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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423872/potential-antioxidant-and-lipid-peroxidation-inhibition-of-phyllanthus-acidus-leaf-extract-in-minced-pork
#1
Tuyen Thi Kim Nguyen, Chamroon Laosinwattana, Montinee Teerarak, Komkhae Pilasombut
Objective: This study was to investigate the effect of extraction solvents on antioxidant bio-active compounds as well as potential antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibition of Phyllanthus acidus leaf extract in minced pork. Methods: The effect of various solvent systems of water, 25%, 50%, 75% (v/v) ethanol in water and absolute ethanol on the extraction crude yield, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant activities of P. acidus leaves was determined...
April 19, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422519/spontaneous-hedonic-reactions-to-social-media-cues
#2
Guido M van Koningsbruggen, Tilo Hartmann, Allison Eden, Harm Veling
Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we investigated less-frequent and frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues using the Affect Misattribution Procedure-an implicit measure of affective reactions. Results demonstrated that frequent social media users showed more favorable affective reactions in response to social media (vs...
April 19, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420449/interpersonal-harm-aversion-as-a-necessary-foundation-for-morality-a-developmental-neuroscience-perspective
#3
Jean Decety, Jason M Cowell
Growing evidence from developmental psychology and social neuroscience emphasizes the importance of third-party harm aversion for constructing morality. A sensitivity to interpersonal harm emerges very early in ontogeny, as reflected in both the capacity for implicit social evaluation and an aversion for antisocial agents. Yet it does not necessarily entail avoidance toward inflicting pain to others. Later, an understanding that harmful actions cause suffering emerges, followed by an integration of rules that can depend on social contexts and cultures...
April 19, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419646/suvorexant-an-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-antagonist-attenuates-motivational-and-hedonic-properties-of-cocaine
#4
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, David J Barker, Jessica K Shaw, Rodrigo A España, John W Muschamp
Orexins ('hypocretins') are peptides produced by neurons of the hypothalamus that project to structures implicated in reward and emotion processing. Converging evidence demonstrates functional roles of orexin signaling in arousal, sleep/wakefulness and motivated behaviors for natural and drug rewards. Suvorexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist, recently received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration to treat insomnia. In Experiment 1, rats self-administered cocaine under a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement and the effects of suvorexant on motivation to self-administer cocaine were measured...
April 17, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419577/decline-in-new-psychoactive-substance-use-disorders-following-legislation-targeting-headshops-evidence-from-national-addiction-treatment-data
#5
Bobby P Smyth, Suzi Lyons, Walter Cullen
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: New psychoactive substances (NPS) have hedonic effects that may lead to dependence. Headshops selling NPS increased in number in Ireland from late 2009. Legislation was enacted in May and August of 2010 that caused their closure. It is unknown whether such events impact the rate of NPS use disorders. DESIGNS AND METHODS: We conducted a population-based study using the Irish national database of episodes of addiction treatment between 2009 and 2012...
April 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413843/methodology-used-to-assess-acceptability-of-oral-pediatric-medicines-a-systematic-literature-search-and-narrative-review
#6
REVIEW
Punam Mistry, Hannah Batchelor
BACKGROUND: Regulatory guidelines require that any new medicine designed for a pediatric population must be demonstrated as being acceptable to that population. There is currently no guidance on how to conduct or report on acceptability testing. AIM: Our objective was to undertake a review of the methods used to assess the acceptability of medicines within a pediatric population and use this review to propose the most appropriate methodology. METHODS: We used a defined search strategy to identify literature reports of acceptability assessments of medicines conducted within pediatric populations and extracted information about the tools used in these studies for comparison across studies...
