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CNS Cancer

Wenbin Yu, Lijun Zhu, Guohui Xu, Yuntao Song, Guojun Li, Naisong Zhang
As a novel type of lymphatic tracer, carbon nanoparticles (CNs) were reported not to stain parathyroid glands (PGs) into black, so it may have a clinical potential in protection of PGs during thyroidectomy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical application and significance of CN in protection of PGs from surrounding tissues.A total of 82 consecutive patients were enrolled into this study and were divided into CN group and control group. Parathyroid function (hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia) was evaluated...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Glenwood Goss, Chun-Ming Tsai, Frances A Shepherd, Lyudmila Bazhenova, Jong Seok Lee, Gee-Chen Chang, Lucio Crino, Miyako Satouchi, Quincy Chu, Toyoaki Hida, Ji-Youn Han, Oscar Juan, Frank Dunphy, Makoto Nishio, Jin-Hyoung Kang, Margarita Majem, Helen Mann, Mireille Cantarini, Serban Ghiorghiu, Tetsuya Mitsudomi
BACKGROUND: Osimertinib (AZD9291) is an oral, potent, irreversible EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor selective for EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor sensitising mutations, and the EGFR Thr790Met resistance mutation. We assessed the efficacy and safety of osimertinib in patients with EGFR Thr790Met-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who had progressed after previous therapy with an approved EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor. METHODS: In this phase 2, open-label, single-arm study (AURA2), patients aged at least 18 years with centrally confirmed EGFR Thr790Met-positive mutations, locally advanced or metastatic (stage IIIB/IV) NSCLC who progressed on previous EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor therapy received osimertinib 80 mg orally once daily; treatment could continue beyond progression if the investigator observed a clinical benefit...
October 14, 2016: Lancet Oncology
Maria W Gunnes, Rolv T Lie, Tone Bjørge, Sara Ghaderi, Astri Syse, Ellen Ruud, Finn Wesenberg, Dag Moster
Suicide risk in adult cancer patients is found to be elevated, but limited information exists regarding risks of suicide and non-suicidal violent deaths when diagnosed with cancer in young age. We investigate suicide and violent deaths in a national cohort including individuals diagnosed with cancer before age 25. Through the linkage of different national registries (Cancer Registry of Norway, Norwegian Causes of Death Registry, and the National Registry) a cohort of all live births in Norway during 1965-1985 was defined and followed up through 2008...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Orsolya E Lunacsek, Arliene Ravelo, Anna D Coutinho, Sebastien J Hazard, Mark R Green, Joanne Willey, Michael Eaddy, Hans-Peter Goertz
BACKGROUND: Real-world evidence is lacking on the impact of bevacizumab added to carboplatin/paclitaxel (Bev + CP) therapy versus CP alone for patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NS-NSCLC), particularly in those excluded from clinical trials. METHODS: This is a retrospective electronic medical record analysis of patients who received first-line therapy with Bev + CP or CP between 1 October 2006 and 30 June 2013. We identified four subsets: elderly patients (≥65 years), patients with brain/central nervous system (CNS) metastases, patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) ≥2, and patients receiving anticoagulation...
September 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Genaro R Villa, Jonathan J Hulce, Ciro Zanca, Junfeng Bi, Shiro Ikegami, Gabrielle L Cahill, Yuchao Gu, Kenneth M Lum, Kenta Masui, Huijun Yang, Xin Rong, Cynthia Hong, Kristen M Turner, Feng Liu, Gary C Hon, David Jenkins, Michael Martini, Aaron M Armando, Oswald Quehenberger, Timothy F Cloughesy, Frank B Furnari, Webster K Cavenee, Peter Tontonoz, Timothy C Gahman, Andrew K Shiau, Benjamin F Cravatt, Paul S Mischel
Small-molecule inhibitors targeting growth factor receptors have failed to show efficacy for brain cancers, potentially due to their inability to achieve sufficient drug levels in the CNS. Targeting non-oncogene tumor co-dependencies provides an alternative approach, particularly if drugs with high brain penetration can be identified. Here we demonstrate that the highly lethal brain cancer glioblastoma (GBM) is remarkably dependent on cholesterol for survival, rendering these tumors sensitive to Liver X receptor (LXR) agonist-dependent cell death...
October 13, 2016: Cancer Cell
Alamgir A Dar, Nisar A Dangroo, Arun Raina, Arem Qayum, Shashank Singh, Anil Kumar, Payare L Sangwan
Five new xanthones, named coxanthones A-E (1-5), together with 21 known secondary metabolites (6-26) that include seven xanthones, five flavonoids, two steroids and seven triterpenoids were isolated from the chemically unexplored whole plant Codonopsis ovata. The structures of new metabolites were elucidated by HRMS, interpretation of NMR spectra and other spectroscopic techniques. The absolute configuration of the stereogenic centre of coxanthone B (2) was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy...
