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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676844/differentiation-of-brain-infection-from-necrotic-glioblastoma-using-combined-analysis-of-diffusion-and-perfusion-mri
#1
Sanjeev Chawla, Sumei Wang, Suyash Mohan, MacLean Nasrallah, Gaurav Verma, Steven Brem, Donald M O'Rourke, Ronald L Wolf, Harish Poptani, S Ali Nabavizadeh
BACKGROUND: Accurate differentiation of brain infections from necrotic glioblastomas (GBMs) may not always be possible on morphologic MRI or on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) if these techniques are used independently. PURPOSE: To investigate the combined analysis of DTI and DSC-PWI in distinguishing brain injections from necrotic GBMs. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: Fourteen patients with brain infections and 21 patients with necrotic GBMs...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674411/sequential-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-for-assessment-of-tumor-progression-in-patients-with-low-grade-glioma
#2
I E Chen, N Swinburne, N M Tsankova, M M Hefti, A Aggarwal, A H Doshi, A Hormigo, B N Delman, K Nael
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early and accurate identification of tumor progression in patients with low-grade gliomas is challenging. We aimed to assess the role of quantitative ADC analysis in the sequential follow-up of patients with low-grade gliomas as a potential imaging marker of tumor stability or progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients with a diagnosis of low-grade glioma with at least 12 months of imaging follow-up were retrospectively reviewed...
April 19, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672236/the-brain-health-index-towards-a-combined-measure-of-neurovascular-and-neurodegenerative-structural-brain-injury
#3
David Alexander Dickie, Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, Stephen D Makin, Julie Staals, Stewart J Wiseman, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw
Background A structural magnetic resonance imaging measure of combined neurovascular and neurodegenerative burden may be useful as these features often coexist in older people, stroke and dementia. Aim We aimed to develop a new automated approach for quantifying visible brain injury from small vessel disease and brain atrophy in a single measure, the brain health index. Materials and methods We computed brain health index in N = 288 participants using voxel-based Gaussian mixture model cluster analysis of T1, T2, T2*, and FLAIR magnetic resonance imaging...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670492/fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-signal-intensity-as-a-predictor-of-gadolinium-enhancement-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Mihail Guranda, Marco Essig, Ariane Poulin, Reza Vosoughi
Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to diagnose and monitor disease activity in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The objective of this study was to explore the association of "ultrabright" axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) lesions with gadolinium enhancement in patients with RRMS using qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methods: MRIs from patients with RRMS from 2010 to 2015 were reviewed. Two radiologists independently identified ultrabright lesions on axial FLAIR sequences...
March 2018: International Journal of MS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666413/texture-analysis-and-support-vector-machine-assisted-diffusional-kurtosis-imaging-may-allow-in-vivo-gliomas-grading-and-idh-mutation-status-prediction-a-preliminary-study
#5
Sotirios Bisdas, Haocheng Shen, Steffi Thust, Vasileios Katsaros, George Stranjalis, Christos Boskos, Sebastian Brandner, Jianguo Zhang
We sought to investigate, whether texture analysis of diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) enhanced by support vector machine (SVM) analysis may provide biomarkers for gliomas staging and detection of the IDH mutation. First-order statistics and texture feature extraction were performed in 37 patients on both conventional (FLAIR) and mean diffusional kurtosis (MDK) images and recursive feature elimination (RFE) methodology based on SVM was employed to select the most discriminative diagnostic biomarkers. The first-order statistics demonstrated significantly lower MDK values in the IDH-mutant tumors...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661538/an-unusual-case-of-anti-mog-cns-demyelination-with-concomitant-mild-anti-nmdar-encephalitis
#6
Jiajia Zhou, Winwen Tan, Suyin Elaine Tan, Jing Hu, Zhongqin Chen, Kang Wang
We report the case of a patient who presented with progressive unsteadiness and narcoleptic attacks followed by behavioral change and psychosis, without visual disturbances or seizures. MRI revealed multiple areas of fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) high-intensity lesions involving the cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus and third ventricular peri-ependymal region consistent with demyelination. Both the serum myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibodies (MOG-Abs) and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) anti-N-methyl-d-as-partate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies were positive using transfected cell based assays...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627018/bilateral-wallerian-degeneration-of-the-middle-cerebellar-peduncles-secondary-to-pontine-infarction-a-case-series
#7
Yaoyao Shen, Wen Jian, Juan Li, Tingmin Dai, Bing Bao, Hongbing Nie
OBJECTIVE: Wallerian degeneration (WD) of middle cerebellar peduncles (MCPs) secondary to pontine infarction is rarely reported in the literature. Our aim in this study is to characterize its clinical and neuroradiological features. METHODS: A retrospective review of 7 patients from a single institution was conducted. Only patients with pontine infarction and subsequent degeneration of the MCPs were included in the analysis. The features of clinical presentation and neuroimaging finding were summarized by our experienced neurologists...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624729/kiki-net-cross-domain-convolutional-neural-networks-for-reconstructing-undersampled-magnetic-resonance-images
#8
Taejoon Eo, Yohan Jun, Taeseong Kim, Jinseong Jang, Ho-Joon Lee, Dosik Hwang
PURPOSE: To demonstrate accurate MR image reconstruction from undersampled k-space data using cross-domain convolutional neural networks (CNNs) METHODS: Cross-domain CNNs consist of 3 components: (1) a deep CNN operating on the k-space (KCNN), (2) a deep CNN operating on an image domain (ICNN), and (3) an interleaved data consistency operations. These components are alternately applied, and each CNN is trained to minimize the loss between the reconstructed and corresponding fully sampled k-spaces...
