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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447363/tobacco-packaging-design-for-reducing-tobacco-use
#1
REVIEW
Ann McNeill, Shannon Gravely, Sara C Hitchman, Linda Bauld, David Hammond, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging...
April 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444695/exercise-therapy-for-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Lillebeth Larun, Kjetil G Brurberg, Jan Odgaard-Jensen, Jonathan R Price
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterised by persistent, medically unexplained fatigue, as well as symptoms such as musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbance, headaches and impaired concentration and short-term memory. CFS presents as a common, debilitating and serious health problem. Treatment may include physical interventions, such as exercise therapy, which was last reviewed in 2004. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to determine the effects of exercise therapy (ET) for patients with CFS as compared with any other intervention or control...
April 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443574/parents-attitudes-and-adherence-to-unintentional-injury-prevention-measures-in-ankara-turkey
#3
Tolga İnce, Songül Yalçın, Kadriye Yurdakök
BACKGROUND: Childhood unintentional injuries are being perceived as a leading public health issue since they are one of the preventable causes of pediatric mortality and morbidity. Whether and how parental factors related to childhood injury are searched insufficiently. So, understanding what parents do to prevent injuries, how well these prevention strategies work, and what encourages these actions is essential to decrease unintentional injury risk and to develop effective injury prevention strategies...
April 6, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436583/physical-activity-and-exercise-for-chronic-pain-in-adults-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#4
REVIEW
Louise J Geneen, R Andrew Moore, Clare Clarke, Denis Martin, Lesley A Colvin, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning...
April 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434846/effect-of-an-automated-tracking-registry-on-the-rate-of-tracking-failure-in-incidental-pulmonary-nodules
#5
Jonathan Shelver, Chris H Wendt, Melissa McClure, Brian Bell, Angela E Fabbrini, Thomas Rector, Kathryn Rice
OBJECTIVE: Following incidental lung nodules with interval CT scanning is an accepted method to detect early lung cancer, but delayed tracking or failure to track is reported in up to 40% of patients. METHODS: Our institution developed and implemented an automated lung nodule registry tracking system. This system uses a code at the time that a suspicious nodule is discovered to populate the registry. Suspicious nodules were defined as any nodule, solid or ground glass, <3 cm that the radiologist recorded as a potential malignancy or recommended for follow-up imaging...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427472/optimising-conservative-management-of-chronic-low-back-pain-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Katherine J Simson, Clint T Miller, Jon Ford, Andrew Hahne, Luana Main, Timo Rantalainen, Wei-Peng Teo, Megan Teychenne, David Connell, Guy Trudel, Guoyan Zheng, Gary Thickbroom, Daniel L Belavy
BACKGROUND: Lower back pain is a global health issue affecting approximately 80% of people at some stage in their life. The current literature suggests that any exercise is beneficial for reducing back pain. However, as pain is a subjective evaluation and physical deficits are evident in low back pain, using it as the sole outcome measure to evaluate superiority of an exercise protocol for low back pain treatment is insufficient. The overarching goal of the current clinical trial is to implement two common, conservative intervention approaches and examine their impact on deficits in chronic low back pain...
