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Gregory P Strauss, Ivan Ruiz, Katherine H Visser, Laura P Crespo, Elizabeth K Dickinson
Hedonic response is preserved in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether this is also true in individuals meeting criteria for "prodromal" psychosis, who are considered to be at symptomatic high risk for developing the disorder. In this study, we examined neurophysiological and self-reported response to emotional stimuli in UHR ( n  = 23) and healthy control (CN: n  = 30) participants who passively viewed pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images for 500 ms while the electroencephalogram was recorded and then provided self-reports of valence and arousal to the stimuli...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Maartje S Spetter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is in the brain where the decision is made what and how much to eat. In the last decades neuroimaging research has contributed extensively to new knowledge about appetite control by revealing the underlying brain processes. Interestingly, there is the fast growing idea of using these methods to develop new treatments for obesity and eating disorders. In this review, we summarize the findings of the importance of the use of neuropharmacology and neuroimaging techniques in understanding and modifying appetite control...
June 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Faheem Gul Gilal, Jian Zhang, Naeem Gul Gilal, Rukhsana Gul Gilal
Background: The present study integrates self-determined needs satisfaction into a relationship between product design (eg, aesthetic, functional, and symbolic design) and consumer behavior (eg, willingness-to-pay [WTP] a premium and negative word-of-mouth [WOM]) and to explore whether gender can differentiate the effects of aesthetic, functional, and symbolic product designs on self-determined needs satisfaction. Methods: To this end, participants from Pakistan and China were recruited, and the hypotheses for this study were tested using structural equation modeling and SPSS-PROCESS...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Craig P Hutton, Jennifer A Lemon, Boris Sakic, C David Rollo, Douglas R Boreham, Margaret Fahnestock, J Martin Wojtowicz, Suzanna Becker
The increasing global burden of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and failure of conventional treatments to stop neurodegeneration necessitates an alternative approach. Evidence of inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress prior to the accumulation of amyloid-β in the prodromal stage of AD (mild cognitive impairment; MCI) suggests that early interventions which counteract these features, such as dietary supplements, may ameliorate the onset of MCI-like behavioral symptoms. We administered a polyphenol-containing multiple ingredient dietary supplement (MDS), or vehicle, to both sexes of triple transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice and wildtype mice for 2 months from 2-4 months of age...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Laura K Milton, Brian J Oldfield, Claire J Foldi
Patients suffering anorexia nervosa (AN) become anhedonic, in other words, unable or unwilling to derive normal pleasures and avoid rewarding outcomes, most profoundly in food intake. The neurobiological underpinnings of anhedonia are likely to involve mesolimbic reward circuitry. We propose here that this circuitry and its involvement in AN can be investigated using the activity-based anorexia (ABA) rodent model that recapitulates many of the characteristics of the human condition, most notably rapid weight loss...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Felipe L Lopez, Punam Mistry, Hannah K Batchelor, Joanne Bennett, Alastair Coupe, Terry B Ernest, Mine Orlu, Catherine Tuleu
Patient acceptability is an important consideration in the design of medicines for children. The aim of this study was to investigate acceptability of multiparticulates in healthy children and adults. A randomised, single-blind acceptability testing was performed involving 71 children (4-12 years) and 61 adults (18-37 years). Each participant received three 500 mg samples of microcrystalline cellulose pellets administered on a medicine spoon with water at 5-10 minutes intervals. Acceptability was measured based on voluntary intake of the samples, facial expressions, ratings on hedonic scales and reported willingness to take multiparticulates everyday as a medicine...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuting Lin, Carina Tudor-Sfetea, Sarim Siddiqui, Yusuf Sherwani, Maroof Ahmed, Andreas B Eisingerich
BACKGROUND: New mobile health (mHealth) software apps are emerging and are providing the foundation to radically transform the practice and reach of medical research and care. For this study we collaborated with Quit Genius, a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) based mHealth app that helps users quit smoking, to explore the effective design of a digital mHealth app; one that delivers important benefits to its users and helps them change their behaviors for a healthier lifestyle. OBJECTIVE: The specific aims of this study were to (1) explore the key role of CBT program progress, (2) examine the gamification design app elements that deliver significant benefits (ie, empowerment, well-being, inspiration) to users, (3) explore the effectiveness of these app elements to help users quit smoking or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked, and (4) identify and describe any potential drivers and hindrances arising from the app design elements...
