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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468402/-effects-of-written-educational-material-on-parental-health-knowledge-depending-on-socioeconomic-status-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Lineke Kludas, Levente Kriston, Franka Metzner, Michelle Wichmann, Silke Pawils
BACKGROUND: The nationwide prevention program "Parent Guide - Growing up Healthy" aims to improve parental health knowledge in Germany. At the birth of their first child, parents of any socioeconomic status (SES) are provided with written educational material that includes relevant health knowledge as well as basic information about routine health checkups for children. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at evaluating the program regarding 1) the effects on parental health knowledge and parental satisfaction with routine child health checkups, 2) the sensitivity of the effects on SES, and 3) parental acceptance of the written educational material...
February 21, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463768/ethical-implications-of-excessive-cluster-sizes-in-cluster-randomised-trials
#2
Karla Hemming, Monica Taljaard, Gordon Forbes, Sandra M Eldridge, Charles Weijer
The cluster randomised trial (CRT) is commonly used in healthcare research. It is the gold-standard study design for evaluating healthcare policy interventions. A key characteristic of this design is that as more participants are included, in a fixed number of clusters, the increase in achievable power will level off. CRTs with cluster sizes that exceed the point of levelling-off will have excessive numbers of participants, even if they do not achieve nominal levels of power. Excessively large cluster sizes may have ethical implications due to exposing trial participants unnecessarily to the burdens of both participating in the trial and the potential risks of harm associated with the intervention...
February 20, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455052/an-instrumental-variables-approach-to-assess-the-effect-of-class-size-reduction-on-student-screen-time
#3
Alison K Cohen
An emerging area of research considers links between characteristics of the school setting and health. The existing small evidence base assessing the association between class size and health is inconclusive. This quasi-experimental study uses an instrumental variables approach based on North Carolina's elementary class size reduction policy to assess the relationship between class size and student screen time. Specifically, data are from public school students in North Carolina, USA, who were in 3rd grade any time between fall 2005 and spring 2011...
February 10, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453544/molecular-and-cellular-toxicology-of-nanomaterials-with-related-to-aquatic-organisms
#4
Mohd Ashraf Rather, Irfan Ahmad Bhat, Niti Sharma, Rupam Sharma
The increasing application of nanomaterials both in commercial and industrial products has led their accumulation in the aquatic ecosystem. The rapid development and large scale production of nanomaterials in the last few decades have stimulated concerns regarding their potential environmental health risks on aquatic biota. Inorganic nanoparticles, due to their unique properties and associated material characteristics resulted in toxicity of these nanomaterials in aquatic organisms. Understanding their novel properties at nanoscale has established to be a significant aspect of their toxicity...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443355/precarious-employment-and-occupational-accidents-and-injuries-a-systematic-review
#5
Isa Koranyi, Johanna Jonsson, Torkel Rönnblad, Leo Stockfelt, Theo Bodin
bjectives Precarious employment conditions have become more common in many countries over the last decades, and have been linked to various adverse health outcomes. The objective of this review was to collect and summarize existing scientific research of the relationship between dimensions of precarious employment and the rate of occupational injuries. Methods A protocol was developed in accordance with the PRISMA-P checklist for systematic literature reviews. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus for articles on observational studies from North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand published in peer-reviewed journals 1990-2017...
February 14, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440160/interventions-to-increase-access-to-or-uptake-of-physical-health-screening-in-people-with-severe-mental-illness-a-realist-review
#6
Frédérique Lamontagne-Godwin, Caroline Burgess, Sarah Clement, Melanie Gasston-Hales, Carolynn Greene, Anne Manyande, Deborah Taylor, Paul Walters, Elizabeth Barley
OBJECTIVES: To identify and evaluate interventions aimed at increasing uptake of, or access to, physical health screening by adults with severe mental illness; to examine why interventions might work. DESIGN: Realist review. SETTING: Primary, secondary and tertiary care. RESULTS: A systematic search identified 1448 studies, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. Studies were from Australia (n=3), Canada (n=1), Hong Kong (n=1), UK (n=11) and USA (n=6)...
