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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548875/overweight-obesity-and-height-as-risk-factors-for-meningioma-glioma-pituitary-adenoma-and-nerve-sheath-tumor-a-large-population-based-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Markus K H Wiedmann, Cathrine Brunborg, Antonio Di Ieva, Kristina Lindemann, Tom B Johannesen, Lars Vatten, Eirik Helseth, John A Zwart
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has announced that avoiding body fatness (i.e. overweight and obesity) contributes to prevent meningioma occurrence, but considered the available evidence for glioma inadequate. The association of body fatness with other CNS tumor subgroups is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether body fatness or body height are associated with risk for meningioma, glioma, pituitary adenoma (PA) or nerve sheath tumor (NST) in a large population-based Norwegian cohort...
May 26, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541571/childhood-adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer-incidence-in-japan-in-2009-2011
#2
Kota Katanoda, Akiko Shibata, Tomohiro Matsuda, Megumi Hori, Kayo Nakata, Yoshitaka Narita, Chitose Ogawa, Wataru Munakata, Akira Kawai, Hiroshi Nishimoto
Little is known about cancer incidence among children and youths in Japan. We aimed to describe cancer incidence in Japan focusing on childhood, adolescence and young adulthood (AYA). Cancer incidence data were obtained from the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. For the 2009-2011 incidence, the data were collected from 40 prefectures, of which data from 27 prefectures meeting quality standards were analyzed (population coverage: 38.6%). Cancers diagnosed in 0-39 years of age were classified according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer (version 3)...
May 24, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538508/central-nervous-system-disease-education-and-race-impact-radiation-refusal-in-pediatric-cancer-patients
#3
Chirayu G Patel, Mark Stavas, Stephanie Perkins, Eric T Shinohara
To investigate the determinants of radiation therapy refusal in pediatric cancer, we used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry to identify 24,421 patients who met the eligibility criteria, diagnosed between 1974 and 2012. Patients had any stage of cancer, were aged 0 to 19, and received radiation therapy or refused radiation therapy when it was recommended. One hundred twenty-eight patients (0.52%) refused radiation therapy when it was recommended. Thirty-two percent of patients who refused radiation therapy ultimately died from their cancer, at a median of 7 months after diagnosis (95% confidence interval, 3-11 mo), as compared with 29...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536635/the-regulatory-mechanisms-of-ng2-cspg4-expression
#4
REVIEW
Emmanuel Ampofo, Beate M Schmitt, Michael D Menger, Matthias W Laschke
Neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2), also known as chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), is a surface type I transmembrane core proteoglycan that is crucially involved in cell survival, migration and angiogenesis. NG2 is frequently used as a marker for the identification and characterization of certain cell types, but little is known about the mechanisms regulating its expression. In this review, we provide evidence that the regulation of NG2 expression underlies inflammation and hypoxia and is mediated by methyltransferases, transcription factors, including Sp1, paired box (Pax) 3 and Egr-1, and the microRNA miR129-2...
