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Liane M Schneller, Bruce R Lindgren, Peter G Shields, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Richard J O'Connor
Introduction: The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 allows the US FDA to regulate tobacco products, including the banning of characterizing flavors, such as fruit and candy, cigarettes. The availability of mint flavored snus may facilitate the use of the product if consumers find it more palatable with respect to taste, odor, pleasantness, and intensity. Methods: This study assessed product evaluation (PES), odor identification, odor intensity, and odor hedonics among 151 smokers enrolled in a clinical trial of snus substitution for cigarettes...
December 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Robin Fondberg, Johan N Lundström, Maria Blöchl, Mats J Olsson, Janina Seubert
Our hedonic response to a food is determined by its flavor, an inherently multisensory experience that extends beyond the mere addition of its odor and taste. While congruency is known to be important for multisensory processes in general, little is known about its specific role in flavor processing. The aim of the present study was to delineate the effects of odor-taste congruency on two central aspects of flavor: odor referral (or mislocalization) to the mouth, and pleasantness. We further aimed to test whether an eventual effect on pleasantness was mediated by odor referral...
February 12, 2018: Appetite
Vidyulata Kamath, Diana Paksarian, Lihong Cui, Paul J Moberg, Bruce I Turetsky, Kathleen R Merikangas
OBJECTIVES: Although olfactory abnormalities are well established in schizophrenia, considerably less work has examined olfactory performance in other neuropsychiatric conditions. In the current study, we examined odor identification, odor discrimination, detection threshold, and odor hedonic processing performance in individuals with bipolar I disorder (n = 43; n = 13 with psychotic features), bipolar II disorder (n = 48), major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 134), anxiety (n = 48), and no mental disorder (n = 72) who participated in a community-based family study...
February 13, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Sun-Ho Kim, Nina Petard, Jae-Hee Hong
Cross-cultural communication of "nuttiness" can be problematic because the underlying conceptual elements and words used to describe its features may be largely culture-dependent. The present study was conducted to understand similarities and dissimilarities in the concept of nuttiness and its actual perception in our model food system, soymilk, among similar (Korean and Chinese) and dissimilar (Western) food cultures. In total, 110 Koreans, 103 Chinese, and 93 English-speaking, Western consumers were recruited...
March 2018: Food Research International
Dyan MacWilliam, Joel Kowalewski, Arun Kumar, Crystal Pontrello, Anandasankar Ray
Odor detection involves hundreds of olfactory receptors from diverse families, making modeling of hedonic valence of an odorant difficult, even in Drosophila melanogaster where most receptors have been deorphanised. We demonstrate that a broadly tuned heteromeric receptor that detects CO2 (Gr21a, Gr63a) and other odorants is a key determinant of valence along with a few members of the Odorant receptor family in a T-maze, but not in a trap assay. Gr21a and Gr63a have atypically high amino acid conservation in Dipteran insects, and they use both inhibition and activation to convey positive or negative valence for numerous odorants...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
Cristina Otero-Rodiño, Ana Rocha, Rosa Álvarez-Otero, Rosa M Ceinos, Marcos A López-Patiño, Jesús M Míguez, José Miguel Cerdá-Reverter, José L Soengas
To assess the hypothesis of glucosensing systems present in fish telencephalon, we first demonstrated in rainbow trout by in situ hybridization the presence of glucokinase (GK). Then, we assessed the response of glucosensing markers in rainbow trout telencephalon 6h after ICV treatment with glucose or 2-deoxyglucose (inducing glucoprivation). We evaluated the response of parameters related to the mechanisms dependent on GK, liver X receptor (LXR), mitochondrial activity, sweet taste receptor, and sodium-glucose linked transporter 1 (SGLT-1)...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Bart H W Te Lindert, Jacob Itzhacki, Wisse P van der Meijden, Morten L Kringelbach, Jorge Mendoza, Eus J W Van Someren
Study Objectives: Altered comfort sensing and reduced gray matter volume in the orbitofrontal cortex of the brain in people suffering from Insomnia Disorder (ID) suggest compromised processes of motivation and hedonia. The Experience Sampling (ES) method was used to evaluate whether, in naturalistic conditions, people with ID differ from those without sleep complaints with respect to subjective wanting and liking, two major dimensions of the reward system. Since light affects brain circuits involved in affect and reward, ES was combined with ambulatory monitoring of light intensity fluctuations to evaluate their effect on subjective wanting and liking...