June 15, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Thomas Mellette, Kathryn Yerxa, Mona Therrien, Mary Ellen Camire
Adolescents and young adults in the United States do not consume recommended amounts of whole grains. University dining services have opportunities to inform students about whole grains and to offer foods containing blends of whole grains with refined flour to increase daily consumption of these healthful foods. An online survey of university students ( n = 100) found that 70% of respondents did not know the proportion of servings of whole grains that should be eaten daily. Mini blueberry muffins containing 50, 75, and 100% white whole wheat flour were served to 50 undergraduate students who rated their liking of the muffins using a nine-point hedonic scale...
June 13, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Yentl Gautier, Isabelle Luneau, Nicolas Coquery, Paul Meurice, Charles-Henri Malbert, Sylvie Guerin, Bas Kemp, J Elizabeth Bolhuis, Caroline Clouard, Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Sophie Blat, David Val-Laillet
This study explores the long-term effects of exposure to a maternal Western diet (WD) vs. standard diet (SD) in the Yucatan minipig, on the adult progeny at lean status ( n = 32), and then overweight status. We investigated eating behavior, cognitive abilities, brain basal glucose metabolism, dopamine transporter availability, microbiota activity, blood lipids, and glucose tolerance. Although both groups demonstrated similar cognitive abilities in a holeboard test, WD pigs expressed a higher stress level than did SD pigs (immobility, P < 0...
June 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Anne-Sophie Delbès, Julien Castel, Raphaël G P Denis, Chloé Morel, Mar Quiñones, Amandine Everard, Patrice D Cani, Florence Massiera, Serge H Luquet
Energy homeostasis is tightly regulated by the central nervous system which responds to nervous and circulating inputs to adapt food intake and energy expenditure. However, the rewarding and motivational aspect of food is tightly dependent of dopamine (DA) release in mesocorticolimbic (MCL) system and could be operant in uncontrolled caloric intake and obesity. Accumulating evidence indicate that manipulating the microbiota-gut-brain axis through prebiotic supplementation can have beneficial impact of the host appetite and body weight...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Nicholas M Graziane, Peter A Neumann, Yan Dong
The lateral habenula (LHb) regulates reward learning and controls the updating of reward-related information. Drugs of abuse have the capacity to hijack the cellular and neurocircuit mechanisms mediating reward learning, forming non-adaptable, compulsive behaviors geared toward obtaining illicit substances. Here, we discuss current findings demonstrating how drugs of abuse alter intrinsic and synaptic LHb neuronal function. Additionally, we discuss evidence for how drug-induced LHb alterations may affect the ability to predict reward, potentially facilitating an addiction-like state...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Davide Bressanello, Erica Liberto, Chiara Emilia Irma Cordero, Barbara Sgorbini, Patrizia Rubiolo, Gloria Pellegrino, Manuela Rosanna Ruosi, Carlo Bicchi
Aroma is a primary hedonic aspect of a good coffee. Coffee aroma quality is generally defined by cup tasting, which however is time-consuming in terms of panel training and alignment, and too subjective. It is challenging to define a relationship between chemical profile and aroma sensory impact, but it might provide an objective evaluation of industrial products. This study aimed to define the chemical signature of coffee sensory notes, to develop prediction models based on analytical measurements for use at the control level...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jessica L Bolton, Christina M Ruiz, Neggy Rismanchi, Gissell A Sanchez, Erik Castillo, Jeff Huang, Christopher Cross, Tallie Z Baram, Stephen V Mahler
Early-life adversity increases the risk for emotional disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Anhedonia, thought to be a core feature of these disorders, is provoked by our naturalistic rodent model of childhood adversity (i.e., rearing pups for one week in cages with limited bedding and nesting, LBN). Drug use and addiction are highly comorbid with psychiatric disorders featuring anhedonia, yet effects of LBN on drug-seeking behavior and the reward and stress-related circuits that underlie it remain unknown...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Kim R Bauerly
OBJECTIVE: Changes in second formant frequency fluctuations (FFF2) were examined in adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS) when producing nonwords under varying emotional conditions. METHODS: Ten AWS and 10 ANS viewed images selected from the International Affective Picture System representing dimensions of arousal (e.g., excited versus bored) and hedonic valence (e.g., happy versus sad). Immediately following picture presentation, participants produced a consonant-vowel + final /t/ (CVt) nonword consisting of the initial sounds /p/, /b/, /s/, or /z/, followed by a vowel (/i/, /u/, /ε/) and a final /t/...
