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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912911/hesperidin-ameliorates-immunological-outcome-and-reduces-neuroinflammation-in-the-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Dariush Haghmorad, Mohammad Bagher Mahmoudi, Zohreh Salehipour, Zoleikha Jalayer, Amir Abbas Momtazi Brojeni, Maryam Rastin, Parviz Kokhaei, Mahmoud Mahmoudi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most abundant central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory disease, which is due to the reaction of auto reactive T cells with own myelin proteins, leading to physical disorder and paralysis among people suffering the disease. Hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside found abundantly in citrus fruits possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties including potential anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. This study was designed to reveal the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the effect of hesperidin on MS alleviation...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911673/genetic-syndromes-associated-with-central-nervous-system-tumors
#2
Charmi Vijapura, Ehab Saad Aldin, Aristides A Capizzano, Bruno Policeni, Yutaka Sato, Toshio Moritani
Several genetic tumor syndromes have associated central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms. The spectrum of syndromes that have intracranial tumor manifestations includes ataxia telangiectasia, Cowden syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary non-polyposis-related colorectal cancer, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, tuberous sclerosis complex, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and Turcot syndrome. Many of these disorders are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, and identification of the associated genetic defects has led to improved understanding of the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis, helping pave the way to the emergence of molecularly targeted therapeutics...
December 2, 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884585/the-successful-treatment-of-5-fluorouracil-5-fu-overdose-in-a-patient-with-malignancy-and-hiv-aids-with-uridine-triacetate
#3
Cynthia Santos, Brent W Morgan, Robert J Geller
According to the NIH, about 275000 patients receive treatment with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and more than 1300 die from 5-FU toxicity every year from life-threatening myelosuppression, gastrointestinal complications, and neurotoxicity. Immunocompromised persons are at higher risk of developing toxicity. Recently uridine triacetate (Vistagard®) has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the only specific antidote available for 5-FU poisoning. In a clinical trial (n=135), 96% of patients with 5-FU toxicity recovered after treatment, where as in a historical control group only 10% survived...
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879019/screening-for-alk-abnormalities-in-central-nervous-system-metastases-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-alk-abnormalities-in-cns-metastases-of-nsclc
#4
Marcin Nicoś, Bożena Jarosz, Paweł Krawczyk, Kamila Wojas-Krawczyk, Tomasz Kucharczyk, Marek Sawicki, Juliusz Pankowski, Tomasz Trojanowski, Janusz Milanowski
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement was reported in 3-7% of primary non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its presence is commonly associated with adenocarcinoma (AD) type and non-smoking history. ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as crizotinib, alectinib and ceritinib showed efficiency in patients with primary NSCLC harboring ALK gene rearrangement. Moreover, response to ALK TKIs was observed in central nervous system (CNS) metastatic lesions of NSCLC. However, there are no reports concerning the frequency of ALK rearrangement in CNS metastases...
November 23, 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878432/histopathologic-diagnosis-of-brain-metastases-current-trends-in-management-and-future-considerations
#5
Lien Bekaert, Evelyne Emery, Guénaëlle Levallet, Emmanuèle Lechapt-Zalcman
Confronted with brain metastases (BM), pathologists aim to rule out a primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor and to identify or verify the primary tumor site to guide the clinician to specific therapies. Apart from morphological features, ancillary immunohistochemical analysis is the most effective tool for characterizing a metastatic neoplasm of unknown origin. A limited array of antibodies is used, taking into account relevant clinical information and the known brain tropism of lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma...
