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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920027/sodium-taste-during-sodium-appetite
#1
Ralph Norgren
Sodium appetite appears to be an excellent model to study the neural mechanisms of motivation. In this issue of Chemical Senses, experiments by St John (2016) challenge 2 hypotheses for how a systemic sodium deficit guides an animal to find and ingest more Na ions in the environment. Both hypotheses deal with modifications of the sensory neural code produced by Na(+) ions on the tongue. One envisions a change in the Na(+) signal amplitude. A reduction could make the strong Na(+) signals less aversive; an increase, weak signals more noticeable...
December 5, 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918532/developmentally-defined-forebrain-circuits-regulate-appetitive-and-aversive-olfactory-learning
#2
Nagendran Muthusamy, Xuying Zhang, Caroline A Johnson, Prem N Yadav, H Troy Ghashghaei
Postnatal and adult neurogenesis are region- and modality-specific, but the significance of developmentally distinct neuronal populations remains unclear. We demonstrate that chemogenetic inactivation of a subset of forebrain and olfactory neurons generated at birth disrupts responses to an aversive odor. In contrast, novel appetitive odor learning is sensitive to inactivation of adult-born neurons, revealing that developmentally defined sets of neurons may differentially participate in hedonic aspects of sensory learning...
December 5, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918187/enhancing-relationship-quality-measurement-the-development-of-the-relationship-flourishing-scale
#3
Blaine J Fowers, Jean-Philippe Laurenceau, Randall D Penfield, Laura M Cohen, Samantha F Lang, Meghan B Owenz, Elizabeth Pasipandoya
Relationship quality is the most frequently assessed construct in the intimate relationships literature. Dozens of assessment instruments exist, but the vast majority conceptualize relationship quality in terms of satisfaction (or a similar construct), which focuses on the hedonic (pleasure or happiness) dimension of the relationship. Some scholars question whether the richness and depth of adult intimate relationships can be captured by satisfaction ratings and suggest focusing on a complementary eudaimonic (human flourishing) dimension of the relationship...
December 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917131/the-challenge-of-fostering-healthy-organizations-an-empirical-study-on-the-role-of-workplace-relational-civility-in-acceptance-of-change-and-well-being
#4
Annamaria Di Fabio, Marco Giannini, Yura Loscalzo, Letizia Palazzeschi, Ornella Bucci, Andrea Guazzini, Alessio Gori
The world of work in the twenty-first century is characterized by globalization, instability, and unavoidable change. Organizations need to develop a positive relational environment in the workplace thereby enabling workers to enhance their personal resources in order to face with on-going changes in the sphere of work for promoting their well-being. Against this background, the aim of this research was to examine the relationship between workplace relational civility and both acceptance of change and well-being (hedonic well-being as well as eudaimonic well-being) beyond the effect of personality traits...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916747/the-broadly-tuned-odorant-receptor-or1a1-is-highly-selective-for-3-methyl-2-4-nonanedione-a-key-food-odorant-in-aged-wines-tea-and-other-foods
#5
Christiane Geithe, Franziska Noe, Johanna Kreissl, Dietmar Krautwurst
Key food odorants are the most relevant determinants by which we detect, recognize, and hedonically evaluate the aroma of foods and beverages. Odorants are detected by our chemical sense of olfaction, comprising a set of approximately 400 different odorant receptor types. However, the specific receptor activity patterns representing the aroma percepts of foods or beverages, as well as the key food odorant agonist profiles of single-odorant receptors, are largely unknown. We aimed to establish comprehensive key food odorant agonist profiles of 2 unrelated, broadly tuned receptors, OR1A1 and OR2W1, that had been associated thus far with mostly non-key food odorants and shared some of these agonists...
December 4, 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915070/vicarious-ratings-of-social-touch-reflect-the-anatomical-distribution-velocity-tuning-of-c-tactile-afferents-a-hedonic-homunculus
#6
Susannah C Walker, Paula D Trotter, Andy Woods, Francis McGlone
A subclass of C-fibres, C-tactile afferents (CTs), have been discovered which respond preferentially to low force/velocity stroking touch, that is typically perceived as pleasant. Molecular genetic visualization of these low-threshold mechanosensitive C-fibres (CLTMs) in mice revealed a denser distribution in dorsal than ventral thoracic sites, scattered distal limb innervation and a complete absence from glabrous paw skin (Liu et al., 2007). Here we used third-party ratings to examine whether affective responses to social touch reflect the anatomical distribution and velocity tuning of CTs...
