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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028585/seeing-odors-in-color-cross-modal-associations-in-children-and-adults-from-two-cultural-environments
#1
Nathalie Goubet, Karine Durand, Benoist Schaal, Daniel D McCall
We investigated the occurrence and underlying processes of odor-color associations in French and American 6- to 10-year-old children (n = 386) and adults (n = 137). Nine odorants were chosen according to their familiarity to either cultural group. Participants matched each odor with a color, gave hedonic and familiarity judgments, and identified each odor. By 6 years of age, children displayed culture-specific odor-color associations, but age differences were noted in the type of associations. Children and adults in both cultural groups shared common associations and formed associations that were unique to their environment, underscoring the importance of exposure learning in odor-color associations...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027838/the-role-of-appraisal-in-dysphoric-affect-reactivity-to-positive-laboratory-films-and-daily-life-events-in-depression
#2
Vanessa Panaite, Alana Whittington, Alexandra Cowden Hindash
Hedonic deficits are linked to protracted dysphoric affect (DA) in depression, a disorder characterised by emotion context insensitivity (ECI). Recent findings from daily life studies contradict the ECI view. This study longitudinally investigated DA across laboratory and daily life contexts and the conditions associated with discrepancies in DA reactivity. Thirty-three healthy controls and 41 adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) provided responses to neutral and positive (a) films viewed in the laboratory and (b) daily events recorded over the course of three days using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methodology...
October 13, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023703/use-of-multi-intake-temporal-dominance-of-sensations-tds-to-evaluate-the-influence-of-wine-on-cheese-perception
#3
Mara V Galmarini, Anne-Laure Loiseau, Doëtte Debreyer, Michel Visalli, Pascal Schlich
Even if wine and cheese have long been consumed together, there is little sensory evidence on how wine can influence the perception of cheese. In this work 4 cheeses were dynamically characterized in terms of dominant sensations without and with wine consumption in between intakes. The tasting protocol was based on multi-intake temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) coupled with hedonic rating. Frequent wine and cheese consumers (n = 31) evaluated 4 cheeses (Epoisses, Chaource, and 2 different Comté) over 3 consecutive bites...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994341/-a-sweet-smile-the-modulatory-role-of-emotion-in-how-extrinsic-factors-influence-taste-evaluation
#4
Qian Janice Wang, Charles Spence
It has recently been demonstrated that the reported tastes/flavours of food/beverages can be modulated by means of external visual and auditory stimuli such as typeface, shapes, and music. The present study was designed to assess the role of the emotional valence of the product-extrinsic stimuli in such crossmodal modulations of taste. Participants evaluated samples of mixed fruit juice whilst simultaneously being presented with auditory or visual stimuli having either positive or negative valence. The soundtracks had either been harmonised with consonant (positive valence) or dissonant (negative valence) musical intervals...
October 10, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993739/increased-subjective-distaste-and-altered-insula-activity-to-umami-tastant-in-patients-with-bulimia-nervosa
#5
Rikukage Setsu, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Miki Tokunaga, Toru Takahashi, Noriko Numata, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Daisuke Matsuzawa, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu, Michiko Nakazato
The aim of this study was to examine differences in brain neural activation in response to monosodium glutamate (MSG), the representative component of umami, between patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and healthy women (HW) controls. We analyzed brain activity after ingestion of an MSG solution using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a group of women with BN (n = 18) and a group of HW participants (n = 18). Both groups also provided a subjective assessment of the MSG solution via a numerical rating scale...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989234/valuing-air-quality-using-happiness-data-the-case-of-china
#6
Xin Zhang, Xiaobo Zhang, Xi Chen
This paper estimates the monetary value of cutting PM2.5, a dominant source of air pollution in China. By matching hedonic happiness in a nationally representative survey with daily air quality data according to the dates and counties of interviews in China, we are able to estimate the relationship between local concentration of particulate matter and individual happiness. By holding happiness constant, we calculate the tradeoff between the reduction in particulate matter and income, essentially a happiness-based measure of willingness-to-pay for mitigating air pollution...
July 2017: Ecological Economics: the Journal of the International Society for Ecological Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985373/pleasure-attainment-or-self-realization-the-balance-between-two-forms-of-well-beings-are-encoded-in-default-mode-network
#7
Yangmei Luo, Senqing Qi, Xuhai Chen, Xuqun You, Xiting Huang, Zhen Yang
What is a good life and how it can be achieved is one of the fundamental issues. When considering a good life, there is a division between hedonic (pleasure attainment) and eudaimonic well-being (meaning pursuing and self-realization). However, an integrated approach that can compare the brain functional and structural differences of these two forms of well-being is lacking. Here, we investigated how the individual tendency to eudaimonic well-being relative to hedonic well-being, measured using eudaimonic and hedonic balance (EHB) index, is reflected in the functional and structural features of a key network of well-being-the default mode network (DMN)...