April 17, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412878/-top-down-mu-opioid-system-function-in-humans-mu-opioid-receptors-in-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-mediate-the-relationship-between-hedonic-tone-and-executive-function-in-major-depressive-disorder
#7
Sharee N Light, Linas A Bieliauskas, Jon-Kar Zubieta
Cognitive dysfunction and anhedonia, the reduced ability to experience pleasure, are commonly comorbid symptoms that are persistent following successful resolution of negative affect in major depressive disorder (MDD). Little is known about whether they share common etiology. In the present study, the relationship between ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) activity, cognitive dysfunction (i.e., executive dysfunction), and positive emotionality was investigated in conjunction with mu-opioid neurotransmission in a sample of 39 MDD patients...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406662/explicit-and-implicit-reinforcement-learning-across-the-psychosis-spectrum
#8
Deanna M Barch, Cameron S Carter, James M Gold, Sheri L Johnson, Ann M Kring, Angus W MacDonald, Diego A Pizzagalli, J Daniel Ragland, Steven M Silverstein, Milton E Strauss
Motivational and hedonic impairments are core features of a variety of types of psychopathology. An important aspect of motivational function is reinforcement learning (RL), including implicit (i.e., outside of conscious awareness) and explicit (i.e., including explicit representations about potential reward associations) learning, as well as both positive reinforcement (learning about actions that lead to reward) and punishment (learning to avoid actions that lead to loss). Here we present data from paradigms designed to assess both positive and negative components of both implicit and explicit RL, examine performance on each of these tasks among individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder with psychosis, and examine their relative relationships to specific symptom domains transdiagnostically...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401284/targeting-the-subthalamic-nucleus-in-a-preclinical-model-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#9
Yann Pelloux, Christelle Baunez
BACKGROUND: The subthalamic nucleus (STN) has only recently been considered to have a role in reward processing. In rats, inactivation of the STN by lesion or high-frequency stimulation (HFS) decreases motivation for cocaine but increases motivation for sucrose. For ethanol, the effect of STN lesion depends on the individual's baseline intake; decreasing motivation for ethanol in rats with lower ethanol intake, while increasing motivation for ethanol in rats with higher-but still limited-ethanol intake...
April 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401146/effects-of-bunch-rot-botrytis-cinerea-and-powdery-mildew-erysiphe-necator-fungal-diseases-on-wine-aroma
#10
Angela Lopez Pinar, Doris Rauhut, Ernst Ruehl, Andrea Buettner
This study aimed to characterize the effects of bunch rot and powdery mildew on the primary quality parameter of wine, the aroma. The influence of these fungal diseases was studied by comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analyses (AEDA) and sensory tests. The effect of bunch rot was investigated on three grape varieties, namely White Riesling, Red Riesling and Gewürztraminer and that of powdery mildew on the hybrid Gm 8622-3; thereby, samples were selected that showed pronounced cases of infection to elaborate potential currently unknown effects...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398577/theatre-involvement-and-well-being-age-differences-and-lessons-from-long-time-subscribers
#11
Suzanne Meeks, Sarah Kelly Shryock, Russell J Vandenbroucke
Background and Objectives: Activities that provide positive emotions, meaningful social interaction, and psychological stimulation can bolster well-being throughout life. We tested a model of psychological benefit from, and age differences in, adult ticket buyers' involvement with a large regional theatre. Research Design and Methods: We sent online surveys to Actors Theatre of Louisville ticketbuyers, measuring involvement with the theatre, satisfaction/enjoyment, social engagement, flow, and sense of belonging while attending, and well-being...
April 8, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396627/the-mesoaccumbens-pathway-a-retrograde-labeling-and-single-cell-axon-tracing-analysis-in-the-mouse
#12
Claudia Rodríguez-López, Francisco Clascá, Lucía Prensa
Neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that innervate the nucleus accumbens (Acb) constitute the so-called mesoaccumbens system. Increased activity by these neurons is correlated with the expectation and achievement of reward. The mesoaccumbens projection neurons are regarded as a central node in the brain networks that regulate drive and hedonic experience, and their dysregulation is a common pathophysiological step in addictive behaviors as well as major depression. Despite previous anatomical studies that have analyzed the origin of the mesoaccumbens axons within the VTA, regarded as a unit, the exact contributions of the various cytoarchitectural subdivisions of the VTA to this innervation is still unexplored; understanding these contributions would help further our understanding of their precise anatomical organization...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394447/mu-opioid-receptor-signaling-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-increases-responsiveness-of-satiety-modulated-lateral-hypothalamus-neurons
#13
Shashank Tandon, Kristen A Keefe, Sharif A Taha
Opioid signaling in the nucleus accumbens shell (sNAcc) has been implicated in hedonic feeding and binge-eating behavior. The sNAcc projects to the lateral hypothalamus (LH), and this pathway has been suggested to modulate palatability-driven feeding behavior. In this study, we investigated the effects of sNAcc mu opioid receptor stimulation on firing rates of LH neurons in previously sated rats. Neural firing in the LH was recorded while food-deprived rats performed an operant task to obtain sweetened Intralipid (a 4% fat emulsion containing 5% sucrose) before and after bilateral sNAcc infusion of either a mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonist, [D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO), or a saline control solution...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377810/non-medical-use-of-olanzapine-by-people-on-methadone-treatment
#14
Philip David James, Ali Shaik Fida, Pavel Konovalov, Bobby P Smyth
Aims and method We examined non-medical use (NMU) of olanzapine among adults on methadone treatment. Information was collected on patient demographics and NMU of olanzapine. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was administered to assess risk among current users of olanzapine. Results Ninety-two clients participated and 30% reported lifetime history of NMU of olanzapine. Nine people reported doses of 30 mg or higher on a typical day of use, with three typically using 100 mg...