April 6, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622553/edge-contrast-of-the-flair-hyperintense-region-predicts-survival-in-patients-with-high-grade-gliomas-following-treatment-with-bevacizumab
#9
N Bahrami, D Piccioni, R Karunamuni, Y-H Chang, N White, R Delfanti, T M Seibert, J A Hattangadi-Gluth, A Dale, N Farid, C R McDonald
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Treatment with bevacizumab is standard of care for recurrent high-grade gliomas; however, monitoring response to treatment following bevacizumab remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine whether quantifying the sharpness of the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintense border using a measure derived from texture analysis-edge contrast-improves the evaluation of response to bevacizumab in patients with high-grade gliomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRIs were evaluated in 33 patients with high-grade gliomas before and after the initiation of bevacizumab...
April 5, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618622/automated-dwi-analysis-can-identify-patients-within-the-thrombolysis-time-window-of-4-5-hours
#10
Anke Wouters, Bastian Cheng, Soren Christensen, Patrick Dupont, David Robben, Bo Norrving, Rico Laage, Vincent N Thijs, Gregory W Albers, Götz Thomalla, Robin Lemmens
OBJECTIVE: To develop an automated model based on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to detect patients within 4.5 hours after stroke onset and compare this method to the visual DWI-FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) mismatch. METHODS: We performed a subanalysis of the "DWI-FLAIR mismatch for the identification of patients with acute ischemic stroke within 4.5 hours of symptom onset" (PRE-FLAIR) and the "AX200 for ischemic stroke" (AXIS 2) trials...
April 4, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610060/comparison-of-the-detectability-of-ubos-in-neurofibromatosis-type-i-patients-with-proton-density-weighted-and-flair-sequences-in-3t-mri
#11
S Tritt, N Hillenbrand, K Liesirova, G Moein, M Kieslich, L Porto
OBJECTIVE: In NF 1 patients, significant numbers of so-called unidentified bright objects (UBOs) can be found. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the detectability of UBOs increases at 3T by comparing Proton density-weighted images (PDw) with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 14 NF1 patients (7 male, 7 female, between 8 and 26 years old, mean age 15.4 years) were examined by a 3T magnetic resonance scanner...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609518/vascular-abnormalities-within-normal-appearing-tissue-in-chronic-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Margalit Haber, Franck Amyot, Kimbra Kenney, Tawny Meredith-Duliba, Carol Moore, Erika Silverman, Jamie Podell, Yi-Yu Chou, Dzung L Pham, John Butman, Hanzang Lu, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Danielle Sandsmark
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for visualizing traumatic brain injury(TBI)-related lesions. Trauma-induced encephalomalacia is frequently identified by its hyperintense appearance on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences. In addition to parenchymal lesions, TBI commonly results in cerebral microvascular injury, but its anatomic relationship to parenchymal encephalomalacia is not well characterized. The current study utilized a multimodal MRI protocol to assess microstructural tissue integrity [via mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional aniosotropy (FA)], and altered vascular function [via cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR)], within regions of visible encephalomalacia and normal appearing tissue in 27 chronic TBI (minimum 6 months after injury) subjects...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605275/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-positron-emission-tomography-in-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Stephen Bacchi, Kyle Franke, Dasith Wewegama, Edward Needham, Sandy Patel, David Menon
Due to a variety of clinical manifestations anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis may be difficult to diagnose. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used as a component of the workup for encephalopathy. However, the use of MRI in anti-NMDA encephalitis is complicated by wide-ranging reports regarding the frequency of normal MRI findings in this disease. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a modality of imaging that may assess functional rather than structural disturbances. Therefore, this review was conducted to summarise published studies regarding the use of MRI and PET in the diagnosis of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599171/signal-change-of-acute-cortical-and-juxtacortical-microinfarction-on-follow-up-mri
#14
M Miyata, S Kakeda, T Yoneda, S Ide, K Watanabe, J Moriya, Y Korogi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although the clinical importance of cortical microinfarcts has become well-recognized recently, the evolution of cortical microinfarcts on MR imaging is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to examine the temporal changes in acute cortical microinfarcts using susceptibility-weighted imaging and conventional MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with acute infarcts located in the cortical and/or juxtacortical region measuring ≤10 mm in axial diameter based on diffusion-weighted imaging who had a follow-up 3T MR imaging were retrospectively included in the study...