June 5, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
Jessica Rowley, Charles Spence
We report two experiments designed to assess how the plating (i.e., visual composition) of a dish influences people's hedonic preferences and their perception of portion size. In Experiment 1 (conducted online; N = 122), we examined whether varying the orientation of the food on the plate (either vertically stacked or horizontally arrayed) would affect people's ratings of liking (of the visual arrangement), willingness-to-pay for the dish, artistic value (how artistic the dish looks), and perceived portion size...
June 2, 2018: Appetite
Gabriela Vera-Rivera, María-Isabel Miranda, José Alejandro Rangel-Hernández, Dennys Badillo-Juárez, Daniela Fregoso-Urrutia, Seraid Caynas-Rojas
Food palatability and caloric content are crucial factors in guiding diet choice and amount consumed; as a result, sweet caloric tastes are associated with a positive hedonic value. Recent evidence in rodents indicates that consumption of artificial (non-caloric) sweeteners, in which sweet taste is dissociated from normal caloric consequences, could induce changes in energy and body weight regulation, suggesting that sweeteners not only modify intake and appetitive behavior, but could also change taste-learning processes...
June 4, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Li Wang, Sarah Gillis-Smith, Yueqing Peng, Juen Zhang, Xiaoke Chen, C Daniel Salzman, Nicholas J P Ryba, Charles S Zuker
The ability of the taste system to identify a tastant (what it tastes like) enables animals to recognize and discriminate between the different basic taste qualities1,2 . The valence of a tastant (whether it is appetitive or aversive) specifies its hedonic value and elicits the execution of selective behaviours. Here we examine how sweet and bitter are afforded valence versus identity in mice. We show that neurons in the sweet-responsive and bitter-responsive cortex project to topographically distinct areas of the amygdala, with strong segregation of neural projections conveying appetitive versus aversive taste signals...
May 30, 2018: Nature
Mohamed A Eltarkawe, Shelly L Miller
Odor pollution was identified as a top priority of the community of North Denver. Previous studies that investigated the impact of air pollution in North Denver focused on adverse health effects, rather than mental well-being. This study assessed the impact of odors from industrial sources on the subjective well-being (SWB) of North Denver residents, and of four similar communities in Colorado for comparison. An online survey was sent to participants from Greeley, Fort Collins, Fort Lupton, North Denver, and Pueblo, asking questions about SWB and odors in their areas ( n = 351)...
May 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ana Freitas, Gabriela Albuquerque, Cláudia Silva, Andreia Oliveira
Identifying the underlying child-eating behaviours that contribute to weight differences across growth has been a constant challenge. This report reviews the various literature approaches for assessing appetite regulation. In doing so, it attempts to understand how appetite control develops and determines the eating habits in early childhood, and its effects on children's weight status. The interaction between homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms largely explains the appetite regulation process. Homeostatic mechanisms are mediated by the biological need to maintain the body's energy reserves, increasing the motivation to eat...
May 29, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Riccardo Vecchio, Maria Tiziana Lisanti, Francesco Caracciolo, Luigi Cembalo, Angelita Gambuti, Luigi Moio, Tiziana Siani, Giuseppe Marotta, Concetta Nazzaro, Paola Piombino
BACKGROUND: The present research aims to analyse, by combining sensory and experimental economics techniques, to what extent production process, and the information about it, may affect consumer preferences. Sparkling wines produced by Champenoise and Charmat methods were the object of the study. A quantitative descriptive sensory analysis with a trained panel and non-hypothetical auctions combined with hedonic ratings involving young wine consumers (N=100), under different information scenarios(Blind, Info and Info Taste), were performed...
May 28, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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