October 10, 2016: Phytochemistry
Robert Kridel, David Telio, Diego Villa, Laurie H Sehn, Alina S Gerrie, Tamara Shenkier, Richard Klasa, Graham W Slack, King Tan, Randy D Gascoyne, Joseph M Connors, Kerry J Savage
The addition of rituximab has improved outcomes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), however, there remains limited information on the impact of rituximab in those with testicular involvement. All patients with diffuse large cell lymphoma and testicular involvement treated with curative intent were identified in the British Columbia Cancer Agency Lymphoid Cancer Database. In total, 134 patients diagnosed between 1982 and 2015 with diffuse large cell lymphoma involving the testis were identified: 61 received CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone)-like chemotherapy and 73 received CHOP plus rituximab (R-CHOP)...
October 14, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Johan Lundberg, Emma Jussing, Zhenjiang Liu, Qingda Meng, Martin Rao, Erik Samén, Rikard Grankvist, Peter Damberg, Ernest Dodoo, Markus Maeurer, Staffan Holmin
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most severe form of malignant gliomas. The prognosis is poor with current combinations of pharmaceutical-, radio- and surgical therapy. A continuous search for new treatments has therefore been ongoing for many years. Therapy with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) is a clinically promising strategy to treat various cancers, including GBM. An endovascular intra-arterial injection of TIL as a method of delivery may, instead of intravenous infusion, result in better retention of effector cells within the tumor...
October 7, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Annalisa Trama, Rafael Marcos-Gragera, Maria Josè Sánchez Pérez, Jan Maarten van der Zwan, Eva Ardanaz, Christine Bouchardy, Juan Manuel Melchor, Carmen Martinez, Riccardo Capocaccia, Massimo Vicentini, Sabine Siesling, Gemma Gatta
PURPOSE: Rare cancers represent 22% of all tumors in Europe; however, the quality of the data of rare cancers may not be as good as the quality of data for common cancer. The project surveillance of rare cancers in Europe (RARECARE) had, among others, the objective of assessing rare cancer data quality in population-based cancer registries (CRs). Eight rare cancers were considered: mesothelioma, liver angiosarcoma, sarcomas, tumors of oral cavity, CNS tumors, germ cell tumors, leukemia, and malignant digestive endocrine tumors...
October 3, 2016: Tumori
Jason R Audlin, Gaurav Khullar, Eric M Deshaies, Swamy Kurra, William F Lavelle
BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumors are rare neoplasms that often arise from the gastrointestinal or respiratory tracts. They often metastasize to bone tissue, as well as pancreatic and hepatic sites. The central nervous system and most specifically the spinal cord are rarely involved. Primary Carcinoid tumors of the CNS are even rarer. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 58 year-old man presented with progressive bilateral lower extremity weakness and a negative history of cancer. Imaging revealed an intradural mass at the L1 and L2 spinal levels...
October 3, 2016: World Neurosurgery
R Costa, B A Carneiro, D A Wainwright, C A Santa-Maria, P Kumthekar, Y K Chae, W J Gradishar, M Cristofanilli, F J Giles
Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of metastatic disease in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent advances in the biological understanding of breast cancer have facilitated an unprecedented increase of survival in a subset of patients presenting with metastatic breast cancer. Patients with HER2 positive (HER2+) or triple negative breast cancer are at highest risk of developing CNS metastasis, and typically experience a poor prognosis despite treatment with local and systemic therapies. Among the obstacles ahead in the realm of developmental therapeutics for breast cancer CNS metastasis is the improvement of our knowledge on its biological nuances and on the interaction of the blood brain barrier with new compounds...
October 3, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
S Vijaya Laxmi, P Anil, G Rajitha, Asha Jyothi Rao, Peter A Crooks, B Rajitha
In the search of efficient anticancer agents, here, new 5-(4-alkylbenzyledene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives (5a-g) have been successfully synthesized and characterized and are evaluated for anticancer and antimicrobial activities using DNA cleavage studies. In vitro studies on anticancer activity of compound 5d (NSC: 768619/1) was done against the full panel of 60 human tumor cell lines. The five-level dose activity results revealed that, the compound 5d was active against all the cell lines, it has shown potential activity against leukemia SR (GI50: 2...