2017: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536525/immune-checkpoint-in-glioblastoma-promising-and-challenging
#5
REVIEW
Jing Huang, Fangkun Liu, Zhixiong Liu, Hui Tang, Haishan Wu, Qianni Gong, Jindong Chen
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a severe malignant brain cancer with poor overall survival. Conventional intervention remains dismal to prevent recurrence and deterioration of GBM cell. Recent years have witnessed exciting breakthroughs in novel immune strategies, especially checkpoint inhibitors, some of which have become adjuvant setting after standard of care in melanoma. Several clinical trials of checkpoint inhibitors are ongoing in glioblastoma and other brain carcinomas. Plus, synergistic combinations of checkpoint inhibitors with conventional therapy strategies-radiotherapy, temozolomide, bevacizumab, and corticosteroids are now being exploited and applied in clinical settings...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535084/impact-of-initial-csf-findings-on-outcome-among-patients-with-national-cancer-institute-standard-and-high-risk-b-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-a-report-from-the-children-s-oncology-group
#6
Naomi Winick, Meenakshi Devidas, Si Chen, Kelly Maloney, Eric Larsen, Leonard Mattano, Michael J Borowitz, Andrew Carroll, Julie M Gastier-Foster, Nyla A Heerema, Cheryl Willman, Brent Wood, Mignon L Loh, Elizabeth Raetz, Stephen P Hunger, William L Carroll
Purpose To determine the prognostic significance of blasts, and of white and red blood cells, in CSF samples at diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a uniform CSF and risk group classification schema was incorporated into Children's Oncology Group B-cell ALL (B-ALL) clinical trials. Methods CSF status was designated as follows: CNS1, no blasts; CNS2a to 2c, < 5 WBCs/μL and blasts with/without ≥ 10 RBCs/μL or ≥ 5 WBCs/μL plus blasts, with WBCs ≥ 5 times the number of RBCs; CNS3a to 3c, ≥ 5 WBCs/μL plus blasts with/without ≥ 10 RBCs/μL or clinical signs of CNS disease...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534372/serum-expression-level-of-mir-504-can-differentiate-between-glioblastoma-multiforme-and-solitary-brain-metastasis-of-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma
#7
Zheng Jin, Ri-Hua Jin, Chi Ma, Hai-Song Li, Hai-Yang Xu
PURPOSE: Gliomas are the most common primary intracranial tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), accounting for about one third of all brain tumors. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the aggressive grade IV glioma with survival as low as 2-5% in the second year post-diagnosis, hence necessitating efficient diagnostic markers. More than 50% of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) brain metastases are solitary lesions, often difficult to differentiate from gliomas by conventional imaging diagnostics...
March 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534251/sequencing-of-alk-inhibitors-in-alk-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Shirish M Gadgeel
Major therapeutic advances have occurred over the last several years in the management of advanced ALK+ NSCLC patients. Crizotinib was the first agent approved for the management of ALK+ NSCLC patients after it demonstrated significantly greater clinical benefit compared to chemotherapy. Several next generation ALK inhibitors have demonstrated clinical benefit in patients with crizotinib refractory NSCLC patients including in the CNS. Based on available data, therapy with a next generation ALK inhibitor can be initiated following therapy with crizotinib without any assessment of the molecular mechanisms of resistance...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534101/evaluation-of-alk-gene-rearrangement-in-central-nervous-system-metastases-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-using-two-step-rt-pcr-technique
#9
M Nicoś, P Krawczyk, K Wojas-Krawczyk, A Bożyk, B Jarosz, M Sawicki, T Trojanowski, J Milanowski
PURPOSE: RT-PCR technique has showed a promising value as pre-screening method for detection of mRNA containing abnormal ALK sequences, but its sensitivity and specificity is still discussable. Previously, we determined the incidence of ALK rearrangement in CNS metastases of NSCLC using IHC and FISH methods. MATERIALS: We evaluated ALK gene rearrangement using two-step RT-PCR method with EML4-ALK Fusion Gene Detection Kit (Entrogen, USA). The studied group included 145 patients (45 females, 100 males) with CNS metastases of NSCLC and was heterogeneous in terms of histology and smoking status...
May 22, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532485/multidimensional-scaling-of-diffuse-gliomas-application-to-the-2016-world-health-organization-classification-system-with-prognostically-relevant-molecular-subtype-discovery
#10
Patrick J Cimino, Michael Zager, Lisa McFerrin, Hans-Georg Wirsching, Hamid Bolouri, Bettina Hentschel, Andreas von Deimling, David Jones, Guido Reifenberger, Michael Weller, Eric C Holland
Recent updating of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in 2016 demonstrates the first organized effort to restructure brain tumor classification by incorporating histomorphologic features with recurrent molecular alterations. Revised CNS tumor diagnostic criteria also attempt to reduce interobserver variability of histological interpretation and provide more accurate stratification related to clinical outcome. As an example, diffuse gliomas (WHO grades II-IV) are now molecularly stratified based upon isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH) mutational status, with gliomas of WHO grades II and III being substratified according to 1p/19q codeletion status...
