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Rosa M Crum, Kerry M Green, Elizabeth A Stuart, Lareina N La Flair, Marc Kealhofer, Andrea S Young, Noa Krawczyk, Kayla N Tormohlen, Carla L Storr, Anika A H Alvanzo, Ramin Mojtabai, Lauren R Pacek, Bernadette A Cullen, Beth A Reboussin
INTRODUCTION: Although prior clinical and population-based studies have demonstrated comorbidity between mood and alcohol use disorders (AUD), there is a paucity of research assessing whether mood disorders predict transition across stages of alcohol involvement. METHOD: Hypothesizing that mood disorders predict transition across sex-specific alcohol involvement stages, we used prospective data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative survey of US adults, which included male (n = 14,564) and female (n = 20,089) participants surveyed in 2001-2 and re-interviewed in 2004-5...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jacquelyn MacDonell, Niravkumar Patel, Gregory Fischer, E Clif Burdette, Jiang Qian, Vaibhav Chumbalkar, Goutam Ghoshal, Tamas Heffter, Emery Williams, Matthew Gounis, Robert King, Juliette Thibodeau, Gene Bogdanov, Olivia W Brooks, Erin Langan, Roy Hwang, Julie G Pilitsis
BACKGROUND: Ablative lesions are current treatments for epilepsy and brain tumors. Interstitial magnetic resonance (MR) guided focused ultrasound (iMRgFUS) may be an alternate ablation technique which limits thermal tissue charring as compared to laser therapy (LITT) and can produce larger ablation patterns nearer the surface than transcranial MR guided focused ultrasound (tcMRgFUS). OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience with interstitial focused ultrasound (iFUS) ablations in swine, using MR-guided robotically assisted (MRgRA) delivery...
June 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Sadanandvalli R Chandra, Rita Christopher, Mane M Daryappa, Rashmi Devaraj
Introduction: Phenyl ketonuria is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism resulting in excessive phenyl alanine levels in blood resulting in a spectrum of neurological defects. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively went through the records of patients diagnosed as Phenyl ketonuria in the last nine years in our team and patients who's data could be accessed were analyzed in detail. Details of laboratory tests, imaging clinical features, course were recorded. Observation: A total of 32 patients were identified in nine years of which data was available only for 15 patients...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Nidhi Prabhakar, Chirag K Ahuja, Niranjan Khandelwal
Bilateral basal ganglia lesions are a common non-specific finding seen in many diseases. One of the differential diagnoses for it, in a child, is kernicterus occurring due to hyperbilirubinemia. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common cause of severe hyperbilirubinemia. A 1-year old child presented to the hospital with history of generalized dystonia in the previous 3 days. MRI showed evidence of symmetrical lesions in bilateral globus pallidus, which were hyperintense on T2/FLAIR and isointense on T1...
April 2018: Annals of Neurosciences
Yongteng Xu, Xiaoming Rong, Weihan Hu, Xiaolong Huang, Yi Li, Dong Zheng, Zhaoxi Cai, Zhiyi Zuo, Yamei Tang
PURPOSE: Studies have shown that addition of bevacizumab to corticosteroids improves outcome against radiation-induced brain necrosis (RN). Here, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of bevacizumab monotherapy on RN in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this multicenter open-label study, patients with RN were randomly assigned (1:1) into a bevacizumab group (5 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks, for 4 cycles) or a corticosteroid group (methylprednisolone 500 mg/day intravenously for 3 consecutive days and then gradually tapered, followed by 10 mg/day oral prednisone, for 2 months in total)...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Jialiang Xu, Xiaohong Chen, Muhui Lin
BACKGROUND MRI FLAIR hyperintense vessels sign (FHVs) is a special imaging marker that plays a key role in acute infarction imaging and diagnosis. However, FHVs have not been studied in the context of progressive posterior circulation infarction (PPCI), and little is known about the association of hyperintense endo-vessels sign (HEVs) on transverse section MRI with infarction. Thus, our objective here was to investigate the clinical significance of transverse MRI T2 HEVs in patients with PPCI. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this retrospective, case-control study, we enrolled 100 consecutive posterior circulation infarction patients...
June 8, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Kevin Y Wang, Tomas A Uribe, Christie M Lincoln
PURPOSE: Infratentorial lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis are associated with long-term disability. Two-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery demonstrates poor infratentorial lesion detection when compared to T2-weighted spin echo. Evidence of improved detection with 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery has been conflicting. This study compares the infratentorial lesion detection performance, observer performance, and signal and contrast properties between T2-weighted spin echo, 2D, and 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery...
