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CNS Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081550/ninth-grade-school-performance-in-danish-childhood-cancer-survivors
#1
Klaus Kaae Andersen, Anne Katrine Duun-Henriksen, Marie Hoffmann Frederiksen, Jeanette Falck Winther
BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer survivors can experience learning problems resulting in lower-than-expected attained education as adults. It is unclear whether learning problems manifest already during adolescence. METHODS: We analysed nationwide Danish registries on school grades for Danish children during 2001-2014. Applying a matched design we compared grades of childhood cancer survivors to children without cancer at ninth grade. We estimated grade differences by subject and its correlation to cancer site and age at diagnosis...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073786/phase-1-study-of-twice-weekly-pulse-dose-and-daily-low-dose-erlotinib-as-initial-treatment-for-patients-with-egfr-mutant-lung-cancers
#2
H A Yu, C Sima, D Feldman, L L Liu, B Vaitheesvaran, J Cross, C M Rudin, M G Kris, W Pao, F Michor, G J Riely
BACKGROUND: Patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) develop clinical resistance, most commonly with acquisition of EGFR T790M. Evolutionary modeling suggests that a schedule of twice weekly pulse and daily low-dose erlotinib may delay emergence of EGFR T790M. Pulse dose erlotinib has superior central nervous system (CNS) penetration and may result in superior CNS disease control. METHODS: We evaluated toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of twice weekly pulse and daily low-dose erlotinib...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068941/looking-beyond-the-brain-to-improve-the-pathogenic-understanding-of-parkinson-s-disease-implications-of-whole-transcriptome-profiling-of-patients-skin
#3
Anu Planken, Lille Kurvits, Ene Reimann, Liis Kadastik-Eerme, Külli Kingo, Sulev Kõks, Pille Taba
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterized by symptoms of motor impairment, resulting from the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, however non-neuronal symptoms are also common. Although great advances have been made in the pathogenic understanding of Parkinson's Disease in the nervous system, little is known about the molecular alterations occurring in other non-neuronal organ systems. In addition, a higher rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer has been observed in the Parkinson's Disease population, indicating crosstalk between these diseases...
January 10, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066629/orchestration-of-the-crosstalk-between-astrocytes-and-cancer-cells-affects-the-treatment-and-prognosis-of-lung-cancer-sufferers-with-brain-metastasis
#4
COMMENT
Wangshu Dai, Hongcheng Zhu, Guangzong Chen, Hao Gu, Yihang Gu, Xinchen Sun, Xiaoning Zeng
Brain metastasis is an inauspicious consequence of lung cancer. However, the majority of cancer cells that seep into the brain died of unknown causes, only a few survived and developed into metastatic brain tumor. Communication between cancer cells and host tissue is viewed as an essential event during metastasis, but little is known about the accurate control of this processes. Within the lesion of brain metastasis, abundant activated astrocytes are observed with lung cancer cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that the astrocyte network served a protective role in the central nervous system (CNS) and most malignant cells that seep into the brain perish were rejected by astrocytes...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063151/gad65-neurological-autoimmunity
#5
Andrew McKeon, Jennifer A Tracy
The glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-isoform (GAD65) antibody is a biomarker of autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) disorders and, more commonly, non-neurological autoimmune diseases. Type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid disease, and pernicious anemia are the most frequent GAD65 autoimmune associations. One or more of these disorders coexists in approximately 70% of patients with GAD65 neurological autoimmunity. Neurological phenotypes have CNS localization and include limbic encephalitis, epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia, and stiff-person syndrome (SPS), among others...
January 7, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056167/filter-paper-assisted-cell-transfer-fact-technique-a-novel-cell-sampling-technique-for-intraoperative-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-tumors
#6
Jumpei Kawamura, Shingo Kamoshida, Takaaki Shimakata, Yurie Hayashi, Kuniko Sakamaki, Tamami Denda, Kenji Kawai, Sadahito Kuwao
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumors provides critical guidance to surgeons in the determination of surgical resection margins and treatment. The techniques and preparations used for the intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors include frozen sectioning and cytologic methods (squash smear and touch imprint). Cytologic specimens, which do not have freezing artifacts, are important as an adjuvant tool to frozen sections. However, if the amount of submitted tissue samples is limited, then it is difficult to prepare both frozen sections and squash smears or touch imprint specimens from a single sample at the same time...