October 2016: Journal of Chemical Biology
Yi-Ying Lee, Tung-Bo Chao, Ming-Jen Sheu, Yu-Feng Tian, Tzu-Ju Chen, Sung-Wei Lee, Hong-Lin He, I-Wei Chang, Chung-Hsi Hsing, Ching-Yih Lin, Chien-Feng Li
Background: Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) which serves as a rate-limiting enzyme involving in the production of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), exists in the GABAergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). Little is known about the relevance of GAD1 to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Through data mining on a data set derived from a published transcriptome database, this study first identified GAD1 as a differentially upregulated gene in NPC. We aimed to evaluate GAD1 expression and its prognostic effect on patients with early and locoregionally advanced NPC...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Seema Gulia, Sudeep Gupta, Ashish Singh
There has been recent increase in incidence of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, possibly due to widespread use of adjuvant trastuzumab and its known poor CNS penetration. Currently there are limited therapeutic options for these patients and outcome is poor. We report two cases of women with HER2 positive breast cancer who developed leptomeningeal carcinomatosis for which they were treated with intrathecal trastuzumab in combination with systemic therapy. Both patients had rapid symptomatic benefit and radiological response and remained progression free for at least seven months...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
L Casagranda, M Oriol, F Freycon, D Frappaz, Y Bertrand, C Bergeron, D Plantaz, J L Stephan, C Freycon, F Gomez, C Berger, B Trombert-Paviot
From a population-based cohort of cases of first cancers diagnosed between 1987 and 2004, before the patient's age of 15 years, the authors conducted a nested case-control study, matching 64 patients who experienced a second malignant neoplasm (SMN) with 190 controls. SMNs comprised 10 leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes, 5 lymphomas induced by Epstein-Barr virus after allograft, and 49 solid tumors, including mainly 25 carcinomas (17 of the thyroid), 9 bone sarcomas, and 7 central nervous system (CNS) tumors...
September 29, 2016: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
M Caccese, R Ferrara, S Pilotto, L Carbognin, G Grizzi, A Caliò, M Brunelli, F Cuppone, S Petraglia, A Scarpa, G Tortora, E Bria
The treatment of patients with ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer was completely revolutionized by the introduction of Crizotinib, a small molecule inhibiting ALK, MET and ROS1. Given that resistance occurs within approximately 12 months, in order to develop more potent inhibitors and to increase drug penetration to CNS, innovative ALK-inhibitors were developed. Second-generation ALK inhibitors Ceritinib (LDK378), Alectinib (CH5424802/RO5424802) and Brigatinib (AP26113) have shown significant clinical activity, and were rapidly approved by regulatory agencies...
October 8, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Marion Piñeros, Mónica S Sierra, M Isabel Izarzugaza, David Forman
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Although malignant tumors of the brain and central nervous system (CNS) represent less than 3% of new cancer cases estimated worldwide, they cause significant morbidity and in the case of gliomas, the most common histological type, have a poor prognosis. We describe patterns and trends in brain and CNS incidence and mortality in Central and South America. METHODS: We obtained regional- and national-level incidence data from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries and cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries...
September 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
M J Ferris, J Zhong, J Switchenko, K A Higgins, M W McDonald, B R Eaton, A H Miller, D Watkins Bruner, C Xiao, J J Beitler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Fernando Carceller, Francisco J Bautista, Irene Jiménez, Raquel Hladun-Álvaro, Cécile Giraud, Luca Bergamaschi, Madhumita Dandapani, Isabelle Aerts, François Doz, Didier Frappaz, Michela Casanova, Bruce Morland, Darren R Hargrave, Lynley V Marshall, Gilles Vassal, Andrew D J Pearson, Birgit Geoerger, Lucas Moreno
OBJECTIVES: Dose-finding trials are fundamental to develop novel drugs for children and adolescents with advanced cancer. It is crucial to maximise individual benefit, whilst ensuring adequate assessment of key study end-points. We assessed prognostic factors of survival in paediatric phase I trials, including two predictive scores validated in adult oncology: the Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) and the MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) scores. METHODS: Data of patients with solid tumours aged <18 years at enrolment in their first dose-finding trial between 2000 and 2014 at eight centres of the Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer European consortium were collected...
November 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Gizem Bor, Jennifer Mytych, Jacek Zebrowski, Maciej Wnuk, Gülşah Şanlı-Mohamed
Although chitosan nanoparticles (CNs) became a promising tool for several biological and medical applications owing to their inherent biocompatibility and biodegradability features, studies regarding their effects on cytotoxic and cytostatic properties still remain insufficient. Therefore, in the present study, we decided to perform comprehensive analysis of the interactions between CNs-pKindling-Red-Mito (pDNA) and different cell line models derived from blood system and human solid tissues cancers. The resulting CNs-pDNA was investigated in terms of their cellular uptake, transfection efficiency, and physico-chemical, cytotoxic and cytostatic properties...
September 19, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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