February 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439596/do-investments-in-mental-health-systems-result-in-greater-use-of-mental-health-services-national-trends-in-mental-health-service-use-mhsu-in-the-canadian-military-and-comparable-canadian-civilians-2002-2013
#7
Deniz Fikretoglu, Aihua Liu, Mark Allen Zamorski, Corneliu Rusu, Rakesh Jetly
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders constitute a significant public health problem worldwide. Ensuring that those who need mental health services access them in an appropriate and timely manner is thus an important public health priority. We used data from 4 cross-sectional, nationally representative population health surveys that employed nearly identical methods to compare MHSU trends in the Canadian military versus comparable civilians. METHOD: The surveys were all conducted by Statistics Canada, approximately a decade apart (Military-2002, Military-2013, Civilian-2002, and Civilian-2012)...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431468/nipple-invasive-primary-carcinomas-clinical-imaging-and-pathologic-features-of-breast-carcinomas-originating-in-the-nipple
#8
Mary Ann Sanders, Jane E Brock, Beth T Harrison, Tad J Wieczorek, Xuefei Hong, Anthony J Guidi, Deborah A Dillon, Leslie Max, Susan C Lester
CONTEXT: - Patients choosing to retain the nipple when undergoing therapeutic or prophylactic mastectomy are at risk for cancers arising at that site. OBJECTIVE: - To identify cases of invasive carcinoma arising within the nipple and to investigate their clinical, imaging, biologic, and staging features. DESIGN: - Carcinomas were identified by prospective review of surgical and consult cases at 4 hospitals. RESULTS: - The 24 patients identified presented with symptoms related to the nipple...
February 12, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425343/prevalence-and-causes-of-musculoskeletal-impairment-in-mahabubnagar-district-telangana-state-india-results-of-a-population-based-survey
#9
Tracey Smythe, Islay Mactaggart, Hannah Kuper, G V S Murthy, Christopher Lavy, Sarah Polack
Background: Musculoskeletal impairments (MSI) are the leading contributor to global years lived with disability. Comparable epidemiological data on MSI is lacking, and are needed to inform health and rehabilitative services. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and causes of MSI in Telangana State, India. Method: A population-based survey used probability proportionate to size and compact-segment sampling to select 51 clusters of 80 individuals (all ages)...
February 7, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425319/changes-in-temporary-disability-reporting-following-the-implementation-of-the-army-medical-readiness-transformation
#10
Jason E Sapp, Matthew J Cody, Kevin M Douglas
Introduction: In November 2014, the U.S. Army held a readiness summit to address concerns about the accuracy of medical reporting systems. At the time, soldiers on temporary disability were tracked as a medical readiness classification (MRC) 3A or 3B. MRC 3A soldiers had a medical condition with recovery expected within 30 d and MRC 3B soldiers were expected to take longer than 30 d to recover. Both groups were considered "non-available" and presumably non-deployable. Starting June 1, 2016, with the implementation of the Army Medical Readiness Transformation, soldiers on temporary disability longer than 14 d began to be reported as MRC 3s and are considered "non-deployable...
February 7, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424930/inhaled-mannitol-for-cystic-fibrosis
#11
REVIEW
Sarah J Nevitt, Judith Thornton, Clare S Murray, Tiffany Dwyer
BACKGROUND: Several agents are used to clear secretions from the airways of people with cystic fibrosis. Mannitol increases mucociliary clearance, but its exact mechanism of action is unknown. The dry powder formulation of mannitol may be more convenient and easier to use compared with established agents which require delivery via a nebuliser. Phase III trials of inhaled dry powder mannitol for the treatment of cystic fibrosis have been completed and it is now available in Australia and some countries in Europe...
February 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419895/pulmonary-artery-perfusion-versus-no-perfusion-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass-for-open-heart-surgery-in-adults
#12
REVIEW
Katrine B Buggeskov, Lars Grønlykke, Emilie C Risom, Mao Ling Wei, Jørn Wetterslev
BACKGROUND: Available evidence has been inconclusive on whether pulmonary artery perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with decreased or increased mortality, pulmonary events, and serious adverse events (SAEs) after open heart surgery. To our knowledge, no previous systematic reviews have included meta-analyses of these interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of single-shot or continuous pulmonary artery perfusion with blood (oxygenated or deoxygenated) or a preservation solution compared with no perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in terms of mortality, pulmonary events, serious adverse events (SAEs), and increased inflammatory markers for adult surgical patients...
February 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413079/yoga-to-enhance-self-efficacy-an-intervention-for-at-risk-youth
#13
Andrea N Kwasky, Mary L Serowoky
OBJECTIVE: Yoga has demonstrated effectiveness in improving self-management in a variety of disease states however little is known about the impact of yoga as a health promotion intervention for adolescent females in an urban school based environment. This pilot study was conducted to determine if yoga could improve the self-efficacy and body core tone in at-risk adolescent female participants. METHOD: A quasi-experimental design was employed, with data collection at baseline, end of program, and 1month post-program...
