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CNS Cancer

Luigi Cavanna, Pietro Seghini, Camilla Di Nunzio, Elena Orlandi, Emanuele Michieletti, Elisa Maria Stroppa, Patrizia Mordenti, Chiara Citterio, Stefano Vecchia, Adriano Zangrandi
Central nervous system (CNS) metastases from cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are rare, and occur in 0.16-0.69% of patients with gastric or gastro-esophageal (GE) junction cancer. Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER-2) is associated with poor prognosis in the absence of HER-2-targeted therapy, and with an increased incidence of CNS metastases in patients with breast cancer. The role of HER-2 overexpression in CNS metastases is not well known in gastric adenocarcinoma. The purpose of the present retrospective study was to assess the incidence of CNS metastases and to evaluate the associations between the CNS and HER-2 status in a series of consecutive patients with gastric or GE junction cancer...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Michael Platten, David A Reardon
Strategies to empower the immune system to successfully attack cancers, including vaccination approaches, adaptive T cell therapies, and immune checkpoint modulators, have recently achieved remarkable success across a spectrum of cancer indications. Nonetheless, with rare exception, only a minority of patients with a given type of cancer respond to an immunotherapeutic when administered as single-agent therapy. Although under extensive laboratory and clinical investigation, the role of these approaches for glioma patients remains to be determined...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Ramon Andrade De Mello, Carles Escriu, Pedro Castelo-Branco, Paloma Lucena Cabral, Giannis Mountzios, Gilberto de Lima Lopes, Pedro Madureira
Introduction: Tyrosine kinase inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is the standard in the first line treatment of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harbouring EGFR activating mutations. Here we aim to discern efficacy and toxicity measures through a meta-analysis of published studies that could aid treatment selection. Materials And Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of the main randomized clinical trials evaluating the currently approved EGFR-TKIs in first-line of treatment of EGFR-positive advanced NSCLC...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Fabiën N Belle, Juliane Wenke-Zobler, Eva Cignacco, Ben D Spycher, Roland A Ammann, Claudia E Kuehni, Karin Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer patients (CCP) have been reported to be at increased risk of becoming overweight during treatment. We assessed prevalence of overweight in CCP at diagnosis and at the end of treatment, determined risk factors, and identified weight change during treatment by type of cancer. METHODS: In a multicentre cohort study, we collected height and weight measurements of CCP at diagnosis and repeatedly during treatment. We calculated age- and sex-adjusted BMI Z-scores using references of the International Obesity Taskforce for children...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Daniel J Dennis, Sisu Han, Carol Schuurmans
The formation of functional neural circuits in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) requires that appropriate numbers of the correct types of neuronal and glial cells are generated in their proper places and times during development. In the embryonic CNS, multipotent progenitor cells first acquire regional identities, and then undergo precisely choreographed temporal identity transitions (i.e. time-dependent changes in their identity) that determine how many neuronal and glial cells of each type they will generate...
March 12, 2018: Brain Research
Guro Jahr, Michele Da Broi, Harald Holte, Klaus Beiske, Torstein R Meling
Objectives: To evaluate the validity of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group (IELSG) prognostic scoring systems for Overall Survival (OS) in intracranial Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) of all patients diagnosed at a single center. Material and Methods: Pretreatment clinical factors including tumor characteristics and histology, treatment, and survival of PCNSL patients with diagnostic biopsies over a 12-year period (2003-2014) were retrieved from a prospective database at Oslo University Hospital...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Shirish M Gadgeel
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements as driver genetic alterations occur in approximately 2-4% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Alectinib, a next generation ALK inhibitor, recently demonstrated, in two separate Phase III trials, superior efficacy to crizotinib, the first ALK inhibitor to demonstrate clinical efficacy in ALK-positive NSCLC patients. Alectinib also demonstrated superior efficacy in the CNS. The data from these two Phase III studies suggest that the efficacy of starting with alectinib is superior to the overall clinical efficacy of starting with crizotinib followed by switching to alectinib at the time of disease progression...