May 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530852/long-term-risk-of-subsequent-malignant-neoplasms-after-treatment-of-childhood-cancer-in-the-dcog-later-study-cohort-role-of-chemotherapy
#11
Jop C Teepen, Flora E van Leeuwen, Wim J Tissing, Eline van Dulmen-den Broeder, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Helena J van der Pal, Jacqueline J Loonen, Dorine Bresters, Birgitta Versluys, Sebastian J C M M Neggers, Monique W M Jaspers, Michael Hauptmann, Margriet van der Heiden-van der Loo, Otto Visser, Leontien C M Kremer, Cécile M Ronckers
Purpose Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are at increased risk for subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs). We evaluated the long-term risk of SMNs in a well-characterized cohort of 5-year CCSs, with a particular focus on individual chemotherapeutic agents and solid cancer risk. Methods The Dutch Childhood Cancer Oncology Group-Long-Term Effects After Childhood Cancer cohort includes 6,165 5-year CCSs diagnosed between 1963 and 2001 in the Netherlands. SMNs were identified by linkages with the Netherlands Cancer Registry, the Dutch Pathology Registry, and medical chart review...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529342/circulating-tumor-cells-and-serum-levels-of-mmp-2-mmp-9-and-vegf-as-markers-of-the-metastatic-process-in-patients-with-high-risk-of-metastatic-progression
#12
Marketa Skerenova, Veronika Mikulova, Otakar Capoun, Tomas Zima, Petra Tesarova
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metastases are a severe complication in cancer patients and biomarkers predicting their progression are still lacking for specific groups of patients. HER2 positive breast cancer (HER2 BC) patients on trastuzumab therapy are at risk of the development of unpredictable and often fatal central nervous system (CNS) metastases and castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients urgently need a marker of disease progression during therapy. Proposed metastatic markers: circulating tumor cells (CTC), serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), 9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were prospectively studied to confirm their utility in these two narrowly defined groups of cancer patients...
May 16, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527899/egfr-mutation-analysis-for-prospective-patient-selection-in-two-phase-ii-registration-studies-of-osimertinib
#13
Suzanne Jenkins, James Chih-Hsin Yang, Pasi A Jänne, Kenneth S Thress, Karen Yu, Rachel Hodge, Susie Weston, Simon Dearden, Sabina Patel, Mireille Cantarini, Frances A Shepherd
INTRODUCTION: Osimertinib is an oral, CNS active, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) for the treatment of EGFR T790M-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we evaluate EGFR mutation frequencies in two Phase II studies of osimertinib (AURA extension and AURA2). METHODS: Patients with EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC provided tumor samples following progression on their latest line of therapy for mandatory central T790M testing for study selection criteria...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524186/taurine-modified-ru-ii-complex-targets-cancerous-brain-cells-for-photodynamic-therapy
#14
Enming Du, Xunwu Hu, Sona Roy, Peng Wang, Kieran Deasy, Toshiaki Mochizuki, Ye Zhang
The precision and efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is essential for the treatment of brain tumors because the cancer cells are within or adjacent to the delicate nervous system. Taurine is an abundant amino acid in the brain that serves the central nervous system (CNS). A taurine-modified polypyridyl Ru-complex was shown to have optimized intracellular affinity in cancer cells through accumulation in lysosomes. Symmetrical modification of this Ru-complex by multiple taurine molecules enhanced the efficiency of molecular emission with boosted generation of reactive oxygen species...
May 19, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516074/an-updated-nationwide-epidemiology-of-primary-brain-tumors-in-republic-of-korea-2013
#15
Yun-Sik Dho, Kyu-Won Jung, Johyun Ha, Youngbeom Seo, Chul-Kee Park, Young-Joo Won, Heon Yoo
BACKGROUND: This report aims to provide accurate nationwide epidemiologic data on primary brain and central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the Republic of Korea. We updated the data by analyzing primary brain and CNS tumors diagnosed in 2013 using the data from the national cancer incidence database. METHODS: Data on primary brain and CNS tumors diagnosed in 2013 were collected from the Korean Central Cancer Registry. Crude and age-standardized rates were calculated in terms of gender, age, and histological type...
