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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324868/lactic-acid-concentrations-that-reduce-microbial-load-yet-minimally-impact-colour-and-sensory-characteristics-of-beef
#1
Cristina Rodríguez-Melcón, Carlos Alonso-Calleja, Rosa Capita
Lactic acid (LA) has recently been approved in the EU as beef decontaminant. In order to identify the most appropriate concentration, beef samples were spray-treated with LA (2%, 3%, 4% or 5%) or left untreated (control). Microbial load (aerobic plate counts, psychrotrophs and Enterobacteriaceae), pH, instrumental colour and sensory properties were investigated at 0, 24, 72 and 120h of refrigerated storage. The reductions in bacteria after spraying ranged from 0.57 to 0.95 log units. A residual antimicrobial effect was observed so that at 120h LA reduced microbial load by up to 2 log units compared with the control samples...
January 17, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324705/more-pain-more-gain-blocking-the-opioid-system-boosts-adaptive-cognitive-control
#2
Henk van Steenbergen, Daniel H Weissman, Dan J Stein, Susan Malcolm-Smith, Jack van Honk
The ability to adaptively increase cognitive control in response to cognitive challenges is crucial for goal-directed behavior. Recent findings suggest that aversive arousal triggers adaptive increases of control, but the neurochemical mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Given the known contributions of the opioid system to hedonic states, we investigated whether blocking this system increases adaptive control modulations. To do so, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled psychopharmacological study (n=52 females) involving a Stroop-like task...
March 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317127/two-pathways-to-self-forgiveness-a-hedonic-path-via-self-compassion-and-a-eudaimonic-path-via-the-reaffirmation-of-violated-values
#3
Lydia Woodyatt, Michael Wenzel, Matthew Ferber
Self-forgiveness is often measured as a hedonic end-state, as the presence of positive affect and the absence of negative affect towards the self following a wrongdoing. However, self-forgiveness is also referred to as a difficult process. Self-forgiveness as a process of accepting responsibility and working through one's wrongdoing is a substantially un-hedonic - it is likely to be uncomfortable and at times painful. In this study, we examine two pathways to self-forgiveness: a hedonic focused pathway (via self-compassion) and a eudaimonic pathway (via reaffirmation of transgressed values)...
March 20, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301764/reward-processing-neuroeconomics-and-psychopathology
#4
David H Zald, Michael T Treadway
Abnormal reward processing is a prominent transdiagnostic feature of psychopathology. The present review provides a framework for considering the different aspects of reward processing and their assessment, and highlights recent insights from the field of neuroeconomics that may aid in understanding these processes. Although altered reward processing in psychopathology has often been treated as a general hypo- or hyperresponsivity to reward, increasing data indicate that a comprehensive understanding of reward dysfunction requires characterization within more specific reward-processing domains, including subjective valuation, discounting, hedonics, reward anticipation and facilitation, and reinforcement learning...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294936/examining-the-feasibility-of-implementing-behavioural-economics-strategies-that-encourage-home-dinner-vegetable-intake-among-low-income-children
#5
Tashara M Leak, Alison Swenson, Aaron Rendahl, Zata Vickers, Elton Mykerezi, Joseph P Redden, Traci Mann, Marla Reicks
OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility of implementing nine behavioural economics-informed strategies, or 'nudges', that aimed to encourage home dinner vegetable intake among low-income children. DESIGN: Caregivers were assigned six of nine strategies and implemented one new strategy per week (i.e. 6 weeks) during three dinner meals. Caregivers recorded child dinner vegetable intake on the nights of strategy implementation and rated the level of difficulty for assigned strategies...
March 15, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290360/children-and-adolescents-attitudes-towards-sugar-reduction-in-dairy-products
#6
Hye-Jong Yoo, Leandro Machín, Alejandra Arrúa, Lucía Antúnez, Leticia Vidal, Ana Giménez, María Rosa Curutchet, Gastón Ares
The development of strategies to reduce sugar intake of children and adolescents has been deemed necessary to cope with the global obesity epidemic. In this context, the aims of the present work were to study attitudes towards sugar reduction in three dairy products of children and adolescents of two income levels and to assess if these attitudes were modulated by the inclusion of the traffic light system on labels. A total of 646 children and adolescents from three primary/secondary schools in Montevideo (Uruguay) participated in the study...
April 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290300/identification-of-drivers-of-dis-liking-based-on-dynamic-sensory-profiles-comparison-of-temporal-dominance-of-sensations-and-temporal-check-all-that-apply
#7
Gastón Ares, Florencia Alcaire, Lucía Antúnez, Leticia Vidal, Ana Giménez, John C Castura
Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and Temporal Check-all-that-apply (TCATA) are two multi-attribute methods for dynamic sensory characterization. Previous research has shown that both methodologies provide complementary information. However, it remains an open question which of the two approaches better explains consumers' hedonic perception of products. In this context, the aim of the present work was to compare TDS and TCATA in terms of their ability to identify the influence of the dynamic sensory profile of food products on consumer overall liking scores...
