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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728514/development-and-initial-validation-of-a-multidimensional-scale-assessing-subjective-well-being-the-well-being-scale-webs
#1
P Priscilla Lui, Gaithri A Fernando
Numerous scales currently exist that assess well-being, but research on measures of well-being is still advancing. Conceptualization and measurement of subjective well-being have emphasized intrapsychic over psychosocial domains of optimal functioning, and disparate research on hedonic, eudaimonic, and psychological well-being lacks a unifying theoretical model. Lack of systematic investigations on the impact of culture on subjective well-being has also limited advancement of this field. The goals of this investigation were to (1) develop and validate a self-report measure, the Well-Being Scale (WeBS), that simultaneously assesses overall well-being and physical, financial, social, hedonic, and eudaimonic domains of this construct; (2) evaluate factor structures that underlie subjective well-being; and (3) examine the measure's psychometric properties...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727992/how-does-emotional-exhaustion-influence-work-stress-relationships-between-stressor-appraisals-hedonic-tone-and-fatigue-in-nurses-daily-tasks-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#2
Jordi Fernández-Castro, Fermín Martínez-Zaragoza, Tatiana Rovira, Silvia Edo, Ángel Solanes-Puchol, Beatriz Martín-Del-Río, Rosa García-Sierra, Gemma Benavides-Gil, Eduardo Doval
BACKGROUND: Work-related stress is a prevalent condition in the nursing profession, and its influence may vary according to changeable individual and situational factors. It is, therefore, important to investigate the real-time momentary changes in these factors and their relationship to emotional exhaustion experienced by nurses. OBJECTIVES: We aim to analyse how their perceptions of demand, control, effort and reward change according to the task performed through real-time assessment and interact with the emotional exhaustion level of ward nurses...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726767/fat-taste-sensitivity-is-associated-with-short-term-and-habitual-fat-intake
#3
Andrew Costanzo, Liliana Orellana, Caryl Nowson, Konsta Duesing, Russell Keast
Evidence suggests individuals less sensitive to fat taste (high fat taste thresholds (FTT)) may be overweight or obese and consume greater amounts of dietary fat than more sensitive individuals. The aims of this study were to assess associations between FTT, anthropometric measurements, fat intake, and liking of fatty foods. FTT was assessed in 69 Australian females (mean age 41.3 (15.6) (SD) years and mean body mass index 26.3 (5.7) kg/m²) by a 3-alternate forced choice methodology and transformed to an ordinal scale (FT rank)...
July 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725176/a-potential-animal-model-of-maladaptive-palatable-food-consumption-followed-by-delayed-discomfort
#4
Lital Moshe, Liza Bekker, Aron Weller
Introduction: Binging is the consumption of larger amounts of food in a briefer period of time than would normally be consumed under similar circumstances. Binging requires palatable food (PF) to trigger abnormal eating, probably reflecting gene × environment interactions. In this study we examined the impact of trait binge eating (BE) and its compulsive nature on the conflict between hedonic eating of PF and anticipation of a delayed aversive effect. We used female rats as an animal model similar to other models of BE...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722317/reward-capacity-predicts-leptin-dynamics-during-laboratory-controlled-eating-in-women-as-a-function-of-body-mass-index
#5
Laura M Holsen, Benita Jackson
OBJECTIVE: The role of leptin in mesolimbic signaling of non-food-related rewards has been well established at the preclinical level, yet studies in humans are lacking. The present investigation explored the association between hedonic capacity and leptin dynamics and whether this association differed by BMI class. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 75 women (42 with BMIs in the lean range and 33 with BMIs in the obesity range), serum leptin before and after meal consumption was measured...
July 19, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721480/intermittent-and-daily-smokers-subjective-responses-to-smoking
#6
Saul Shiffman, Lauren Terhorst
RATIONALE: One third of US smokers are intermittent smokers (ITS) who do not smoke daily. Unlike daily smokers (DS), whose smoking is negatively reinforced by withdrawal relief, ITS may be motivated by immediate positive reinforcement. In contrast, incentive salience theory posits hypothesis that "liking" of drug effects fades in established users, such as DS. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare ITS' and DS' hedonic responses to smoking. METHODS: Participants were 109 ITS (smoking 4-27 days/month) and 52 DS (smoking daily 5-25 cigarettes/day), aged ≥21, smoking ≥3 years, and not quitting smoking...