April 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502694/phase-ii-trial-of-the-pi3-kinase-inhibitor-buparlisib-bkm-120-with-or-without-enzalutamide-in-men-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#16
Andrew J Armstrong, Susan Halabi, Patrick Healy, Joshi J Alumkal, Carolyn Winters, Julie Kephart, Rhonda L Bitting, Carey Hobbs, Colleen F Soleau, Tomasz M Beer, Rachel Slottke, Kelly Mundy, Evan Y Yu, Daniel J George
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and androgen receptor pathway activation is common in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Buparlisib is an oral, pan-class I PI3 kinase inhibitor. METHODS: This was a multisite single arm phase II trial of buparlisib 100 mg ± enzalutamide daily in men with mCRPC whose disease progressed on or who were not candidates for docetaxel. The primary end-point was the rate of radiographic/clinical progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501469/routes-for-drug-translocation-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-exploiting-peptides-as-delivery-vectors
#17
REVIEW
Mie Kristensen, Birger Brodin
A number of potent drugs for the treatment of brain diseases are available. However, in order for them to reach their target site of action, they must pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The capillary endothelium comprises the major barrier of the BBB and allows only passive permeation of some small lipophilic molecules. Brain delivery of the larger biopharmaceuticals, which today includes an increasing number of novel drug entities, is therefore restricted; both due to their molecular size and their hydrophilic nature...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501140/alectinib-versus-crizotinib-in-patients-with-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-j-alex-an-open-label-randomised-phase-3-trial
#18
Toyoaki Hida, Hiroshi Nokihara, Masashi Kondo, Young Hak Kim, Koichi Azuma, Takashi Seto, Yuichi Takiguchi, Makoto Nishio, Hiroshige Yoshioka, Fumio Imamura, Katsuyuki Hotta, Satoshi Watanabe, Koichi Goto, Miyako Satouchi, Toshiyuki Kozuki, Takehito Shukuya, Kazuhiko Nakagawa, Tetsuya Mitsudomi, Nobuyuki Yamamoto, Takashi Asakawa, Ryoichi Asabe, Tomohiro Tanaka, Tomohide Tamura
BACKGROUND: Alectinib, a potent, highly selective, CNS-active inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), showed promising efficacy and tolerability in the single-arm phase 1/2 AF-001JP trial in Japanese patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. Given those promising results, we did a phase 3 trial to directly compare the efficacy and safety of alectinib and crizotinib. METHODS: J-ALEX was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial that recruited ALK inhibitor-naive Japanese patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer, who were chemotherapy-naive or had received one previous chemotherapy regimen, from 41 study sites in Japan...
May 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496133/folate-metabolism-regulates-oligodendrocyte-survival-and-differentiation-by-modulating-ampk%C3%AE-activity
#19
Qinjie Weng, Jiajia Wang, Jiaying Wang, Biqin Tan, Jing Wang, Haibo Wang, Tao Zheng, Q Richard Lu, Bo Yang, Qiaojun He
Folate, an essential micronutrient, is a critical cofactor in one-carbon metabolism for many cellular pathways including DNA synthesis, metabolism and maintenance. Folate deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of neurological disease, cancer and cognitive dysfunction. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a key enzyme to regulate folate metabolism, however folate/DHFR activity in oligodendrocyte development has not been fully understood. Here we show that folate enhances oligodendrocyte maturation both in vitro and in vivo, which is accompanied with upregulation of oligodendrocyte-specific DHFR expression...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491865/the-role-of-the-central-nervous-system-microenvironment-in-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#20
REVIEW
Nathan P Gossai, Peter M Gordon
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in children. While survival rates for ALL have improved, central nervous system (CNS) relapse remains a significant cause of treatment failure and treatment-related morbidity. Accordingly, there is a need to identify more efficacious and less toxic CNS-directed leukemia therapies. Extensive research has demonstrated a critical role of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment in leukemia development, maintenance, and chemoresistance. Moreover, therapies to disrupt mechanisms of BM microenvironment-mediated leukemia survival and chemoresistance represent new, promising approaches to cancer therapy...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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