February 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290278/comparison-of-response-formats-and-concurrent-hedonic-measures-for-optimal-use-of-the-emosensory%C3%A2-wheel
#8
Joachim J Schouteten, Xavier Gellynck, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Benedikt Sas, Wender L P Bredie, Federico J A Perez-Cueto, Hans De Steur
The study of emotional and sensory profiling with food products is gaining momentum in the field of sensory research. These methods can be applied in order to obtain a broader consumer perspective on product performance beyond traditional hedonic measurements (Jiang, King, & Prinyawiwatkul, 2014; Varela & Ares, 2012). The EmoSensory® Wheel, a recently introduced method which combines emotional and sensory assessment in a wheel questionnaire format is one example of conducting such a task in a consumer-friendly way...
March 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289462/the-perception-of-low-salt-bread-among-preschool-children-and-the-role-of-educational-personnel-in-creating-a-positive-attitude-towards-reformulated-food
#9
Boris Kovac, Maja Knific
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to identify the possibility of unnoticed reduction in salt content of bread as a basic food in the diet of preschool children. The response of children to less salty bread and the role of teachers and teacher assistants in the introduction of novelties into children's nutrition ware studied. METHODS: Using hedonic sensory evaluation in the case of bread, the perception of salty taste and responses of preschool children to salt reduction were observed...
March 1, 2017: Zdravstveno Varstvo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286489/attitudes-vs-purchase-behaviors-as-experienced-dissonance-the-roles-of-knowledge-and-consumer-orientations-in-organic-market
#10
María Hidalgo-Baz, Mercedes Martos-Partal, Óscar González-Benito
This research focuses on the incongruity between positive attitudinal responses but a lack of purchase behavior in organic markets. According to cognitive dissonance theory, consumer orientations toward the benefits attributed to organic products (environmental protection, health, hedonic) relieve the dissonance that results from this attitude-behavior incongruity. Knowledge also functions as a transmitter, from positive attitudes to purchase behaviors, thereby reducing the incongruity. Using quota sampling in a survey study, this paper tests the hypotheses from linear regression models...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286126/circadian-rhythms-of-hedonic-drinking-behavior-in-mice
#11
Claire Bainier, Maria Mateo, Marie-Paule Felder-Schmittbuhl, Jorge Mendoza
In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is the site of the main circadian clock, synchronized by the light-dark cycle, which generates behavioral rhythms like feeding, drinking and activity. Notwithstanding, the main role of the SCN clock on the control of all circadian rhythms has been questioned due to the presence of clock activity in many brain areas, including those implicated in the regulation of feeding and reward. Moreover, whether circadian rhythms of particular motivated behaviors exist is unknown...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285524/chemical-and-sensory-characterization-of-oxidative-changes-in-roasted-almonds-undergoing-accelerated-shelf-life
#12
Lillian M Franklin, Dawn M Chapman, Ellena S King, Mallory Mau, Guangwei Huang, Alyson E Mitchell
In almonds, there is no standard method for detecting oxidative changes and little data correlating consumer perception with chemical markers of rancidity. To address this, we measured peroxide values (PV), free fatty acid values (FFAs), conjugated dienes, tocopherols, headspace volatiles, and consumer hedonic response in light roasted (LR) and dark roasted (DR) almonds stored under conditions that promote rancidity development over 12 months. Results demonstrate that, although rancidity develops at different rates in LR and DR almonds, consumer liking was not significantly different between LR and DR almonds...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284947/behavioral-characterization-of-blocking-the-erbb-signaling-during-adolescent-and-adulthood-in-reward-liking-preference-and-reward-related-learning
#13
Hagar Tadmor, Idit Golani, Eshkar Dvir, Ilana Kremer, Alon Shamir
Adolescence is a critical period in brain development. During this critical period the seeking for hedonic activities is increased, and their activity signals are stronger than the regulatory signals of judgment and reasoning. We recently reported that alteration of ErbB signaling during this period led to elevated striatal dopamine levels and reduced preference for sweetness without affecting locomotor activity and exploratory behavior. In the current study, we extend our findings and explore whether inhibition of the ErbB pathway during adolescence or adulthood also affects alcohol preference (hedonic "liking"), avoidance learning, and motivational reward "wanting"...