July 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719580/central-insulin-modulates-food-valuation-via-mesolimbic-pathways
#7
Lena J Tiedemann, Sebastian M Schmid, Judith Hettel, Katrin Giesen, Paul Francke, Christian Büchel, Stefanie Brassen
Central insulin is thought to act at the neural interface between metabolic and hedonic drives to eat. Here, using pharmacological fMRI, we show that intranasal insulin (INI) changes the value of food cues through modulation of mesolimbic pathways. Overnight fasted participants rated the palatability of food pictures and attractiveness of non-food items (control) after receiving INI or placebo. We report that INI reduces ratings of food palatability and value signals in mesolimbic regions in individuals with normal insulin sensitivity...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716674/pleasant-and-unpleasant-odour-face-combinations-influence-face-and-odour-perception-an-event-related-potential-study
#8
Stephanie Cook, Katerina Kokmotou, Vicente Soto, Nicholas Fallon, John Tyson-Carr, Anna Thomas, Timo Giesbrecht, Matt Field, Andrej Stancak
Odours alter evaluations of concurrent visual stimuli. However, neural mechanisms underlying the effects of congruent and incongruent odours on facial expression perception are not clear. Moreover, the influence of emotional faces on odour perception is not established. We investigated the effects of one pleasant and one unpleasant odour paired with happy and disgusted faces, on subjective ratings and ERP responses to faces. Participants rated the pleasantness of happy and disgusted faces that appeared during 3second pleasant or unpleasant odour pulses, or without odour...
July 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716608/opioidergic-and-dopaminergic-modulation-of-cost-benefit-decision-making-in-long-evans-rats
#9
Ileana Morales, Paul J Currie, Timothy D Hackenberg, Raúl Pastor
Eating disorders are associated with impaired decision-making and dysfunctional reward-related neurochemistry. The present study examined the potential contributions of dopamine and opioid signaling to these processes using two different decision-making tasks. In one task, Long Evans Rats chose between working for a preferred food (high-carbohydrate banana-flavored sucrose pellets) by lever pressing on a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement vs. obtaining less preferred laboratory chow that was concurrently available...
July 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716589/the-role-of-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-during-taste-aversive-learning-and-memory-extinction-after-long-term-sugar-consumption
#10
María Isabel Miranda, José Alejandro Rangel-Hernández, Gabriela Vera-Rivera, Nadia Edith García-Medina, Gerardo Soto-Alonso, Gabriela Rodríguez-García, Luis Núñez-Jaramillo
The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is a forebrain region that may significantly contribute to the integration of taste and visceral signals during food consumption. Changes in dopamine release in the NAcc have been observed during consumption of a sweet taste and during compulsive consumption of dietary sugars, suggesting that NAcc dopaminergic transmission is strongly correlated with taste familiarity and the hedonic value content. NAcc core and shell nuclei are differentially involved during and after sugar exposure and, particularly, previous evidence suggests that dopamine D2 receptors could be related with the strength of the latent inhibition (LI) of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which depends on the length of the taste stimulus pre-exposure...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713117/alteration-in-taste-perception-among-young-children-during-the-use-of-removable-orthodontic-appliance-therapy
#11
Priyanka Razdan, V S Sakthivel, Zuber A Naqvi, Vinod Goyal, Swati Tripathi, Smita Singh
BACKGROUND: The sense of smell is very influential in the taste of foods. If the smell pleases us, we anticipate the taste of the food with a great deal of relish. If our sense of smell is impaired, so is our taste. The effect of appliance on taste perceptions has always had a controversial subject. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was designed to analyze the change in taste perception in children using removable orthodontic appliances. All the selected volunteers were given different taste stimuli and were asked to score as per their perception...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708085/is-sweet-taste-perception-associated-with-sweet-food-liking-and-intake
#12
Shakeela N Jayasinghe, Rozanne Kruger, Daniel C I Walsh, Guojiao Cao, Stacey Rivers, Marilize Richter, Bernhard H Breier
A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual's sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20-40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste perception (detection and recognition thresholds, and sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking of suprathreshold concentrations) were assessed using glucose as the tastant...