April 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427389/defining-micro-epidemiology-for-malaria-elimination-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell, Kristien Verdonck, Susanna Hausmann-Muela, Charlotte Gryseels, Joan Muela Ribera, Koen Peeters Grietens
BACKGROUND: Malaria risk can vary markedly between households in the same village, or between villages, but the determinants of this "micro-epidemiological" variation in malaria risk remain poorly understood. This study aimed to identify factors that explain fine-scale variation in malaria risk across settings and improve definitions and methods for malaria micro-epidemiology. METHODS: A systematic review of studies that examined risk factors for variation in malaria infection between individuals, households, clusters, hotspots, or villages in any malaria-endemic setting was conducted...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419808/outcomes-after-1-stage-versus-2-stage-revision-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#8
Justin J Mitchell, Jorge Chahla, Chase S Dean, Mark Cinque, Lauren M Matheny, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: Revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is becoming increasingly common as the number of primary ACLR cases continues to rise. Despite this, there are limited data on the outcomes of revision ACLR and even less information specifically addressing the differences in 1-stage revision reconstruction versus those performed in a 2-stage fashion after primary reconstruction. PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes, patient satisfaction, and failure rates of 1-stage versus 2-stage revision ACLR...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414720/land-altitude-slope-and-coverage-as-risk-factors-for-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-prrs-outbreaks-in-the-united-states
#9
Andréia Gonçalves Arruda, Carles Vilalta, Andres Perez, Robert Morrison
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is, arguably, the most impactful disease on the North American swine industry. The Swine Health Monitoring Project (SHMP) is a national volunteer initiative aimed at monitoring incidence and, ultimately, supporting swine disease control, including PRRS. Data collected through the SHMP currently represents approximately 42% of the sow population of the United States. The objective of the study here was to investigate the association between geographical factors (including land elevation, and land coverage) and PRRS incidence as recorded in the SHMP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410777/evidence-for-neurocognitive-improvement-after-bariatric-surgery-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Gurneet Thiara, Michela Cigliobianco, Alexei Muravsky, Riccardo A Paoli, Rodrigo Mansur, Raed Hawa, Roger S McIntyre, Sanjeev Sockalingam
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective means of weight reduction in severely obese patients and correlates with improvements in quality of life, mental health outcomes, and neurocognition, especially in those with high psychosocial burden. OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of bariatric surgery on long-term neurocognitive functioning and neuropsychological outcomes. METHODS: OVID Medline and PsychInfo databases from January 1990 to August 2015 were searched with key terms and phrases: "bariatric surgery" and "cognition...
February 21, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404496/association-between-seroprevalence-of-measles-and-various-social-determinants-in-the-year-following-a-measles-outbreak-in-turkey
#11
M Emek, D Islek, G Atasoylu, O A Ozbek, A Ceylan, A Acikgoz, Z Tay, Y Demiral, M A Oktem, B Unal
OBJECTIVES: Despite an ongoing measles elimination programme, a measles outbreak occurred in 2013 in Turkey. Population-based seroprevalence studies are needed to determine seronegativity and explore the reasons for this outbreak. This study aimed to explore the seroprevalence of measles and its association with various social determinants in a provincial population in Turkey in the year following a measles outbreak. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study was conducted in Manisa Province in 2014 in a sample of 1740 people aged >2 years...
March 8, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403172/a-first-estimate-of-the-structure-and-density-of-the-populations-of-pet-cats-and-dogs-across-great-britain
#12
James Aegerter, David Fouracre, Graham C Smith
Policy development, implementation, and effective contingency response rely on a strong evidence base to ensure success and cost-effectiveness. Where this includes preventing the establishment or spread of zoonotic or veterinary diseases infecting companion cats and dogs, descriptions of the structure and density of the populations of these pets are useful. Similarly, such descriptions may help in supporting diverse fields of study such as; evidence-based veterinary practice, veterinary epidemiology, public health and ecology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399330/arginine-supplementation-for-prevention-of-necrotising-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants
#13
REVIEW
Prakeshkumar S Shah, Vibhuti S Shah, Lauren E Kelly
BACKGROUND: Decreased concentration of nitric oxide has been proposed as one of the possible cellular mechanisms of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Arginine can act as a substrate for production of nitric oxide in the tissues, and arginine supplementation may help to prevent NEC. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of arginine supplementation (administered by any route) on the incidence of NEC in preterm neonates. To conduct subgroup analyses based on the dose of arginine and the gestational age of participants (≤ 32 weeks, > 32 weeks)...
April 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399251/association-of-spinal-manipulative-therapy-with-clinical-benefit-and-harm-for-acute-low-back-pain-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Neil M Paige, Isomi M Miake-Lye, Marika Suttorp Booth, Jessica M Beroes, Aram S Mardian, Paul Dougherty, Richard Branson, Baron Tang, Sally C Morton, Paul G Shekelle
Importance: Acute low back pain is common and spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is a treatment option. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses have reported different conclusions about the effectiveness of SMT. Objective: To systematically review studies of the effectiveness and harms of SMT for acute (≤6 weeks) low back pain. Data Sources: Search of MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, and Current Nursing and Allied Health Literature from January 1, 2011, through February 6, 2017, as well as identified systematic reviews and RCTs, for RCTs of adults with low back pain treated in ambulatory settings with SMT compared with sham or alternative treatments, and that measured pain or function outcomes for up to 6 weeks...