July 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983243/long-term-visuo-gustatory-appetitive-and-aversive-conditioning-potentiate-human-visual-evoked-potentials
#8
Gert R J Christoffersen, Jakob L Laugesen, Per Møller, Wender L P Bredie, Todd R Schachtman, Christina Liljendahl, Ida Viemose
Human recognition of foods and beverages are often based on visual cues associated with flavors. The dynamics of neurophysiological plasticity related to acquisition of such long-term associations has only recently become the target of investigation. In the present work, the effects of appetitive and aversive visuo-gustatory conditioning were studied with high density EEG-recordings focusing on late components in the visual evoked potentials (VEPs), specifically the N2-P3 waves. Unfamiliar images were paired with either a pleasant or an unpleasant juice and VEPs evoked by the images were compared before and 1 day after the pairings...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981314/alterations-in-positive-affect-relationship-to-symptoms-traumatic-experiences-and-affect-ratings
#9
Jonathan DePierro, Wendy D'Andrea, Paul Frewen, McWelling Todman
OBJECTIVE: Intrusive negative affect and concurrent deficits in positive affect are hallmarks of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We sought to further extend the extant literature by exploring the experience of negative affect intrusion upon potentially positive situations (here termed, "negative affect interference," NAI). METHOD: Two studies with adults endorsing at least 1 traumatic event (Study 1, N = 294; Study 2, N = 286) examined how NAI and more general hedonic deficits (HD) relate to psychopathology, trauma exposure characteristics, and ratings of normed visual stimuli...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971097/acceptability-of-iron-and-zinc-biofortified-pearl-millet-ictp-8203-based-complementary-foods-among-children-in-an-urban-slum-of-mumbai-india
#10
Samantha Lee Huey, Sudha Venkatramanan, Shobha A Udipi, Julia Leigh Finkelstein, Padmini Ghugre, Jere Douglas Haas, Varsha Thakker, Aparna Thorat, Ashwini Salvi, Anura V Kurpad, Saurabh Mehta
Biofortification, a method for increasing micronutrient content of staple crops, is a promising strategy for combating major global health problems, such as iron and zinc deficiency. We examined the acceptability of recipes prepared using iron- and zinc-biofortified pearl millet (FeZnPM) (~80 ppm Fe, ~34 ppm Zn, varietal ICTP-8203), compared to conventional pearl millet (CPM) (~20 ppm Fe, ~19 ppm Zn) in preparation for an efficacy trial. Our objective was to examine the acceptability of FeZnPM compared to CPM among young children and mothers living in the urban slums of Mumbai...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969356/a-transdiagnostic-review-of-negative-symptom-phenomenology-and-etiology
#11
Gregory P Strauss, Alex S Cohen
In the DSM5, negative symptoms are 1 of the 5 core dimensions of psychopathology evaluated for schizophrenia. However, negative symptoms are not pathognomonic-they are also part of the diagnostic criteria for other schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, disorders that sometimes have comorbid psychosis, diagnoses not in the schizophrenia-spectrum, and the general "nonclinical" population. Although etiological models of negative symptoms have been developed for chronic schizophrenia, there has been little attention given to whether these models have transdiagnostic applicability...
July 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969354/paradigms-for-assessing-hedonic-processing-and-motivation-in-humans-relevance-to-understanding-negative-symptoms-in-psychopathology
#12
Deanna M Barch, James M Gold, Ann M Kring
Clinicians and researchers have long known that one of the debilitating aspects of psychotic disorders is the presence of "negative symptoms," which involve impairments in hedonic and motivational function, and/or alterations in expressive affect. We have a number of excellent clinical tools available for assessing the presence and severity of negative symptoms. However, to better understand the mechanisms that may give rise to negative symptoms, we need tools and methods that can help distinguish among different potential contributing causes, as a means to develop more targeted intervention pathways...
