaller WMHs often go undetected in these approaches...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904755/paraplegia-caused-by-cerebral-contusions-in-the-bilateral-precentral-gyri
#5
Hideaki Matsumura, Hiroyuki Fujimori, Naoaki Sato, Akira Matsumura
BACKGROUND: Paraplegia is mainly caused by spinal cord disease and rarely occurs due to head trauma. In this report, we describe a case of paraplegia caused by cerebral contusions in the bilateral precentral gyri. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 72-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with mildly impaired consciousness and severe pure motor paralysis in both legs. He was healthy until the morning of the day, but his wife found him injured in front of his house upon returning home...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903197/upfront-boost-gamma-knife-leading-edge-radiosurgery-to-flair-mri-defined-tumor-migration-pathways-in-174-patients-with-glioblastoma-multiforme-a-15-year-assessment-of-a-novel-therapy
#6
Christopher M Duma, Brian S Kim, Peter V Chen, Marianne E Plunkett, Ralph Mackintosh, Marlon S Mathews, Ryan M Casserly, Gustavo A Mendez, Daniel J Furman, Garrett Smith, Nathan Oh, Chad A Caraway, Ami R Sanathara, Robert O Dillman, Azzurra-Sky Riley, David Weiland, Lian Stemler, Ruslana Cannell, Daniela Alexandru Abrams, Alexa Smith, Christopher M Owen, Burton Eisenberg, Michael Brant-Zawadzki
OBJECTIVE Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is composed of cells that migrate through the brain along predictable white matter pathways. Targeting white matter pathways adjacent to, and leading away from, the original contrast-enhancing tumor site (termed leading-edge radiosurgery [LERS]) with single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery as a boost to standard therapy could limit the spread of glioma cells and improve clinical outcomes. METHODS Between December 2000 and May 2016, after an initial diagnosis of GBM and prior to or during standard radiation therapy and carmustine or temozolomide chemotherapy, 174 patients treated with radiosurgery to the leading edge (LE) of tumor cell migration were reviewed...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903116/endoscopic-endonasal-versus-open-transcranial-resection-of-craniopharyngiomas-a-case-matched-single-institution-analysis
#7
Nelson Moussazadeh, Vishaal Prabhu, Evan D Bander, Ryan C Cusic, Apostolos John Tsiouris, Vijay K Anand, Theodore H Schwartz
OBJECTIVE The authors compared clinical and radiological outcomes after resection of midline craniopharyngiomas via an endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) versus an open transcranial approach (TCA) at a single institution in a series in which the tumors were selected to be equally amenable to gross-total resection (GTR) with either approach. METHODS A single-institution retrospective review of previously untreated adult midline craniopharyngiomas was performed. Lesions were evaluated by 4 neurosurgeons blinded to the actual approach used to identify cases that were equally amenable to GTR using either an EEA or TCA...
December 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896903/imaging-diagnosis-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-a-neuronal-heterotopia-in-the-brain-of-a-cat
#8
Antonia DeJesus, Bradley J Turek, Evelyn Galban, Jantra Ngosuwan Suran
A domestic shorthair kitten was presented for evaluation and further treatment of seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a large multilobulated mass in the third ventricle extending into the right lateral ventricle with secondary obstructive hydrocephalus. The mass was homogeneously isointense to gray matter on T2W, T2-FLAIR, T2(*) W, T1W, and ADC images, and hyperintense on DW-EPI. There was no appreciable contrast enhancement. Seizures were managed medically and with subsequent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896520/early-perfusion-mri-predicts-survival-outcome-in-patients-with-recurrent-glioblastoma-treated-with-bevacizumab-and-carboplatin
#9
Iwan E Bennett, Kathryn M Field, Christopher M Hovens, Bradford A Moffat, Mark A Rosenthal, Katharine Drummond, Andrew H Kaye, Andrew P Morokoff
Bevacizumab, an anti-angiogenic agent, is FDA-approved for use in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (rGBM). The radiologic evaluation of tumor response to bevacizumab is complex and there is no validated method of monitoring tumor vascularity during therapy. We evaluated perfusion-weighted MR imaging (PWI) in our cohort of patients enrolled in the CABARET trial, which examined the effectiveness of bevacizumab with or without carboplatin in patients with rGBM. Pre-treatment and early follow-up (4- and 8-week) PWI were used to calculate relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) histogram statistics of the contrast-enhancing and FLAIR hyperintense tumor volumes...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896065/analysis-of-ageing-associated-grey-matter-volume-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-shows-excess-atrophy-in-subcortical-regions