December 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377697/the-rewarding-effect-of-pictures-with-positive-emotional-connotation-upon-perception-and-processing-of-pleasant-odors-an-fmri-study
#15
Thomas Hummel, Therese Fark, Daniel Baum, Jonathan Warr, Cornelia B Hummel, Valentin A Schriever
This fMRI study was designed to investigate the effect of cross-modal conditioning in 28 female volunteers. Subjects underwent initial fMRI block design scanning during which three pleasant olfactory stimuli were presented and had to be rated with respect to intensity and pleasantness. This was followed by an odor identification task spread out over 3 days: the experimental group was rewarded for successful trials (correct odor identification) with emotionally salient photos, whilst the control group only received randomly displayed, emotionally neutral, pictures...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376399/whey-protein-isolate-cellulose-nanofibre-tio2-nanoparticle-rosemary-essential-oil-nanocomposite-film-its-effect-on-microbial-and-sensory-quality-of-lamb-meat-and-growth-of-common-foodborne-pathogenic-bacteria-during-refrigeration
#16
Mahmood Alizadeh Sani, Ali Ehsani, Mohammad Hashemi
The use of biodegradable nanocomposite films in active packaging is of great importance since they can have a controlled release of antimicrobial compounds. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of whey protein isolate (WPI)/cellulose nanofibre (CNF) nanocomposite films containing 1.0% (w/w) titanium dioxide (TiO2) and 2.0% (w/v) rosemary essential oil (REO) in preserving the microbial and sensory quality of lamb meat during the storage at 4±1°C. Initially, the best concentration of each compound to be added to the film was determined by micro-dilution and disc diffusion methods...
March 28, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375878/carbohydrate-craving-not-everything-is-sweet
#17
Yue Ma, Risheka Ratnasabapathy, James Gardiner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cravings for carbohydrates have been known about for hundreds of years but the mechanisms behind it were unclear. This review will highlight recent advances in our knowledge of mechanisms to detect carbohydrates in the diet. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work has begun to identify the physiological mechanisms by which carbohydrates and glucose are detected and how this drives their intake. Recently, evidence has been found for systems that regulate carbohydrate and glucose intake via taste, hedonic, and homeostatic pathways...
April 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375206/malpa1-null-mice-as-an-endophenotype-of-anxious-depression
#18
R D Moreno-Fernández, M Pérez-Martín, E Castilla-Ortega, C Rosell Del Valle, M I García-Fernández, J Chun, G Estivill-Torrús, F Rodríguez de Fonseca, L J Santín, C Pedraza
Anxious depression is a prevalent disease with devastating consequences and a poor prognosis. Nevertheless, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this mood disorder remain poorly characterized. The LPA1 receptor is one of the six characterized G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6) through which lysophosphatidic acid acts as an intracellular signalling molecule. The loss of this receptor induces anxiety and several behavioural and neurobiological changes that have been strongly associated with depression...
April 4, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370941/appetite-influences-the-responses-to-meal-ingestion
#19
T Pribic, A Nieto, L Hernandez, C Malagelada, A Accarino, F Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that the postprandial experience includes cognitive sensations, such as satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension involving digestive well-being and mood. Preload conditioning has been shown to modulate appetite and food consumption under certain conditions, but its effects on the responses to meal ingestion are not clear. We hypothesized that appetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and the emotive responses to meal ingestion...
March 31, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368193/impact-bias-or-underestimation-outcome-specifications-predict-the-direction-of-affective-forecasting-errors
#20
Eva C Buechel, Jiao Zhang, Carey K Morewedge
Affective forecasts are used to anticipate the hedonic impact of future events and decide which events to pursue or avoid. We propose that because affective forecasters are more sensitive to outcome specifications of events than experiencers, the outcome specification values of an event, such as its duration, magnitude, probability, and psychological distance, can be used to predict the direction of affective forecasting errors: whether affective forecasters will overestimate or underestimate its hedonic impact...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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