January 5, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051344/trends-in-cancer-mortality-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-in-brazil
#7
Nathalie Vieira Balmant, Rejane de Souza Reis, Marceli de Oliveira Santos, Julio Pinto Oliveira, Beatriz de Camargo
PURPOSE: Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer comprise an intermediate age group between pediatric and adult oncology, and have a spectrum of different types of cancers. Survival among this group has not improved as much as in younger children with cancer. The aim of this study was evaluate the trends in cancer mortality of AYA aged 15-29 years in Brazil. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Atlas of Cancer Mortality databases from 1979 to 2013. Age-specific mortality rates were calculated based on the deaths from each type of cancer and the period via a direct method using the proposed world population age groups...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048517/tu-h-brc-03-evaluation-of-very-high-energy-electron-vhee-beams-in-comparison-to-vmat-and-pbs-treatment-plans
#8
E Schueler, K Eriksson, E Hynning, B Loo, P Maxim
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of very high-energy electron (VHEE) beams in comparison to clinically delivered treatment plans generated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) technology. METHODS: Three clinical cases were selected (prostate, lung, and pediatric CNS). The VHEE plans were calculated in the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code and pencil beam doses were calculated using the DOSxyznrc MC code for 100 and 200 MeV beams...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042941/a-ph-responsive-self-sacrificial-nanotheranostic-agent-for-potential-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-dual-modal-mri-ct-imaging-real-time-and-in-situ-monitoring-of-cancer-therapy
#9
Ludan Yue, Jinlong Wang, Zhichao Dai, Zunfu Hu, Xue Chen, Yafei Qi, Xiuwen Zheng, Dexin Yu
Multifunctional nanotheranostic agents have been highly commended due to the application to realize image-guided cancer therapy. Herein, based on the chemically disordered face centered cubic (fcc) FePt nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide(GO), we develop a pH-responsive FePt-based multifunctional theranostic agent for potential in vivo and in vitro dual modal MRI/CT imaging and in-situ cancer inhibition. The fcc-FePt will release highly active Fe ions due to the low pH in tumor cells, which would catalyze H2O2 decomposition into reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the cells and further induce cancer cell apoptosis...
January 2, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033683/snare-proteins-play-a-role-in-motor-axon-guidance-in-vertebrates-and-invertebrates
#10
Pablo José Barrecheguren, Oriol Ros, Tiziana Cotrufo, Beat Kunz, Eduardo Soriano, Fausto Ulloa, Esther T Stoeckli, Sofia J Araújo
Axonal growth and guidance rely on correct growth cone responses to guidance cues, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the periphery. Unlike the signaling cascades that link axonal growth to cytoskeletal dynamics, little is known about the crosstalk mechanisms between guidance and membrane dynamics and turnover in the axon. Our studies have shown that Netrin-1/Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) signaling triggers exocytosis through the SNARE Syntaxin-1 (STX-1) during the formation of commissural pathways...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031322/extranuclear-partners-of-androgen-receptor-at-the-crossroads-of-proliferation-migration-and-neuritogenesis
#11
REVIEW
Gabriella Castoria, Ferdinando Auricchio, Antimo Migliaccio
In this review, we focus on the role played by the protein partners of ligand-activated extranuclear androgen receptor (AR) in the final effects of hormone action, such as proliferation, migration and neuritogenesis. The choice of AR partner, at least in part, depends on cell type. Androgen-activated receptor directly associates with cytoplasmic Src tyrosine kinase in epithelial cells, whereas in mesenchymal and neuronal cells, it prevalently interacts with filamin A. In the former, proliferation represents the final hormonal outcome, whereas in the latter, either migration or neuritogenesis, respectively, occur...