May 29, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Rossana Romani, George Ryan, Christian Benner, Jonathan Pollock
BACKGROUND: Improving access to neuroradiology investigations has led to an increased rate of diagnosis of incidental meningiomas. METHOD: A cohort of 136 incidental meningioma patients collected by a single neurosurgeon in a single neurosurgical centre is retrospectively analysed between 2002 and 2016. Demographic data, imaging and clinical features are presented. The radiological factors associated with meningiomas progression are also presented. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 65 (range, 33-94) years...
June 6, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Samra Kadić-Vukas, Mirsada Hodžić, Lejla Tandir-Lihić, Lejla Hrvat, Azra Kožo-Kajmaković, Nina Kuzmanović, Haris Vukas
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological syndrome with seizures, altered consciousness, visual disturbances and headache among other symptoms. Hinchey et al. first described Pres in 1996, with two other case series published shortly after. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old women patient was emergency sent from General Hospital Tešanj due to a crisis of consciousness and repeated epileptic seizures. The patient had a second birth before 10 days (postpartum cesarean) in general endotracheal anaesthesia (two cesarean-born babies)...
May 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Fulya Eren, Mehmet Ali Aldan, Vasfiye Burcu Dogan, Günay Gül, Hakan Hatem Selcuk, Aysun Soysal
Background - Metronidazole is a synthetic antibiotic, which has been commonly used for protozoal and anaerobic infections. It rarely causes dose - and duration - unrelated reversible neurotoxicity. It can induce hyperintense T2/FLAIR MRI lesions in several areas of the brain. Although the clinical status is catastrophic, it is completely reversible after discontinuation of the medicine. Case report - 36-year-old female patient who had recent brain abscess history was under treatment of metronidazole for 40 days...
November 30, 2017: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Kaibao Sun, Jianfei Cui, Bo Wang, Tao Jiang, Zhongwei Chen, Fei Cong, Yan Zhuo, Shuli Liang, Rong Xue, Xinguang Yu, Lin Chen
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to determine the benefit of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7 T in detecting structural lesions and previously unidentified abnormalities in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). METHODS: Thirteen patients with TSC (8-36 years, seven males) previously diagnosed by 3 T MRI underwent additional imaging at 7 T, which included T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE), T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE), SPACE fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), white matter suppressed (WM-suppressed), and gray-white matter tissue border enhancement (GW-TBE) MPRAGE sequences...
June 5, 2018: Neuroradiology
Mário João Fartaria, Alexandra Todea, Tobias Kober, Kieran O'brien, Gunnar Krueger, Reto Meuli, Cristina Granziera, Alexis Roche, Meritxell Bach Cuadra
White-matter lesion count and volume estimation are key to the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis (MS). Automated MS lesion segmentation methods that have been proposed in the past 20 years reach their limits when applied to patients in early disease stages characterized by low lesion load and small lesions. We propose an algorithm to automatically assess MS lesion load (number and volume) while taking into account the mixing of healthy and lesional tissue in the image voxels due to partial volume effects...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Pedro David Delgado-López, Gloria Garcés-Pérez, Juan García-Carrasco, Esther Alonso-García, Ana Isabel Gómez-Menéndez, Javier Martín-Alonso
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiological condition encountered in many different clinical settings, generally occurring in the context of hypertensive crisis, immunosuppressive therapy or autoimmune diseases. It is characterized by headache, stupor, seizures and visual alterations. MRI findings include white matter changes preferentially in the parieto-occipital regions. Although pathogenesis is not fully elucidated, vasoconstriction and brain hypoperfusion seem to be the cause of brain ischemia and vasogenic edema...
June 1, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Michael Perkuhn, Pantelis Stavrinou, Frank Thiele, Georgy Shakirin, Manoj Mohan, Dionysios Garmpis, Christoph Kabbasch, Jan Borggrefe
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were, first, to evaluate a deep learning-based, automatic glioblastoma (GB) tumor segmentation algorithm on clinical routine data from multiple centers and compare the results to a ground truth, manual expert segmentation, and second, to evaluate the quality of the segmentation results across heterogeneous acquisition protocols of routinely acquired clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations from multiple centers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data consisted of preoperative MRI scans (T1, T2, FLAIR, and contrast-enhanced [CE] T1) of 64 patients with an initial diagnosis of primary GB, which were acquired in 15 institutions with varying protocols...