March 29, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596475/sensitivity-of-different-mri-sequences-in-the-early-detection-of-melanoma-brain-metastases
#15
Katerina Deike-Hofmann, Daniel Thünemann, Michael O Breckwoldt, Daniel Schwarz, Alexander Radbruch, Alexander Enk, Martin Bendszus, Jessica Hassel, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Philipp Bäumer
BACKGROUND: After the emergence of new MRI techniques such as susceptibility- and diffusion-weighted imaging (SWI and DWI) and because of specific imaging characteristics of melanoma brain metastases (MBM), it is unclear which MRI sequences are most beneficial for detection of MBM. This study was performed to investigate the sensitivity of six clinical MRI sequences in the early detection of MBM. METHODS: Medical records of all melanoma patients referred to our center between November 2005 and December 2016 were reviewed for presence of MBM...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594711/validation-and-optimization-of-bianca-for-the-segmentation-of-extensive-white-matter-hyperintensities
#16
Yifeng Ling, Eric Jouvent, Louis Cousyn, Hugues Chabriat, François De Guio
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are a hallmark of small vessel diseases (SVD). Yet, no automated segmentation method is readily and widely used, especially in patients with extensive WMH where lesions are close to the cerebral cortex. BIANCA (Brain Intensity AbNormality Classification Algorithm) is a new fully automated, supervised method for WMH segmentation. In this study, we optimized and compared BIANCA against a reference method with manual editing in a cohort of patients with extensive WMH. This was achieved in two datasets: a clinical protocol with 90 patients having 2-dimensional FLAIR and an advanced protocol with 66 patients having 3-dimensional FLAIR...
March 29, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590461/prognostic-value-of-contrast-enhancement-and-flair-for-survival-in-newly-diagnosed-glioblastoma-treated-with-and-without-bevacizumab-results-from-acrin-6686
#17
Jerrold L Boxerman, Zheng Zhang, Yair Safriel, Jeffrey M Rogg, Ronald L Wolf, Suyash Mohan, Helga Marques, A Gregory Sorensen, Mark R Gilbert, Daniel P Barboriak
Background: ACRIN 6686/RTOG 0825 was a phase III trial of conventional chemoradiation plus adjuvant temozolomide with bevacizumab or without (placebo) in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. This study investigated whether changes in contrast-enhancing and FLAIR-hyperintense tumor assessed by central reading prognosticate overall survival (OS). Methods: 284 patients (171 men; median age 57 years, range 19-79; 159 on bevacizumab) had MRI at post-op (baseline) and pre-cycle 4 of adjuvant temozolomide (22 weeks post- chemoradiation initiation)...
March 26, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590424/the-t2-flair-mismatch-sign-as-an-imaging-marker-for-non-enhancing-idh-mutant-1p-19q-intact-lower-grade-glioma-a-validation-study
#18
Martinus P G Broen, Marion Smits, Maarten M J Wijnenga, Hendrikus J Dubbink, Monique H M E Anten, Olaf E M G Schijns, Jan Beckervordersandforth, Alida A Postma, Martin J van den Bent
Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of the previously described T2-FLAIR mismatch sign as a specific imaging marker in non-enhancing isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant, 1p/19q non-codeleted lower grade glioma (LGG), encompassing both diffuse and anaplastic astrocytoma. Methods: MR scans (n=154) from three separate databases with genotyped LGG were evaluated by two independent reviewers to assess (i) presence/absence of "T2-FLAIR mismatch" sign and (ii) presence/absence of homogenous signal on T2WI...
March 26, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588979/claustrum-hyperintensities-a-potential-clue-to-autoimmune-epilepsy
#19
Claude Steriade, David F Tang-Wai, Timo Krings, Richard Wennberg
In a cohort of 34 patients with autoimmune limbic encephalitis and/or epilepsy, we identified 4 patients exhibiting claustrum fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensities. All 4 patients presented with explosive onset of seizures and developed medically intractable epilepsy, and 2 exhibited a marked response to immunotherapy. Associated features included cognitive and behavioral disturbances (4/4), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytic pleocytosis (3/4), and a neural autoantibody (2/4). Electroencephalogram (EEG) features consisted of slow wave activity and epileptiform discharges in frontal and parasagittal regions, where ictal patterns were captured in 1 patient...
December 2017: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578029/ubo-detector-a-cluster-based-fully-automated-pipeline-for-extracting-white-matter-hyperintensities
#20
Jiyang Jiang, Tao Liu, Wanlin Zhu, Rebecca Koncz, Hao Liu, Teresa Lee, Perminder S Sachdev, Wei Wen
We present 'UBO Detector', a cluster-based, fully automated pipeline for extracting and calculating variables for regions of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) (available for download at https://cheba.unsw.edu.au/group/neuroimaging-pipeline). It takes T1-weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) scans as input, and SPM12 and FSL functions are utilised for pre-processing. The candidate clusters are then generated by FMRIB's Automated Segmentation Tool (FAST). A supervised machine learning algorithm, k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), is applied to determine whether the candidate clusters are WMH or non-WMH...
March 22, 2018: NeuroImage
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