July 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702203/the-effectiveness-of-naltrexone-combined-with-current-smoking-cessation-medication-to-attenuate-post-smoking-cessation-weight-gain-a-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Raewyn Rees, Ali Seyfoddin
BACKGROUND: Smoking is the number one cause of preventable morbidity and mortality globally and although many countries have invested heavily in smoking cessation programs, 21% of the global population still smoke. Post cessation weight gain has been identified as a barrier to attempting cessation and is implicated in the high rates of relapse. Naltrexone has been touted as a possible solution to address post smoking cessation weight gain. RESULTS: The results from seven original studies assessing the effectiveness of naltrexone in combination with existing smoking cessation medications to attenuate post smoking cessation weight gain were obtained and critically reviewed...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701972/the-effects-of-a-normal-rate-versus-a-slow-intervalled-rate-of-oral-nutrient-intake-and-intravenous-low-rate-macronutrient-application-on-psychophysical-function-two-pilot-studies
#14
Melanie Y Denzer-Lippmann, Stephan Bachlechner, Jan Wielopolski, Marie Fischer, Andrea Buettner, Arndt Doerfler, Christof Schöfl, Gerald Münch, Johannes Kornhuber, Norbert Thürauf
Stomach distension and energy per time are factors influencing satiety. Moreover, different rates of nutrient intake induce different stomach distension. The goal of our studies was to elucidate the influence of different oral rates of nutrient intake (normal rate versus slow intervalled rate; study I) and intravenous low rate macronutrient application (protein, carbohydrate, fat) or placebo (study II) on psychophysical function. The pilot studies investigated the effects of 1) study I: a mixed nutrient solution (1/3 protein, 1/3 fat, 1/3 carbohydrates) 2) study II: intravenous macronutrient infusions (protein, carbohydrate, fat) or placebo on psychophysical function (mood, hunger, food craving, alertness, smell intensity ratings and hedonic ratings) in human subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692754/rapid-sensory-profiling-and-hedonic-rating-of-whole-grain-sorghum-cowpea-composite-biscuits-by-low-income-consumers
#15
Koya A P Dovi, Constance Chiremba, John R N Taylor, Henriëtta L de Kock
BACKGROUND: The challenges of malnutrition and urbanization in Africa demand development of acceptable, affordable, nutritious complementary-type foods. Biscuits (cookies), a popular snack, from whole grain staples is an option. The objective was to relate check-all-that-applies (CATA) sensory profiles of sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits compared to economic commercial refined wheat biscuits with hedonic ratings by low income consumers. In addition, the nutritional composition and protein quality, L*a*b* colour and texture of the biscuits were determined...
July 10, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692632/high-habitual-physical-activity-improves-acute-energy-compensation-in-nonobese-adults
#16
Kristine Beaulieu, Mark Hopkins, Cecilia Long, John Blundell, Graham Finlayson
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that homeostatic satiety signalling is enhanced with higher levels of physical activity (PA), with active individuals demonstrating an improved ability to compensate for previous energy intake (EI). However, prior studies lacked objective assessment of both PA level and EI. This study examined the effect of objectively-measured PA level on homeostatic (energy compensation) and hedonic (liking and wanting) responses to high-energy (HEP), low-energy (LEP) and control preloads...
July 7, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688822/visual-food-cues-decrease-postprandial-glucose-concentrations-in-lean-and-obese-men-without-affecting-food-intake-and-related-endocrine-parameters
#17
Swantje Brede, Annika Sputh, Ann-Christin Hartmann, Manfred Hallschmid, Hendrik Lehnert, Johanna Klement
The abundance of highly palatable food items in our environment represents a possible cause of overconsumption. Neuroimaging studies in humans have demonstrated that watching pictures of food increases activation in brain areas involved in homeostatic and hedonic food cue processing. Nevertheless, the impact of food cues on actual food intake and metabolic parameters has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that watching high-calorie food cues increases food intake and modifies anticipatory blood parameters in lean and especially in obese men...
July 5, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683305/somatostatin-neurons-in-the-basal-forebrain-promote-high-calorie-food-intake
#18
Chen Zhu, Yun Yao, Yan Xiong, Mingxiu Cheng, Jing Chen, Rui Zhao, Fangzhou Liao, Runsheng Shi, Sen Song
Obesity has become a global issue, and the overconsumption of food is thought to be a major contributor. However, the regulatory neural circuits that regulate palatable food consumption remain unclear. Here, we report that somatostatin (SOM) neurons and GABAergic (VGAT) neurons in the basal forebrain (BF) play specific roles in regulating feeding. Optogenetic stimulation of BF SOM neurons increased fat and sucrose intake within minutes and promoted anxiety-like behaviors. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of projections from BF SOM neurons to the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) selectively resulted in fat intake...
July 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679423/electronic-health-record-portal-adoption-a-cross-country-analysis
#19
Jorge Tavares, Tiago Oliveira
BACKGROUND: This study's goal is to understand the factors that drive individuals to adopt Electronic Health Record (EHR) portals and to estimate if there are differences between countries with different healthcare models. METHODS: We applied a new adoption model using as a starting point the extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) by incorporating the Concern for Information Privacy (CFIP) framework. To evaluate the research model we used the partial least squares (PLS) - structural equation modelling (SEM) approach...
July 5, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675326/mixed-frames-and-risky-decision-making
#20
Jiaxi Peng, Jiaxi Zhang, Hao Sun, Zhicong Zeng, Yuexia Mai, Danmin Miao
By applying unitive vocabulary, "die" or "save," to respective frames of the Asian disease problem, Tversky and Kahneman were able to define framing effect. In this study, we preliminarily explored the effect of mixed frames, which are characterized by the use of different vocabulary in one frame. In study 1, we found that only the sure option description had significant effect on decision-making, while the effects of risky option descriptions were not significant, nor were interactions between descriptions...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
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