February 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408834/longitudinal-profiles-of-back-pain-across-adulthood-and-their-relationship-with-childhood-factors-evidence-from-the-1946-british-birth-cohort
#14
Stella G Muthuri, Diana Kuh, Rachel Cooper
This study aimed to (1) characterise long-term profiles of back pain across adulthood and (2) examine whether childhood risk factors were associated with these profiles, using data from 3271 participants in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development. A longitudinal latent class analysis was conducted on binary outcomes of back pain at ages 31, 36, 43, 53, 60 to 64, and 68 years. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine associations between selected childhood risk factors and class membership; adjusted for sex, adult body size, health status and behaviours, socioeconomic position, and family history of back pain...
February 2, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408453/a-randomized-control-trial-to-establish-the-feasibility-and-safety-of-rapamycin-treatment-in-an-older-human-cohort-immunological-physical-performance-and-cognitive-effects
#15
Ellen Kraig, Leslie A Linehan, Hanyu Liang, Terry Q Romo, Qianqian Liu, Yubo Wu, Adriana D Benavides, Tyler J Curiel, Martin A Javors, Nicolas Musi, Laura Chiodo, Wouter Koek, Jonathan A L Gelfond, Dean L Kellogg
Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway by rapamycin (RAPA), an FDA-approved immunosuppressive drug used as a clinical therapy to prevent solid organ allograft rejection, enhances longevity in mice. Importantly, RAPA was efficacious even when initiated in relatively old animals, suggesting that mTOR inhibition could potentially slow the progression of aging-associated pathologies in older humans (Harrison et al., 2009; Miller et al., 2011). However, the safety and tolerability of RAPA in older human subjects have not yet been demonstrated...
February 3, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405204/labiaplasty-motivation-techniques-and-ethics
#16
REVIEW
Müjde Özer, Indiana Mortimore, Elise P Jansma, Margriet G Mullender
Labiaplasty (also known as labia minora reduction) is attracting increasing attention in the media and in online forums. Controversy exists among health-care professionals on how to manage a request for this surgery. Furthermore, the indications for and outcomes of labiaplasty have not yet been systematically assessed, and long-term outcomes have not yet been reported. Labia minora hypertrophy is defined as enlargement of the labia minora; however, the natural variation of labia minora size has scarcely been studied, with only one study suggesting objective criteria...
February 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400458/role-of-immobile-kaolinite-colloids-in-the-transport-of-heavy-metals
#17
Jongmuk Won, Susan E Burns
Predicting the transport of contaminants in porous media is crucial to protecting public health and remediating contaminated soil and groundwater. However, the prediction of contaminant transport is challenging due to the presence of mobile and immobile colloids. The work performed in this experimental investigation quantified the role of immobile clay colloids on metal transport through sets of column breakthrough experiments under varying solution chemistry, clay content, and flow rate. Georgia kaolinite was chosen as the colloidal material, and Pb(II) was chosen as the dissolved contaminant...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398210/prospective-observational-study-of-opioid-use-after-hip-arthroscopy-for-femoroacetabular-impingement-syndrome
#18
Daniel Cunningham, Brian Lewis, Carolyn Hutyra, Shane Nho, Steven Olson, Richard Mather
PURPOSE: To provide estimates of postoperative opioid use after hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome and to identify risk factors for increased postoperative opioid use. METHODS: All patients aged at least 18 years who were undergoing hip arthroscopy for FAI syndrome performed by 1 of 2 hip-preservation surgeons between November 2015 and August 2016 were eligible for inclusion in this study. Target minimum enrollment was set at 30 patients per surgeon based on an a priori sample size calculation...
February 2, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394453/exercise-based-cardiac-rehabilitation-for-adults-with-stable-angina
#19
REVIEW
Linda Long, Lindsey Anderson, Alice M Dewhirst, Jingzhou He, Charlene Bridges, Manish Gandhi, Rod S Taylor
BACKGROUND: A previous Cochrane review has shown that exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) can benefit myocardial infarction and post-revascularisation patients. However, the impact on stable angina remains unclear and guidance is inconsistent. Whilst recommended in the guidelines of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology, in the UK the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) states that there is "no evidence to suggest that CR is clinically or cost-effective for managing stable angina"...
February 2, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388198/individualised-gonadotropin-dose-selection-using-markers-of-ovarian-reserve-for-women-undergoing-in-vitro-fertilisation-plus-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-ivf-icsi
#20
REVIEW
Sarah F Lensen, Jack Wilkinson, Jori A Leijdekkers, Antonio La Marca, Ben Willem J Mol, Jane Marjoribanks, Helen Torrance, Frank J Broekmans
BACKGROUND: During a cycle of in vitro fertilisation plus intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI), women receive daily doses of gonadotropin follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to induce multifollicular development in the ovaries. Generally, the dose of FSH is associated with the number of eggs retrieved. A normal response to stimulation is often considered desirable, for example the retrieval of 5 to 15 oocytes. Both poor and hyper-response are associated with increased chance of cycle cancellation...
February 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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