#10
Courtney A Bishop, Rexford D Newbould, Jean Sz Lee, Lesley Honeyfield, Rebecca Quest, Alessandro Colasanti, Rehiana Ali, Miriam Mattoscio, Antonio Cortese, Richard Nicholas, Paul M Matthews, Paolo A Muraro, Adam D Waldman
Age of onset in multiple sclerosis (MS) exerts an influence on the course of disease. This study examined whether global and regional brain volumes differed between "younger" and "older" onset MS subjects who were matched for short disease duration, mean 1.9 years and burden as measured by the MS Severity Score and relapses. 21 younger-onset MS subjects (age 30.4 ± 3.2 years) were compared with 17 older-onset (age 48.7 ± 3.3 years) as well as age-matched controls (n = 31, 31.9 ± 3.5 years and n = 21, 47...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894944/surface-projected-flair-supr-flair-analysis-a-novel-tool-for-advanced-imaging-of-epilepsy
#11
Francesco Cardinale, Stefano Francione, Luciana Gennari, Alberto Citterio, Maurizio Sberna, Laura Tassi, Roberto Mai, Ivana Sartori, Lino Nobili, Massimo Cossu, Laura Castana, Giorgio Lo Russo, Nadia Colombo
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot retrospective study is to describe the SUrface-PRojected FLuid-Attenuation-Inversion-Recovery (SUPR-FLAIR) analysis, a novel method mainly aimed at revealing cortical areas with subtle signal hyper-intensity. METHODS: Images from 101 healthy controls and ten patients suffering from drug-resistant partial epilepsy were retrospectively post-processed. Brain surface was reconstructed from a 3D T1-weighted fast field echo (3D T1W-FFE) MRI scan...
November 25, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888077/subcortical-low-intensity-lesions-on-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-images-after-revascularization-surgery-for-moyamoya-disease
#12
Toshio Machida, Shigeki Nakano, Satoshi Ishige, Junichi Ono, Atsushi Fujikawa
OBJECTIVE: Although uncommon, subcortical low-intensity (SCLI) changes on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images are observed in various pathologies, including cerebral ischemia. Here we aimed to clarify the incidence and clinical implications of SCLI changes after revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease (MMD), focusing on the correlation with postoperative transient neurological events (TNEs). METHODS: In this retrospective case series analysis, we included 10 hemispheres from 9 adults with MMD who underwent revascularization surgery...
November 22, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881833/apixaban-for-treatment-of-embolic-stroke-of-undetermined-source-atticus-randomized-trial-rationale-and-study-design
#13
Tobias Geisler, Sven Poli, Christoph Meisner, Juergen Schreieck, Christine S Zuern, Thomas Nägele, Johannes Brachmann, Werner Jung, Georg Gahn, Elisabeth Schmid, Hansjörg Bäezner, Timea Keller, Gabor C Petzold, Jan-Wilko Schrickel, Jan Liman, Rolf Wachter, Frauke Schön, Martin Schabet, Alfred Lindner, Albert C Ludolph, Hubert Kimmig, Sebastian Jander, Uwe Schlegel, Meinrad Gawaz, Ulf Ziemann
RATIONALE: Optimal secondary prevention of embolic stroke of undetermined source is not established. The current standard in these patients is acetylsalicylic acid, despite high prevalence of yet undetected paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. AIM: The ATTICUS randomized trial is designed to determine whether the factor Xa inhibitor apixaban administered within 7 days after embolic stroke of undetermined source, is superior to acetylsalicylic acid for prevention of new ischemic lesions documented by brain magnetic resonance imaging within 12 months after index stroke...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878926/the-effects-of-dwi-infarct-lesion-volume-on-dwi-flair-mismatch-is-there-a-need-for-size-stratification
#14
Seyedmehdi Payabvash, Shayandokht Taleb, John C Benson, Jeffrey B Rykken, Mark C Oswood, Alexander M McKinney, Benjamin Hoffman
BACKGROUND: The lack of fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensity in areas of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) high signal, or DWI-FLAIR mismatch, is a potential imaging biomarker for timing of stroke onset. We aimed to determine the effects of DWI infarct lesion volume on DWI-FLAIR mismatch and its accuracy for identification of strokes within intravenous (IV) the thrombolytic therapy window. METHODS: Acute ischemic stroke patients with magnetic resonance imaging scan within 12 hours of witnessed stroke were included...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869333/patient-specific-3d-flair-for-enhanced-visualization-of-brain-white-matter-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Refaat E Gabr, Amol S Pednekar, Koushik A Govindarajan, Xiaojun Sun, Roy F Riascos, María G Ramírez, Khader M Hasan, John A Lincoln, Flavia Nelson, Jerry S Wolinsky, Ponnada A Narayana