November 30, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895485/adhd-and-present-hedonism-time-perspective-as-a-potential-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-tool
#7
REVIEW
S Weissenberger, M Klicperova-Baker, P Zimbardo, K Schonova, D Akotia, J Kostal, M Goetz, J Raboch, R Ptacek
The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations) and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo's time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201) are also presented...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891828/reducing-calories-fat-saturated-fat-and-sodium-in-restaurant-menu-items-effects-on-consumer-acceptance
#8
Anjali A Patel, Nanette V Lopez, Harry T Lawless, Valentine Njike, Mariana Beleche, David L Katz
OBJECTIVE: To assess consumer acceptance of reductions of calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium to current restaurant recipes. METHODS: Twenty-four menu items, from six restaurant chains, were slightly modified and moderately modified by reducing targeted ingredients. Restaurant customers (n = 1,838) were recruited for a taste test and were blinded to the recipe version as well as the purpose of the study. Overall consumer acceptance was measured using a 9-point hedonic (like/dislike) scale, likelihood to purchase scale, Just-About-Right (JAR) 5-point scale, penalty analysis, and alienation analysis...
December 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891602/cannabimimetic-phytochemicals-in-the-diet-an-evolutionary-link-to-food-selection-and-metabolic-stress-adaptation
#9
REVIEW
Jürg Gertsch
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a major lipid signaling network that plays important pro-homeostatic (allostatic) roles not only in the nervous system but in peripheral organs. Increasing evidence points towards a dietary component in the modulation of the ECS. Cannabinoid receptors in hominids co-evolved with diet and the ECS constitutes a feedback loop for food selection and energy metabolism. Here it is postulated that the mismatch of ancient lipid genes of hunter-gatheres and pastoralists with the high carbohydrate diet introduced by agriculture could be compensated via dietary modulation of the ECS...
November 27, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891508/effect-of-water-activity-and-packaging-material-on-the-quality-of-dehydrated-taro-colocasia-esculenta-l-schott-slices-during-accelerated-storage
#10
A R Sloan, M L Dunn, L K Jefferies, O A Pike, Sarah E Nielsen Barrows, F M Steele
The quality of dehydrated taro slices in accelerated storage (45°C and 75% RH) was determined as a function of initial water activity (aw) and package type. Color, rehydration capacity, thiamin content, and α-tocopherol content were monitored during 34 weeks of storage in polyethylene and foil laminate packaging at initial storage aw of 0.35 to 0.71. Initial aw at or below 0.54 resulted in less browning and higher rehydration capacity, but not in significantly higher α-tocopherol retention. Foil laminate pouches resulted in a higher rehydration capacity and increased thiamin retention compared to polyethylene bags...
2016: International journal of food science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886807/a-method-for-the-assessment-of-facial-hedonic-reactions-in-newborns
#11
Caroline Ayres, Charles F Ferreira, Juliana R Bernardi, Thiago B Marcelino, Vânia N Hirakata, Clécio H da Silva, Marcelo Z Goldani
OBJECTIVE: This study describes a quantitative and qualitative methodology to assess hedonic responses to sweet stimulus in healthy newborns. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional, observational study, with healthy newborns (up to 24h of life), between 37 and 42 gestational weeks, vaginally born and breastfed previously to all tests. The evaluation of the newborns reactions was performed by hedonic facial expression analysis, characterized by facial expressions with rhythmic serial tongue protrusion after neutral or sweet solution intake...
November 22, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885554/short-term-effects-of-a-green-coffee-extract-garcinia-c-ambogia-and-l-carnitine-containing-chewing-gum-on-snack-intake-and-appetite-regulation
#12
Cecilia Bobillo, Graham Finlayson, Ana Martínez, Daniela Fischman, Analisa Beneitez, Alejandro J Ferrero, Belisario E Fernández, Marcos A Mayer
INTRODUCTION: Different studies have assessed the influence of chewing gum to aid control of appetite and reduce food intake. PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of chewing gum on satiety, food hedonics and snack intake and to explore the potential effects of the combination of Garcinia c ambogia, green coffee extract and L-carnitine on satiety, when administered in a gum format. METHODS: This was a prospective study in which 57 subjects randomly received three kinds of treatments, in a crossover design: (1) active gum; (2) placebo gum; and (3) no gum...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884761/assessment-of-the-motivation-to-use-artificial-sweetener-among-individuals-with-an-eating-disorder
#13
Janet Schebendach, Diane A Klein, Laurel E S Mayer, Evelyn Attia, Michael J Devlin, Richard W Foltin, B Timothy Walsh
Eating disorders are associated with a range of abnormalities in eating behavior. Some individuals consume large amounts of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, suggesting abnormalities in appetitive responding. The current study aimed to quantify hedonic and motivating effects of artificial sweetener in individuals with and without an eating disorder. Two laboratory studies were conducted. Hedonic preference was estimated using the number of artificial sweetener packets (0-10) added to unsweetened cherry flavored Kool-Aid (study 1)...