May 31, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Kazuto Tsukita, Hirofumi Miyake, Takashi Kageyama, Toshihiko Suenaga
A 49-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with recurrent episodes of paresthesia attacks evolving in 5 to 15 minutes from the left hand to the left leg through the left trunk. Neurological examination revealed cortical sensory disturbance in her left hand. Although contrast-enhanced T1 -weighted MRI findings were unremarkable, contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI revealed abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement over the sulcus of the parietal lobe, including the sulcus around the postcentral gyrus...
June 1, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Yoshihiko Okubo, Yuki Ueta, Takeshi Taguchi, Haruhisa Kato, Hiroo Terashi, Hitoshi Aizawa
We report a case of meningeal carcinomatosis that needed to be distinguished from subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 67-year-old female with acute severe headache was admitted to a previous hospital. Since high intensity signal was detected within the parietal cerebral sulci on the right side on brain FLAIR MRI, cerebral angiography was performed due to suspicion of subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, no vascular abnormality was observed. Then, cerebral spinal fluid was collected, which showed an increase in cell count, suggesting meningitis...
June 1, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Lucidio P Nunes Neto, Guillaume Madelin, Terlika Pandit Sood, Chih-Chun Wu, Douglas Kondziolka, Dimitris Placantonakis, John G Golfinos, Andrew Chi, Rajan Jain
PURPOSE: Recent advances in sodium brain MRI have allowed for increased signal-to-noise ratio, faster imaging, and the ability of differentiating intracellular from extracellular sodium concentration, opening a new window of opportunity for clinical application. In gliomas, there are significant alterations in sodium metabolism, including increase in the total sodium concentration and extracellular volume fraction. The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of using sodium MRI quantitative measurements to evaluate gliomas...
June 3, 2018: Neuroradiology
Naeim Bahrami, Stephen J Hartman, Yu-Hsuan Chang, Rachel Delfanti, Nathan S White, Roshan Karunamuni, Tyler M Seibert, Anders M Dale, Jona A Hattangadi-Gluth, David Piccioni, Nikdokht Farid, Carrie R McDonald
BACKGROUND: Molecular markers of WHO grade II/III glioma are known to have important prognostic and predictive implications and may be associated with unique imaging phenotypes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether three clinically relevant molecular markers identified in gliomas-IDH, 1p/19q, and MGMT status-show distinct quantitative MRI characteristics on FLAIR imaging. METHODS: Sixty-one patients with grade II/III gliomas who had molecular data and MRI available prior to radiation were included...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Ivana Galinovic, Volker Dicken, Johannes Heitz, Jan Klein, Josep Puig, Jorge Guibernau, Andre Kemmling, Susanne Gellissen, Kersten Villringer, Lars Neeb, Johannes Gregori, Florian Weiler, Salvador Pedraza, Götz Thomalla, Jens Fiehler, Christian Gerloff, Jochen B Fiebach
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: WAKE-UP is a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of thrombolysis in stroke with unknown time of symptom onset using magnetic resonance imaging criteria to determine patients' eligibility. As it is a multicenter trial, homogeneous interpretation of criteria is an important contributor to the trial's success. We describe the investigator image training as well as results of the quality control done by the central image reading board (CIRB). METHODS: Investigators at local centers were given an imaging manual and passed a software-based image training prior to being allowed to judge images in the trial...
July 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Jong-Moo Park, Bum Joon Kim, Sun U Kwon, Yang-Ha Hwang, Sung Hyuk Heo, Joung-Ho Rha, Jun Lee, Man-Seok Park, Joon-Tae Kim, Hee-Jung Song, Jong-Ho Park, Sungwook Yu, Soo Joo Lee, Tai Hwan Park, Jae-Kwan Cha, Hyung-Min Kwon, Eung-Gyu Kim, Seung-Hoon Lee, Ji Sung Lee, Juneyoung Lee
OBJECTIVE: Current guideline recommends intensive blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive patients, but the appropriate target BP level after ischemic stroke due to intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis remains uncertain. METHODS: In this randomized, single-blinded trial, patients with symptomatic internal carotid or middle cerebral artery steno-occlusion (>50%) within 7-42 days after index stroke received intensive (target SBP < 120 mmHg) or modest (target SBP < 140 mmHg) BP control from April 2010 to December 2012...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
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