March 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284776/neural-underpinnings-of-prosexual-effects-induced-by-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-in-healthy-male-humans
#14
Oliver G Bosch, Michael M Havranek, Andrea Baumberger, Katrin H Preller, Robin von Rotz, Marcus Herdener, Rainer Kraehenmann, Philipp Staempfli, Milan Scheidegger, Tim Klucken, Erich Seifritz, Boris B Quednow
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist currently used as treatment for narcolepsy but also as a drug of abuse. Non-medical GHB users have repeatedly reported prosexual effects including libido-enhancement and lowering of attractiveness standards for partner selection. Here, we examined the putative prosexual effects of oral GHB in healthy males in two experiments both employing randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, and cross-over study designs. In experiment I, subjective effects of 20 and 35mg/kg GHB vs...
March 8, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279753/partial-lesion-of-dopamine-neurons-of-rat-substantia-nigra-impairs-conditioned-place-aversion-but-spares-conditioned-place-preference
#15
Bernardo F C Lima, Daniele C Ramos, Janaína K Barbiero, Laura Pulido, Peter Redgrave, Donita L Robinson, Alexander Gómez-A, Claudio Da Cunha
Midbrain dopamine neurons play critical roles in reward- and aversion-driven associative learning. However, it is not clear whether they do this by a common mechanism or by separate mechanisms that can be dissociated. In the present study we addressed this question by testing whether a partial lesion of thedopamine neurons of the rat SNc has comparable effects on conditioned place preference (CPP) learning and conditioned place aversion (CPA) learning.Partial lesions of dopamine neurons in the rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) induced by bilateral intranigral infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 3 μg/side) or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 200 μg/side) impaired learning of conditioned place aversion (CPA) without affecting conditioned place preference (CPP) learning...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271493/palatability-of-a-novel-oral-formulation-of-prednisone-in-healthy-young-adults
#16
Shasha Bai, Nathan Dormer, Catherine Shoults, Amanda Meyer, Carol D Pierce, Kathleen A Neville, Gregory L Kearns
OBJECTIVES: Prednisone is a widely used anti-inflammatory for a variety of conditions. While oral liquid formulations of prednisone enable weight-based dosing, children frequently find them to be objectionable due to bitter taste. This limitation of prednisone can adversely impact patient acceptance and may result in non-compliance. Efforts to mask flavours often result in poorly controlled, heterogeneous particle distributions and can provide ineffective taste masking. The present work utilized a novel drug delivery technology developed by Orbis Biosciences, Inc...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271228/comparison-of-ease-of-administration-of-intranasal-midazolam-spray-and-oral-midazolam-syrup-by-parents-as-premedication-to-children-undergoing-elective-surgery
#17
Milthi Manoj, M V S Satya Prakash, Srinivasan Swaminathan, Rithu Krishna Kamaladevi
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of midazolam as premedication in children for providing pre-operative sedation and reducing parental separation anxiety has been well established. Many studies have compared the effectiveness and medication acceptance of midazolam via oral and intranasal routes. In this study, we have compared the ease of administration of oral midazolam syrup and intranasal midazolam spray as premedication, administered by parents to children. METHODS: Ninety children were randomly allocated into one of the two groups: group N received nasal midazolam spray 0...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270744/use-of-the-exponential-and-exponentiated-demand-equations-to-assess-the-behavioral-economics-of-negative-reinforcement
#18
Jennifer E C Fragale, Kevin D Beck, Kevin C H Pang
Abnormal motivation and hedonic assessment of aversive stimuli are symptoms of anxiety and depression. Symptoms influenced by motivation and anhedonia predict treatment success or resistance. Therefore, a translational approach to the study of negatively motivated behaviors is needed. We describe a novel use of behavioral economics demand curve analysis to investigate negative reinforcement in animals that separates hedonic assessment of footshock termination (i.e., relief) from motivation to escape footshock...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269067/on-the-pleasantness-of-a-haptic-stimulation-how-different-textures-can-be-recognized-through-heart-rate-variability-nonlinear-analysis
#19
Mimma Nardelli, Alberto Greco, Matteo Bianchi, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Gaetano Valenza
The hedonic attributes of cutaneous elicitation play a crucial role in everyday life, influencing our behavior and psychophysical state. However, the correlation between such a hedonic aspect of touch and the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)-related physiological response, which is intimately connected to emotions, still needs to be deeply investigated. This study reports on caress-like stimuli conveyed to the forearm of 32 healthy subjects through different fabrics actuated by a haptic device, which can control both the strength (i...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265369/acceptability-and-solubility-of-iron-and-zinc-contents-of-modified-moringa-oleifera-sauces-consumed-in-the-far-north-region-of-cameroon
#20
Saliou Mawouma, Roger Ponka, Carl Moses Mbofung
Consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves is a local and inexpensive solution to iron and zinc deficiencies in the Far-north region of Cameroon. However, traditional household's cooking techniques result in sauces with high pH levels and low leaves incorporation rates that compromise the bioavailability of iron and zinc. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of modifying a standard Moringa sauce on consumer acceptability and the solubility of iron and zinc, which is an indicator of their bioavailability...
March 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
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