April 11, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387869/genotoxicity-study-of-nickel-oxide-nanoparticles-in-female-wistar-rats-after-acute-oral-exposure
#15
Naresh Dumala, Bhanuramya Mangalampalli, Srinivas Chinde, Srinivas Indu Kumari, Mohammad Mahoob, Mohammad Fazlur Rahman, Paramjit Grover
Nanoparticles (NPs) apart from their widespread advantages and increased utilisation, have aroused concerns over their safe use. Nickel (II) oxides (NiO) NPs are used as catalysts, biosensors and in many of the consumer products. The increasing use of NiO NPs necessitates an improved understanding of their potential impact on the environment and human health. In this study, we investigated the acute genotoxic effects of NiO NPs by oral route administration with three different doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg bw)...
April 6, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376699/women-s-acute-anxiety-variations-before-and-after-epidural-anesthesia-for-childbirth
#16
Francisco J Fernández-Campos, Dolores Escrivá, José M Palanca, Francisca Ridocci, Carlos Barrios, Juan Gallego
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed changes in anxiety during different phases of childbirth in a sample of women demanding epidural anesthesia. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal case series. SAMPLE: A total of 133 women who demanded epidural anesthesia for childbirth answered the questionnaires. METHODS: Anxiety state was measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire. The STAI-S (anxiety state) was administered in three phases during childbirth: Phase 1 was before applying epidural anesthesia, Phase 2 was 45 min after the application of epidural anesthesia and Phase 3 was at less than 24 h after delivery...
June 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370489/volumetric-changes-and-peri-implant-health-at-implant-sites-with-or-without-soft-tissue-grafting-in-the-esthetic-zone-a-retrospective-case-control-study-with-a-5-year-follow-up
#17
Stefan P Bienz, Ronald E Jung, Vitor M Sapata, Christoph H F Hämmerle, Jürg Hüsler, Daniel S Thoma
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the volumetric changes and peri-implant health at implant sites with and without previous soft tissue grafting over a 5-year observation period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 18 partially edentulous patients, dental implants were placed in the esthetic zone (15-25) with simultaneous guided bone regeneration, followed by submerged healing. During the healing phase, eight patients (test) received a subepithelial connective tissue graft, whereas 10 patients (control) did not receive any soft tissue augmentation...
March 29, 2017: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369155/childhood-body-size-and-the-risk-of-malignant-melanoma-in-adulthood
#18
Kathrine D Meyle, Michael Gamborg, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Jennifer L Baker
Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. Adult anthropometry influences MM development; however, associations between childhood body size and future melanomagenesis are largely unknown. We investigated whether height, body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2), and body surface area (BSA) at ages 7-13 years and birth weight are associated with adult MM. Data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, containing annual height and weight measurements of 372,636 Danish children born in 1930-1989, were linked with the Danish Cancer Registry...
April 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368550/home-or-foster-home-care-versus-institutional-long-term-care-for-functionally-dependent-older-people
#19
REVIEW
Camilla Young, Amanda M Hall, Daniela C Gonçalves-Bradley, Terry J Quinn, Lotty Hooft, Barbara C van Munster, David J Stott
BACKGROUND: Changing population demographics have led to an increasing number of functionally dependent older people who require care and medical treatment. In many countries, government policy aims to shift resources into the community from institutional care settings with the expectation that this will reduce costs and improve the quality of care compared. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of long-term home or foster home care versus institutional care for functionally dependent older people...
April 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362061/chlorhexidine-mouthrinse-as-an-adjunctive-treatment-for-gingival-health
#20
REVIEW
Patrice James, Helen V Worthington, Carmel Parnell, Mairead Harding, Thomas Lamont, Andrea Cheung, Helen Whelton, Philip Riley
BACKGROUND: Dental plaque associated gingivitis is a reversible inflammatory condition caused by accumulation and persistence of microbial biofilms (dental plaque) on the teeth. It is characterised by redness and swelling of the gingivae (gums) and a tendency for the gingivae to bleed easily. In susceptible individuals, gingivitis may lead to periodontitis and loss of the soft tissue and bony support for the tooth. It is thought that chlorhexidine mouthrinse may reduce the build-up of plaque thereby reducing gingivitis...
March 31, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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