PURPOSE: To improve the conspicuity of white matter lesions (WMLs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) using patient-specific optimization of single-slab 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen MS patients were enrolled in a prospective 3.0T MRI study. FLAIR inversion time and echo time were automatically optimized for each patient during the same scan session based on measurements of the relative proton density and relaxation times of the brain tissues...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865819/buzz-juice-neurological-sequelae-of-synthetic-cannabinoids
#16
Manisha Kak, Fadi Mikhail, Sho T Yano, Rui Guan, Rimas V Lukas
The use of synthetic cannabinoids is becoming more widespread. Familiarity with the potential toxicities associated with these agents will grow in importance. We present a case of a woman who developed onset of confusion, visual hallucinations, and ataxia after vaporizing synthetic cannabinoids. MRI imaging demonstrated restricted diffusion and increased T2/FLAIR signal in the corpus callosum and cerebellar peduncles.
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864731/multiple-sclerosis-related-pain-syndromes-an-imaging-update
#17
REVIEW
Amir Mazhari
Pain in multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common manifestation, made up of complex phenomenon involving intricate neurophysiological processing at central levels of the pain pathway. Our understanding of the clinical and neurophysiological mechanisms of central/neuropathic pain related to MS continues to improve with improved imaging techniques but remains a challenging area of research. The advancements in imaging techniques for lesion evaluation of the various neuroanatomic structures have improved our detection, diagnosis, and understanding of MS pain and help validate subjective symptoms...
December 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864579/automated-segmentation-reveals-silent-radiographic-progression-in-adult-onset-vanishing-white-matter-disease
#18
Thomas Huber, Marina Herwerth, Esther Alberts, Jan S Kirschke, Claus Zimmer, Ruediger Ilg
Adult-onset vanishing white-matter disease (VWM) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with neurological symptoms such as ataxia and paraparesis, showing extensive white-matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Besides symptom-specific scores like the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), there is no established tool to monitor disease progression. Because of extensive WMH, visual comparison of MR images is challenging. Here, we report the results of an automated method of segmentation to detect alterations in T2-weighted fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery (FLAIR) sequences in a one-year follow-up study of a clinically stable patient with genetically diagnosed VWM...
November 18, 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864578/mesoscopic-imaging-of-glioblastomas-are-diffusion-perfusion-and-spectroscopic-measures-influenced-by-the-radiogenetic-phenotype
#19
Theo Demerath, Carl Philipp Simon-Gabriel, Elias Kellner, Ralf Schwarzwald, Thomas Lange, Dieter Henrik Heiland, Peter Reinacher, Ori Staszewski, Hansjörg Mast, Valerij G Kiselev, Karl Egger, Horst Urbach, Astrid Weyerbrock, Irina Mader
The purpose of this study was to identify markers from perfusion, diffusion, and chemical shift imaging in glioblastomas (GBMs) and to correlate them with genetically determined and previously published patterns of structural magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Twenty-six patients (mean age 60 years, 13 female) with GBM were investigated. Imaging consisted of native and contrast-enhanced 3D data, perfusion, diffusion, and spectroscopic imaging. In the presence of minor necrosis, cerebral blood volume (CBV) was higher (median ± SD, 2...
November 18, 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863964/clinical-evidence-of-variable-proton-biological-effectiveness-in-pediatric-patients-treated-for-ependymoma
#20
Christopher R Peeler, Dragan Mirkovic, Uwe Titt, Pierre Blanchard, Jillian R Gunther, Anita Mahajan, Radhe Mohan, David R Grosshans
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A constant relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is used for clinical proton therapy; however, experimental evidence indicates that RBE can vary. We analyzed pediatric ependymoma patients who received proton therapy to determine if areas of normal tissue damage indicated by post-treatment image changes were associated with increased biological dose effectiveness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen of 34 children showed T2-FLAIR hyperintensity on post-treatment magnetic resonance (MR) images...
November 16, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
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