November 22, 2016: Brain Tumor Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874063/cns-cancer-tracing-stem-cells-in-oligodendroglioma
#6
Diana Romero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872609/panitumumab-associated-encephalopathy-after-accidental-intra-arterial-application-through-dislocated-central-venous-access-device
#7
Slaven Pikija, Georg Pilz, Gerald Gschwandtner, Cornelia Rösler, Konstantin Schlick, Richard Greil, Johann Sellner
Acute central nervous system (CNS) toxicity and immune-related side effects are increasingly recognized with the use of monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy. Here, we report a patient who developed of acute-onset encephalopathy and coma, which began shortly after administration of panitumumab for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Echocardiography revealed that the drug had been infused into the left cardiac ventricle via a dislocated central venous line. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging disclosed multiple cortical hyperintensities, which were preferentially located in the frontal lobes...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866095/continuing-egfr-inhibition-beyond-progression-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Timothy A Yap, Aislinn Macklin-Doherty, Sanjay Popat
The majority of patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) respond to first-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but nearly all inevitably acquire resistance and develop disease progression. Conventional practice would be to switch treatments to second-line therapy. However, continuing TKIs beyond progression is becoming increasingly commonplace in patients with indolent, small volume asymptomatic growth, who may potentially continue to derive ongoing clinical benefit and to avoid a 'withdrawal tumour flare'...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863201/pooled-analysis-of-cns-response-to-alectinib-in-two-studies-of-pretreated-patients-with-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
Shirish M Gadgeel, Alice T Shaw, Ramaswamy Govindan, Leena Gandhi, Mark A Socinski, D Ross Camidge, Luigi De Petris, Dong-Wan Kim, Alberto Chiappori, Denis L Moro-Sibilot, Michael Duruisseaux, Lucio Crino, Tommaso De Pas, Eric Dansin, Antje Tessmer, James Chih-Hsin Yang, Ji-Youn Han, Walter Bordogna, Sophie Golding, Ali Zeaiter, Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou
Purpose Alectinib has shown activity in the CNS in phase I and II studies. To further evaluate this activity, we pooled efficacy and safety data from two single-arm phase II studies (NP28761 and NP28673; ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01871805 and NCT01801111, respectively) in patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods Both studies included patients with ALK-positive NSCLC who had previously received crizotinib; all patients received alectinib 600 mg twice per day...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856495/clinical-outcomes-of-a-cohort-of-patients-with-central-nervous-system-metastases-from-thyroid-cancer
#10
Joana Simões-Pereira, Daniel Macedo, Maria João Bugalho
INTRODUCTION: Metastases to central nervous system (M1-CNS) are rarely reported in thyroid cancer (TC) patients. We aimed to characterize patients with M1-CNS from TC followed in our department. METHODS: Review of the medical records of 27 patients with TC-related M1-CNS. RESULTS: Mean age at TC diagnosis was 56.9 ± 19.1 years. Papillary TC (55.6%) was the commonest histological type, followed by poorly differentiated (18.5%), medullary (11...
November 2016: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851909/systemic-cisplatin-exposure-during-infancy-and-adolescence-causes-impaired-cognitive-function-in-adulthood
#11
Tami John, Naomi Lomeli, Daniela A Bota
Cancer survivors diagnosed during infancy and adolescence may be at risk for chemotherapy-related cognitive impairments (CRCI), however the effects of pediatric chemotherapy treatment on adulthood cognitive function are not well understood. Impairments in memory, attention and executive function affect 15-50% of childhood leukemia survivors related to methotrexate exposure. Systemic cisplatin is used to treat a variety of childhood and adult cancers, yet the risk and extent of cognitive impairment due to platinum-based chemotherapy in pediatric patients is unknown...
November 13, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842503/the-validity-of-pediatric-cancer-diagnoses-in-a-population-based-general-cancer-registry-in-ontario-canada
#12
Sumit Gupta, Jason D Pole
BACKGROUND: Data from population-based cancer registries are increasingly used to conduct research and guide policy. However, few validation studies of cancer registry data have been conducted, particularly among children. We therefore aimed to determine the validity of pediatric diagnostic data in the Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR). METHODS: All children diagnosed with any malignancy between 2000-2011 in Ontario, Canada were identified through the Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario Networked Information System (POGONIS), a pediatric cancer registry actively maintained by trained data managers, and linked to the OCR...
November 14, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836716/activity-and-safety-of-brigatinib-in-alk-rearranged-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-other-malignancies-a-single-arm-open-label-phase-1-2-trial
#13
Scott N Gettinger, Lyudmila A Bazhenova, Corey J Langer, Ravi Salgia, Kathryn A Gold, Rafael Rosell, Alice T Shaw, Glen J Weiss, Meera Tugnait, Narayana I Narasimhan, David J Dorer, David Kerstein, Victor M Rivera, Timothy Clackson, Frank G Haluska, David Ross Camidge
BACKGROUND: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements are oncogenic drivers of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Brigatinib (AP26113) is an investigational ALK inhibitor with potent preclinical activity against ALK mutants resistant to crizotinib and other ALK inhibitors. We aimed to assess brigatinib in patients with advanced malignancies, particularly ALK-rearranged NSCLC. METHODS: In this ongoing, single-arm, open-label, phase 1/2 trial, we recruited patients from nine academic hospitals or cancer centres in the USA and Spain...
November 7, 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832352/pattern-of-metastatic-spread-and-subcategories-of-breast-cancer
#14
Catharina Bartmann, Manfred Wischnewsky, Tanja Stüber, Roland Stein, Mathias Krockenberger, Sebastian Häusler, Wolfgang Janni, Rolf Kreienberg, Maria Blettner, Lukas Schwentner, Achim Wöckel, Joachim Diessner
PURPOSE: The development of metastases is the most aggressive attribute of breast cancer. In this retrospective multicenter study, we evaluated if and how the different pathological breast cancer subtypes influence the spreading of tumor cells, the development of metastasis and the survival of breast cancer patients. METHODS: This retrospective German multicenter study is based on the BRENDA collective including 9625 breast cancer patients treated in the adjuvant setting...