July 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959182/neural-correlates-of-consumer-buying-motivations-a-7t-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-fmri-study
#13
Adam M Goodman, Yun Wang, Wi-Suk Kwon, Sang-Eun Byun, Jeffrey S Katz, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Consumer buying motivations can be distinguished into three categories: functional, experiential, or symbolic motivations (Keller, 1993). Although prior neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates which enable these motivations, direct comparisons between these three types of consumer motivations have yet to be made. In the current study, we used 7 Tesla (7T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the neural correlates of each motivation by instructing participants to view common consumer goods while emphasizing either functional, experiential, or symbolic values of these products...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958176/undernutrition-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-increases-the-number-of-fos-cells-in-the-reward-system-in-response-to-a-5-ht6-receptor-agonist-in-male-adolescent-rats
#14
Amanda Alves Marcelino da Silva, Mayara Matias Oliveira, Taisy Cinthia Ferro Cavalcante, Larissa Cavalcanti do Amaral Almeida, Paula Luiza Menezes Cruz, Sandra Lopes de Souza
Undernutrition promotes morphofunctional adaptations in neuroanatomical circuits, leading to behavioural changes. Adolescence is a period of vulnerability for these adaptations, such as the control of food intake and the serotonergic system. The serotonergic system is capable of promoting satiety. However, its role in hedonic control has not been fully elucidated. The involvement of the 5-HT6 receptor in motivational feeding behaviours was recently observed. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of a 5-HT6 receptor agonist on food intake and neuronal activation in areas of the reward system in adolescent rats subjected to perinatal protein undernutrition...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957945/rough-and-tumble-play-induces-resilience-to-stress-in-rats
#15
Jeffrey Burgdorf, Roger A Kroes, Joseph R Moskal
Positive emotions have been shown to induce resilience to stress in humans, as well as increase cognitive abilities (learning, memory, and problem solving) and improve overall health. In rats, frequency modulated 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (hedonic 50 kHz) reflect a positive affective state and are best elicited by rough-and-tumble play. A well-established rat chronic unpredictable stress paradigm was used to produce a robust and long-lasting decrease in positive affect, increase in negative affect, and learned helplessness in Sprague-Dawley rats...
September 27, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955287/effects-of-chocolate-deprivation-on-implicit-and-explicit-evaluation-of-chocolate-in-high-and-low-trait-chocolate-cravers
#16
Anna Richard, Adrian Meule, Malte Friese, Jens Blechert
Diet failures are often attributed to an increase in cravings for attractive foods. However, accumulating evidence shows that food cravings actually decrease during energy-restricting weight-loss interventions. The current study aimed at elucidating possible mechanisms that may explain how and under which circumstances food cravings in- or decrease during dieting. Specifically, decreases in food cravings during weight-loss diets may be due to effects of energy restriction (homeostatic changes) and to effects of avoiding specific foods (hedonic changes)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951549/cb1-receptor-activation-on-vglut2-expressing-glutamatergic-neurons-underlies-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-%C3%AE-9-thc-induced-aversive-effects-in-mice
#17
Xiao Han, Yi He, Guo-Hua Bi, Hai-Ying Zhang, Rui Song, Qing-Rong Liu, Josephine M Egan, Eliot L Gardner, Jing Li, Zheng-Xiong Xi
Cannabis can be rewarding or aversive. Cannabis reward is believed to be mediated by activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) on GABAergic neurons that disinhibit dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying cannabis aversion in rodents. In the present study, CB1Rs are found not only on VTA GABAergic neurons, but also on VTA glutamatergic neurons that express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VgluT2). We then used Cre-Loxp transgenic technology to selectively delete CB1Rs in VgluT2-expressing glutamatergic neurons (VgluT2-CB1 (-/-)) and Cre-dependent viral vector to express light-sensitive channelrhodopsin-2 into VTA glutamatergic neurons...
September 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943891/the-affective-core-of-emotion-linking-pleasure-subjective-well-being-and-optimal-metastability-in-the-brain
#18
Morten L Kringelbach, Kent C Berridge
Arguably, emotion is always valenced-either pleasant or unpleasant-and dependent on the pleasure system. This system serves adaptive evolutionary functions; relying on separable wanting, liking, and learning neural mechanisms mediated by mesocorticolimbic networks driving pleasure cycles with appetitive, consummatory, and satiation phases. Liking is generated in a small set of discrete hedonic hotspots and coldspots, while wanting is linked to dopamine and to larger distributed brain networks. Breakdown of the pleasure system can lead to anhedonia and other features of affective disorders...
July 2017: Emotion Review: Journal of the International Society for Research on Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938472/dopamine-neuron-restricted-leptin-receptor-lepr-signaling-reduces-some-aspects-of-food-reward-but-exacerbates-the-obesity-of-lepr-deficient-male-mice
#19
Maggie C Evans, Greg M Anderson
The contribution of leptin-induced modulation of dopamine neurons to feeding behavior and energy homeostasis remains unclear. Midbrain dopamine neurons regulate the reward value of food, and direct leptin administration to the midbrain reduces food intake. However, selective deletion of leptin receptors (Lepr) from dopamine neurons has no effect on body weight, food intake or hedonic responses, either suggesting leptin acts indirectly or demonstrating sufficient compensation occurs to mask any direct leptin-dopamine effects...
August 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933969/psychopharmacological-advances-in-eating-disorders
#20
Hubertus Himmerich, Janet Treasure
Anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are the primary eating disorders (EDs). The only psychopharmacological treatment options for EDs with approval in some countries include fluoxetine for BN and lisdexamfetamine for BED. Given the high comorbidity and genetic correlations with other psychiatric disorders, it seems possible that novel medications for these conditions might also be effective in EDs. Areas Covered: The current scientific literature has increased our understanding of how medication could be beneficial for patients with EDs on a molecular, functional and behavioral level...
September 21, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
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