March 14, 2018: Future Oncology
Angel Guerrero
In the last 20 years, an increasing interest of medicinal chemists on the development of potent and selective agonists and antagonists of adenosine receptors has been noticed due to the large impact they have shown in a variety of important biological processes and diseases. Among these, it should be mentioned vasodilation, inflammation, cancer, wound healing, ischemia reperfusion injury, Parkinson disease, infectious diseases, and other CNS disorders. In this review, I will provide an update of the structures of the A2A agonists known, their selectivity versus other adenosine receptors, and their latest therapeutic applications...
March 12, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Sayeed Mukhtar, Meshari A Alsharif, Mohammed I Alahmdi, Humaira Parveen, Asad U Khan
The synthesis of spiro-thiazolidin-4-one and thioether derivatives of substituted E-3-benzylidene flavanones is reported for the first time. All new compounds were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques and elemental analyses. The in vitro anticancer activities were assessed against the full NCI 60 cell line panel representing nine types of human cancers, at 10-fold dilutions at five different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μM. Compound 2a gave noteworthy results in the case of colon (HT29), CNS (SNB-75), melanoma (LOX-IMVI), and renal (ACNH) cells, where the reduction in growth was found at 54, 54, 70, and 77%, respectively, at 10-4  M concentration...
March 12, 2018: Archiv der Pharmazie
P S Blanchette, D N Desautels, G R Pond, J M S Bartlett, S Nofech-Mozes, M J Yaffe, K I Pritchard
PURPOSE: We have limited capability to predict survival among patients treated for metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. Further research is warranted to identify significant prognostic and predictive factors. METHODS: We identified all HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab at the Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre (SOCC) from 1999 to 2013 through the Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) Registry (n = 256) and selected patients with available pathology reports (n = 154)...
March 8, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Kathryn B Moore, Mary A Logan, Issam Al Diri, Jacqueline M Roberts, Michael Steele, Monica L Vetter
Neural basic helix-loop helix (bHLH) transcription factors promote progenitor cell differentiation by activation of downstream target genes that coordinate neuronal differentiation. Here we characterize a neural bHLH target gene in Xenopus laevis, vexin (vxn; previously sbt1), that is homologous to human c8orf46 and is conserved across vertebrate species. C8orf46 has been implicated in cancer progression, but its function is unknown. Vxn is transiently expressed in differentiating progenitors in the developing central nervous system (CNS), and is required for neurogenesis in the neural plate and retina...
March 5, 2018: Developmental Biology
Caroline Gee, Jervoise Andreyev, Ann Muls
This article explores the transition from a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) towards developing advanced clinical practice skills within a gastrointestinal consequences of cancer clinic. It presents data on the first 50 patients assessed by the CNS from a prospective service evaluation, demonstrating how this informed the nurse's future learning. There is high demand for advanced clinical practice skills to address unmet health needs and improve the quality, efficiency, and sustainability of healthcare services...
March 8, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
L Holmes, P Chavan, T Blake, K Dabney
BACKGROUND: While survival in overall pediatric malignancy has improved during recent decades, brain/central nervous system (CNS) tumors has not demonstrated comparable survival advantage. Incidence and mortality data in this malignancy continue to illustrate race and sex differences; however, there are few data in the pediatric setting. This study sought to characterize brain/CNS tumors by socio-demographic and assess racial and sex variances in both cumulative incidence and mortality...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Anna Kovalchuk, Lilit Nersisyan, Rupasri Mandal, David Wishart, Maria Mancini, David Sidransky, Bryan Kolb, Olga Kovalchuk
Cancer survivors experience numerous treatment side effects that negatively affect their quality of life. Cognitive side effects are especially insidious, as they affect memory, cognition, and learning. Neurocognitive deficits occur prior to cancer treatment, arising even before cancer diagnosis, and we refer to them as "tumor brain." Metabolomics is a new area of research that focuses on metabolome profiles and provides important mechanistic insights into various human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Wen-Tsung Huang, Na-Mi Lu, Wen-Yuan Hsu, Shih-En Chang, Alex Atkins, Rui Mei, Manana Javey
Brain metastases are the most common neurological complications of adult cancers, accounting for more than half of brain tumors. The incidence of brain metastases may be increasing due to improved detection of small lesions by advanced imaging technologies. Given the fast evolution of targeted and immunotherapy regimens, it is essential to serially assess brain malignancies during the disease course for disease monitoring and tailoring of the therapeutic management. For such serial and repetitive assessment, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could be the biological fluid of choice to supplement cytology examination for the presence or absence of CNS malignancy, as well as provide extensive information on tumor mutational profile for personalization of treatment...