November 10, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830766/decreased-postural-control-in-adult-survivors-of-childhood-cancer-treated-with-chemotherapy
#15
Einar-Jón Einarsson, Mitesh Patel, Hannes Petersen, Thomas Wiebe, Per-Anders Fransson, Måns Magnusson, Christian Moëll
The objective of cancer treatment is to secure survival. However, as chemotherapeutic agents can affect the central and peripheral nervous systems, patients must undergo a process of central compensation. We explored the effectiveness of this compensation process by measuring postural behaviour in adult survivors of childhood cancer treated with chemotherapy (CTS). We recruited sixteen adults treated with chemotherapy in childhood for malignant solid (non-CNS) tumours and 25 healthy age-matched controls. Subjects performed posturography with eyes open and closed during quiet and perturbed standing...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830494/prdm5-expression-and-essential-role-after-acute-spinal-cord-injury-in-adult-rat
#16
Jie Liu, Weijie Wu, Jie Hao, Mingchen Yu, Jin Liu, Xinlei Chen, Rong Qian, Feng Zhang
PR (PRDI-BF1 and RIZ) domain proteins (PRDM) are a subfamily of the kruppel-like zinc finger gene products that modulate cellular processes such as differentiation, cell growth and apoptosis. PRDM5 is a recently identified family member that functions as a transcriptional repressor and behaves as a putative tumor suppressor in different types of cancer. However, the expression and function of PRDM5 in spinal cord injury (SCI) are still unknown. In the present study, we have performed an acute SCI model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of PRDM5 expression in the spinal cord...
December 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821713/quantitative-analyses-of-synergistic-responses-between-cannabidiol-and-dna-damaging-agents-on-the-proliferation-and-viability-of-glioblastoma-and-neural-progenitor-cells-in-culture
#17
Liting Deng, Lindsay Ng, Tatsuya Ozawa, Nephi Stella
Evidence suggests that the non-psychotropic cannabis-derived compound, cannabidiol (CBD), has anti-neoplastic activity in multiple types of cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). DNA-damaging agents remain the main standard of care treatment available for patients diagnosed with GBM. Here we studied the anti-proliferative and cell-killing activity of CBD alone and in combination with DNA-damaging agents (temozolomide, carmustine or cisplatin) in several human GBM cell lines and in mouse primary GBM cells in cultures...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816365/patterns-of-care-in-proton-radiation-therapy-for-pediatric-central-nervous-system-malignancies
#18
Bismarck Odei, Jonathan E Frandsen, Dustin Boothe, Ralph P Ermoian, Matthew M Poppe
PURPOSE: Proton beam therapy (PBT) potentially allows for improved sparing of normal tissues, hopefully leading to decreased late side effects in children. Using a national registry, we sought to perform a patterns-of-care analysis for children receiving PBT for primary malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Using the National Cancer Data Base, we identified pediatric patients with primary CNS malignancies that were diagnosed between 2004 and 2012...
September 17, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815391/quantitative-fluorescent-microscopy-to-measure-vascular-pore-sizes-in-primary-and-metastatic-brain-tumors
#19
Rajendar K Mittapalli, Chris E Adkins, Kaci A Bohn, Afroz S Mohammad, Julie A Lockman, Paul R Lockman
Tumors residing in the central nervous system (CNS) compromise the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via increased vascular permeability, with the magnitude of changes dependent on tumor type and location. Current studies determine penetrability of a cancer therapeutic by administering progressively larger molecules until cutoff is observed where little to no tumor accumulation occurs. However, decades-old experimental work and mathematical modeling document methods to calculate both the size of the vascular opening (pore) with solute permeability values...
November 4, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812743/glomerular-hyperfiltration-in-children-with-cancer-prevalence-and-a-hypothesis
#20
Neha S Kwatra, Holly J Meany, Sunil J Ghelani, David Zahavi, Nayan Pandya, Massoud Majd
BACKGROUND: Glomerular hyperfiltration has recently been reported in children with malignancies and has been attributed to increased solute from breakdown of tumor tissues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of hyperfiltration in the pediatric oncology population and explore its pathophysiological mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tc-99 m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) examinations (437 studies) and medical records of 177 patients <21 years of age diagnosed with a malignancy between January 2005 and October 2013 were retrospectively reviewed...
November 3, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
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