November 21, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883962/maternal-care-and-affective-behavior-in-female-offspring-implication-of-the-neurosteroid-gabaergic-system
#14
Amanda P Borrow, Nicole M Cameron
In female rats, the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle is associated with decreased levels of anxiety-like and depressive-like behavior relative to the metestrus phase. Progesterone likely modulate these behaviors, in part through the influence of its metabolite, allopregnanolone (THP) on hippocampal GABAAR subunit expression. As natural variations in maternal care have been found to influence both progesterone levels at proestrus and anxiety-like behavior in female offspring, we sought to investigate the importance of maternal care and the estrous cycle on affective behavior in female rats that had received Low or High levels of licking/grooming (LG) during early life...
November 5, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881710/the-role-of-hedonic-behavior-in-reducing-perceived-risk-evidence-from-postearthquake-mobile-app-data
#15
Jayson S Jia, Jianmin Jia, Christopher K Hsee, Baba Shiv
Understanding how human populations naturally respond to and cope with risk is important for fields ranging from psychology to public health. We used geophysical and individual-level mobile-phone data (mobile-apps, telecommunications, and Web usage) of 157,358 victims of the 2013 Ya'an earthquake to diagnose the effects of the disaster and investigate how experiencing real risk (at different levels of intensity) changes behavior. Rather than limiting human activity, higher earthquake intensity resulted in graded increases in usage of communications apps (e...
November 23, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876291/monetising-the-impacts-of-waste-incinerators-sited-on-brownfield-land-using-the-hedonic-pricing-method
#16
REVIEW
Monica Rivas Casado, Jan Serafini, John Glen, Andrew Angus
In England and Wales planning regulations require local governments to treat waste near its source. This policy principle alongside regional self-sufficiency and the logistical advantages of minimising distances for waste treatment mean that energy from waste incinerators have been built close to, or even within urban conurbations. There is a clear policy and research need to balance the benefits of energy production from waste incinerators against the negative externalities experienced by local residents. However, the monetary costs of nuisance emissions from incinerators are not immediately apparent...
November 18, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876020/the-brief-negative-symptom-scale-validation-of-the-german-translation-and-convergent-validity-with-self-rated-anhedonia-and-observer-rated-apathy
#17
Martin Bischof, Caitriona Obermann, Matthias N Hartmann, Oliver M Hager, Matthias Kirschner, Agne Kluge, Gregory P Strauss, Stefan Kaiser
BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms are considered core symptoms of schizophrenia. The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) was developed to measure this symptomatic dimension according to a current consensus definition. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the German version of the BNSS. To expand former findings on convergent validity, we employed the Temporal Experience Pleasure Scale (TEPS), a hedonic self-report that distinguishes between consummatory and anticipatory pleasure...
November 22, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873568/can-big-five-facets-distinguish-between-hedonic-and-eudaimonic-well-being-a-dominance-analysis
#18
Rosario J Marrero, Mar Rey, Juan Andrés Hernández-Cabrera
In this study, the aim was to analyze the relative importance of Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality facets for eudaimonic or psychological well-being (PWB) and hedonic or subjective well-being (SWB) through dominance analyses. The participants were 1,403 adult residents of Spain (mean age 37.2 years, SD = 13.9). As expected, facets captured a substantial proportion of the variance in PWB and SWB, with PWB being better predicted than SWB (explaining around 36-55% of the variance of PWB vs. 25% of the variance of SWB)...
November 22, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869776/complementary-feeding-strategies-to-facilitate-acceptance-of-fruits-and-vegetables-a-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#19
Sophie Nicklaus
Complementary feeding (CF), which should begin after exclusive breastfeeding for six months, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), or after four months and before six months according to the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN), is a period when the infant implicitly learns what, when, how, and how much to eat. At the onset of CF, the brain and the gut are still developing and maturing, and food experiences contribute to shaping brain connections involved in food hedonics and in the control of food intake...
November 19, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867350/berlyne-revisited-evidence-for-the-multifaceted-nature-of-hedonic-tone-in-the-appreciation-of-paintings-and-music
#20
Manuela M Marin, Allegra Lampatz, Michaela Wandl, Helmut Leder
In his seminal book on esthetics, Berlyne (1971) posited an inverted-U relationship between complexity and hedonic tone in arts appreciation, however, converging evidence for his theory is still missing. The disregard of the multidimensionality of complexity may explain some of the divergent results. Here, we argue that definitions of hedonic tone are manifold and systematically examined whether the nature of the relationship between complexity and hedonic tone is determined by the specific measure of hedonic tone...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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