January 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
Fangjie Shao, Chong Liu
High-grade glioma, particularly, glioblastoma, is the most aggressive cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Due to its heterogeneous nature, glioblastoma almost inevitably relapses after surgical resection and radio-/chemotherapy, and is thus highly lethal and associated with a dismal prognosis. Identifying the cell of origin has been considered an important aspect in understanding tumor heterogeneity, thereby holding great promise in designing novel therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma. Taking advantage of genetic lineage-tracing techniques, performed mainly on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), multiple cell types in the CNS have been suggested as potential cells of origin for glioblastoma, among which adult neural stem cells (NSCs) and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are the major candidates...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Ida M Ki Moore, Kari M Koerner, Patricia M Gundy, David W Montgomery, Kathleen C Insel, Lynnette L Harris, Olga A Taylor, Marilyn J Hockenberry
Aggressive central nervous system (CNS)-directed treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most prevalent cancer among children and adolescents, prevents metastasis of leukemia cells into the brain. Up to 60% of survivors experience cognitive problems, but knowledge about risk factors for and mechanisms of neurologic injury is lacking. Objectives of the present study were to (1) quantify changes in oxidant defense and apoptosis over the course of ALL therapy and (2) elucidate risk factors for long-term cognitive problems...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Zhao-Peng Dong, Qian Wang, Zhen-Jie Zhang, Michael J Carr, Dong Li, Wei-Feng Shi
Globally, coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) has been continuously isolated and evidence suggests an association with the development of pancreatitis and type I diabetes. In addition, CV-B4 is also associated with myocarditis and severe central nervous system (CNS) complications, which remain poorly studied and understood. In the present study, we established an Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mouse model of CV-B4 infection and examined whether CV-B4 infection resulted in a predisposition to myocarditis and CNS infection...
January 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Claudio Martín, Andrés F Cardona, Zyanya Lucia Zatarain-Barrón, Alejandro Ruiz-Patiño, Omar Castillo, George Oblitas, Luis Corrales, Lorena Lupinacci, María Angelina Pérez, Leonardo Rojas, Lisde González, Luis Chirinos, Carlos Ortíz, Mauricio Lema, Carlos Vargas, Carmen Puparelli, Hernán Carranza, Jorge Otero, Oscar Arrieta
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the real-world characteristics, treatment sequencing, and outcomes among Hispanic patients with locally advanced/metastatic ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with crizotinib. METHODS: A retrospective patient review was conducted for several centers in Latin America. Clinicians identified ALK-positive NSCLC patients who received crizotinib and reported their clinical characteristics, treatments, and survival. Overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) were described...
March 6, 2018: Oncology
Nivya James, K Ramanathan
Targeting ErbB family of receptors is an important therapeutic option, because of its essential role in the broad spectrum of human cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, in the present work, considerable effort has been made to develop an inhibitor against HER family proteins, by combining the use of pharmacophore modelling, docking scoring functions, and ADME property analysis. Initially, a five-point pharmacophore model was developed using known HER family inhibitors. The generated model was then used as a query to screen a total of 468,880 compounds of three databases namely ZINC, ASINEX, and DrugBank...
March 6, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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