December 28, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029680/the-function-of-nod-like-receptors-in-central-nervous-system-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Xiangxi Kong, Zengqiang Yuan, Jinbo Cheng
NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are critical cytoplasmic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that play an important role in the host innate immune response and immunity homeostasis. There is a growing body of evidence that NLRs are involved in a wide range of inflammatory diseases, including cancer, metabolic diseases, and autoimmune disorders. Recent studies have indicated that the proteins of the NLR family are linked with the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS), and psychological diseases...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011392/selective-induction-of-p-glycoprotein-at-the-cns-barriers-during-symptomatic-stage-of-an-als-animal-model
#13
Gary N Y Chan, Rebecca A Evans, David B Banks, Emily V Mesev, David S Miller, Ronald E Cannon
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) residing at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) are major obstacles for drug delivery to the Central Nervous System (CNS). Disease-induced changes of these xenobiotic transporters at the CNS barriers have been previously documented. Changes in the functional expression of these transporters at the CNS barriers would limit the clinical efficacy of therapeutic agents targeting the CNS...
December 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002793/next-generation-sequencing-of-vitreoretinal-lymphomas-from-small-volume-intraocular-liquid-biopsies-new-routes-to-targeted-therapies
#14
Andi K Cani, Daniel H Hovelson, Hakan Demirci, Mark W Johnson, Scott A Tomlins, Rajesh C Rao
BACKGROUND: Vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL), the most common lymphoma of the eye, is a rare form of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). Most frequently a high-grade diffuse large B cell lymphoma, VRL can cause vision loss and its prognosis remains dismal: the overall survival time is 3 years after diagnosis. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are used but remain frequently ineffective, and no standardized treatment regimen exists. Furthermore, no biologically targeted treatments, based on the genetic profile of the tumor, are available, as VRL has hitherto not comprehensively been profiled...
December 17, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997162/carbohydrate-neuroactive-hybrid-strategy-for-metabolic-glycan-engineering-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-vivo
#15
Asif Shajahan, Shubham Parashar, Surbhi Goswami, Syed Meheboob Ahmed, Perumal Nagarajan, Srinivasa-Gopalan Sampathkumar
Sialic acids are abundant in the central nervous system (CNS) and are essential for brain development, learning, and memory. Dysregulation in biosynthesis of sialo-glycoconjugates is known to be associated with neurological disorders, CNS injury, and brain cancer. Metabolic glycan engineering (MGE) and bioorthogonal ligation have enabled study of biological roles of glycans in vivo; however, direct investigations of sialoglycans in brain have been intractable. We report a simple strategy utilizing carbohydrate-neuroactive hybrid (CNH) molecules, which exploit carrier-mediated transport systems available at the blood-brain barrier, to access brain via tail vein injection in mice...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978508/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-of-pediatric-neuro-oncology-patients-improves-diagnosis-identifies-pathogenic-germline-mutations-and-directs-targeted-therapy
#16
Cassie N Kline, Nancy M Joseph, James P Grenert, Jessica van Ziffle, Eric Talevich, Courtney Onodera, Mariam Aboian, Soonmee Cha, David R Raleigh, Steve Braunstein, Joseph Torkildson, David Samuel, Michelle Bloomer, Alejandra G de Alba Campomanes, Anuradha Banerjee, Nicholas Butowski, Corey Raffel, Tarik Tihan, Andrew W Bollen, Joanna J Phillips, W Michael Korn, Iwei Yeh, Boris C Bastian, Nalin Gupta, Sabine Mueller, Arie Perry, Theodore Nicolaides, David A Solomon
BACKGROUND: Molecular profiling is revolutionizing cancer diagnostics and leading to personalized therapeutic approaches. Herein we describe our clinical experience performing targeted sequencing for 31 pediatric neuro-oncology patients. METHODS: We sequenced 510 cancer-associated genes from tumor and peripheral blood to identify germline and somatic mutations, structural variants, and copy number changes. RESULTS: Genomic profiling was performed on 31 patients with tumors including 11 high-grade gliomas, 8 medulloblastomas, 6 low-grade gliomas, 1 embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, 1 pineoblastoma, 1 uveal ganglioneuroma, 1 choroid plexus carcinoma, 1 chordoma, and 1 high-grade neuroepithelial tumor...