February 7, 2018: Sleep
Ammar Olabi, Nahla Hwalla, Hamza Daroub, Omar Obeid, Christelle Cordahi
The obesity prevalence worldwide is reaching epidemic proportions, which makes the understanding of the mechanisms that regulate appetite of paramount importance. This study assessed whether the hedonic characteristics of a food item (high acceptability [HA] vs modified low acceptability [LA]) have a significant effect on postprandial ghrelin and insulin levels and appetite scores of isoenergetic meals in normal-weight men. We hypothesize that food acceptability would significantly impact appetite scores and affect the studied postprandial hormones...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
Bartosz Szulczyński, Krzysztof Armiński, Jacek Namieśnik, Jacek Gębicki
This paper presents application of an electronic nose prototype comprised of eight sensors, five TGS-type sensors, two electrochemical sensors and one PID-type sensor, to identify odour interaction phenomenon in two-, three-, four- and five-component odorous mixtures. Typical chemical compounds, such as toluene, acetone, triethylamine, α-pinene and n-butanol, present near municipal landfills and sewage treatment plants were subjected to investigation. Evaluation of predicted odour intensity and hedonic tone was performed with selected artificial neural network structures with the activation functions tanh and Leaky rectified linear units (Leaky ReLUs) with the parameter a = 0...
February 8, 2018: Sensors
Frances Thirlway
This paper uses the work of Bourdieu to theorise smoking and cessation through a class lens, showing that the struggle for distinction created the social gradient in smoking, with smoking stigma operating as a proxy for class stigma. This led to increased policy focus on the health of bystanders and children and later also to concerns about electronic cigarettes. Bourdieu's concept of habitus is deployed to argue that the e-cigarette helps middle-class smokers resolve smoking as a symptom of cleft habitus associated with social mobility or particular subcultures...
January 27, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Joseph T Coyle, Darrick T Balu
The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is unique in requiring two agonists to bind simultaneously to open its cation channel: the neurotransmitter, glutamate, and the coagonists, glycine, or d-serine. The Snyder laboratory was the first to clone serine racemase (SR), the enzyme that synthesizes d-serine, and to localize it immunocytochemically. Our laboratory has focused on the role of d-serine in brain disorders. Silencing the expression of SR, a risk gene for schizophrenia (SCZ), in mice (SR-/-), results in a phenotype that closely resembles SCZ including: cortical atrophy, reduced dendritic spine density and complexity, downregulation of parvalbumin-positive cortical GABAergic neurons, and cognitive impairments...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
Maria Micheline Teixeira Lopes, Maria do Carmo Passos Rodrigues, Ana Maria Souza de Araújo
The consumer's expectation has an important role in the consumption of food products. It is one of the factors that influence the perception of sensory attributes and interact with the physiological, behavioral and cognitive factors influencing consumer decisions. The present study aimed to analyze the influence of consumer's expectations on the acceptance of Petit Suisse. Products of 4 different brands were used for the sensory analysis, 2 international brands and 2 regional ones. The 9-point regular hedonic scale was employed to carry out affective sensory and expectation measure tests (with and without product information)...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Lai-Quan Zou, Han-Yu Zhou, Yuan Zhuang, Tim J van Hartevelt, Simon S Y Lui, Eric F C Cheung, Arne Møller, Morten L Kringelbach, Raymond C K Chan
Pleasure experience is an important part of normal healthy life and is essential for general and mental well-being. Many neuroimaging studies have investigated the underlying neural processing of verbal and visual modalities of reward. However, how the brain processes rewards in the olfactory modality is not fully understood. This study aimed to examine the neural basis of olfactory rewards in 25 healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We developed an Olfactory Incentive Delay (OLID) imaging task distinguishing between the anticipation and receipt of olfactory rewards and punishments...