November 14, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964820/t-cell-exhaustion-in-glioblastoma-intricacies-of-immune-checkpoints
#17
REVIEW
Reza Mirzaei, Susobhan Sarkar, V Wee Yong
Glioblastoma is an aggressive and incurable primary brain tumor. While the blockade of immune checkpoints leads to reversal of T cell exhaustion in many cancers, the efficacy of this therapy in glioblastoma requires further consideration of the brain microenvironment beyond T cell activity. Neural cells are crucially dependent on glucose for survival, and tumor cells rabidly consume glucose; the glucose-deprived microenvironment further elevates immune checkpoint molecules to benefit tumor growth and exacerbate T cell exhaustion...
December 7, 2016: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959700/osimertinib-or-platinum-pemetrexed-in-egfr-t790m-positive-lung-cancer
#18
Tony S Mok, Yi-Long Wu, Myung-Ju Ahn, Marina C Garassino, Hye R Kim, Suresh S Ramalingam, Frances A Shepherd, Yong He, Hiroaki Akamatsu, Willemijn S M E Theelen, Chee K Lee, Martin Sebastian, Alison Templeton, Helen Mann, Marcelo Marotti, Serban Ghiorghiu, Vassiliki A Papadimitrakopoulou
Background Osimertinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that is selective for both EGFR-TKI sensitizing and T790M resistance mutations in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. The efficacy of osimertinib as compared with platinum-based therapy plus pemetrexed in such patients is unknown. Methods In this randomized, international, open-label, phase 3 trial, we assigned 419 patients with T790M-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, who had disease progression after first-line EGFR-TKI therapy, in a 2:1 ratio to receive either oral osimertinib (at a dose of 80 mg once daily) or intravenous pemetrexed (500 mg per square meter of body-surface area) plus either carboplatin (target area under the curve, 5 [AUC5]) or cisplatin (75 mg per square meter) every 3 weeks for up to six cycles; maintenance pemetrexed was allowed...
December 6, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956157/ibrutinib-for-patients-with-rituximab-refractory-waldenstr%C3%A3-m-s-macroglobulinaemia-innovate-an-open-label-substudy-of-an-international-multicentre-phase-3-trial
#19
Meletios A Dimopoulos, Judith Trotman, Alessandra Tedeschi, Jeffrey V Matous, David Macdonald, Constantine Tam, Olivier Tournilhac, Shuo Ma, Albert Oriol, Leonard T Heffner, Chaim Shustik, Ramón García-Sanz, Robert F Cornell, Carlos Fernández de Larrea, Jorge J Castillo, Miquel Granell, Marie-Christine Kyrtsonis, Veronique Leblond, Argiris Symeonidis, Efstathios Kastritis, Priyanka Singh, Jianling Li, Thorsten Graef, Elizabeth Bilotti, Steven Treon, Christian Buske
BACKGROUND: In the era of widespread rituximab use for Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia, new treatment options for patients with rituximab-refractory disease are an important clinical need. Ibrutinib has induced durable responses in previously treated patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. We assessed the efficacy and safety of ibrutinib in a population with rituximab-refractory disease. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label substudy was done at 19 sites in seven countries in adults aged 18 years and older with confirmed Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia, refractory to rituximab and requiring treatment...
December 9, 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951487/synthesis-and-antiproliferative-activity-of-monocationic-arylthiophene-derivatives
#20
Mohamed A Ismail, Magdy M Youssef, Reem K Arafa, Shar S Al-Shihry, Wael M El-Sayed
Eleven compounds of substituted 4-(5-arylthiophen-2-yl)benzamidines 4a-k were synthesized from their corresponding mononitriles via treatment with lithium trimethylsilylamide and subsequent de-protection with ethanol/hydrogen chloride. In vitro antiproliferative activities of the new monocationic arylthiophenes were evaluated against 60 human cell lines at NCI, USA. This class of compounds displayed promising submicromolar antiproliferative activities with the most potent compound being 4i (GI50 and TGI of 0...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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