February 3, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Rosa Capita, Tania Álvarez-González, Carlos Alonso-Calleja
A total of 365 ostrich steaks were packaged in air (AIR), vacuum (VAC), MAP1 (70% O2 + 30% CO2), MAP2 (30% O2 + 30% N2 + 40% CO2), MAP3 (20% O2 + 30% N2 + 50% CO2), MAP4 (50% N2 + 50% CO2), MAP5 (20% N2 + 80% CO2) or MAP6 (100% CO2). Microbial counts (10 groups), pH, Aw and sensory properties (nine-point hedonic scale) were determined on days 0, 1, 3, 7 and 15 of storage (4 °C). On day 0, microbial counts (log10 cfu/g) ranged from undetectable levels (Brochothrix thermosphacta, enterococci) to 3...
June 2018: Food Microbiology
Yan Ping Chen, Hau Yin Chung
BACKGROUND: Sufu is a fermented soybean food with unique odor, flavor, and texture, which could be not appreciated by the nonregular consumers. To identify the attributes that nonregular consumers appreciated, 12 commercial products bought from Hong Kong market were tested by 113 consumers according to Ideal Profile Method (IPM), and rated on 22 attributes. RESULTS: Data provided from nonregular consumers were consistent at both panel and consumer levels. The predicted ideal profile received a higher hedonic score (7...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Jasmine M Clarkson, Dominic M Dwyer, Paul A Flecknell, Matthew C Leach, Candy Rowe
Mice are the most widely used model species for drug discovery and scientific research. Consequently, it is important to refine laboratory procedures and practices to ensure high standards of welfare and scientific data quality. Recent studies have identified that the standard practice of handling laboratory mice by their tails increases behaviours indicative of anxiety, which can be overcome by handling mice using a tunnel. However, despite clear negative effects on mice's behaviour, tunnel handling has yet to be widely implemented...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nawaf Abu-Khalaf, Abdel Naser Zaid, Nidal Jaradat, Alaaldin AlKilany, Basima Abu Rumaila, Rowa Al Ramahi, Shrouq Shweiki, Safaa Nidal, Nibal Surakhi
Background: The taste of oral liquid dosage forms is a crucial factor that impacts paediatric patient compliance. The electronic tongue (ET) is an emerging tool that could be useful in taste assessment in order to minimize the involvement of humans in such evaluations. Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the taste of commercially available clarithromycin (CM) oral pharmaceutical suspensions in the Palestinian market. Method: Commercially available CM suspensions (the brand Klacid® and two generic K1 and K2) were assayed using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method...
February 3, 2018: Sensors
Jiao Wang, Jia Huang, Simon S Y Lui, Eric F C Cheung, Xiao-Dong Yue, Raymond C K Chan
Patients with schizophrenia have been reported to exhibit anhedonia, a reduced hedonic capacity and deficits in motivation for reward pursuit. However, it is unclear whether these deficits also exist in at-risk individuals prone to psychosis or not. The present study compared 26 individuals with social anhedonia and 28 healthy controls using a grip Effort-based Pleasure Experience Task (E-PET). The findings showed that individuals with social anhedonia did not increase their hard task choices with the elevation of reward magnitude and probability while healthy controls did...
January 20, 2018: Psychiatry Research
T Pribic, F Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: The biological response to a meal includes physiological changes, primarily related to the digestive process, and a sensory experience, involving sensations related to the homeostatic control of food consumption, eg, satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension, ie associated with changes in digestive well-being and mood. The responses to a meal include a series of events before, during and after ingestion. While much attention has been paid to the events before and during ingestion, relatively little is known about the postprandial sensations, which are key to the gastronomical experience...
February 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
M N Al-Ajeeli, R K Miller, H Leyva, M M Hashim, R A Abdaljaleel, Y Jameel, C A Bailey
Consumers have begun to awaken to the food on their plates with respect to human health and the environment, as well as animal welfare. They have become more demanding about what they buy or prefer in their food, such as soy-free, gluten-free, or organic products. The objective of this study was to evaluate consumer acceptance of eggs from hens fed soybean meal or soybean-free diets utilizing cottonseed meal and distillers' dried grains, using cage or free-range rearing systems. All eggs were stored at the sensory lab at Texas A&M University (TAMU) for a d prior to each test at 4°C...
January 29, 2018: Poultry Science
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