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Culturally competent

Sailendra Singh, Pallavi Pandey, Sumit Ghosh, Suchitra Banerjee
Andrographolide (AD) is the time-honoured pharmacologically active constituent of the traditionally renowned medicinal plant-Andrographis paniculata. Advancements in the target-oriented drug discovery process have further unravelled the immense therapeutic credibility of another unique molecule-neoandrographolide (NAD). The escalated market demand of these anti-cancer diterpenes is increasingly facing unrelenting hurdles of demand and supply disparity, attributable to their limited yield. Callus and adventitious root cultures were generated to explore their biosynthetic potentials which first time revealed NAD production along with AD...
March 20, 2018: Protoplasma
Ariana C Villarosa, Amy R Villarosa, Yenna Salamonson, Lucie M Ramjan, Mariana S Sousa, Ravi Srinivas, Nathan Jones, Ajesh George
BACKGROUND: Early childhood caries is the most common chronic childhood disease worldwide. Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children are twice more likely to develop dental decay, and contributing factors include poor maternal oral health and underutilisation of dental services. Globally, Indigenous health workers are in a unique position to deliver culturally competent oral healthcare because they have a contextual understanding of the needs of the community. METHODS: This scoping review aimed to identify the role of Indigenous health workers in promoting maternal oral health globally...
March 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Sara Javanparast, Toby Freeman, Fran Baum, Ronald Labonté, Anna Ziersch, Tamara Mackean, Richard Reed, David Sanders
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, there are competing norms driving health system changes and reorganisation. One such norm is that of health systems' responsibilities for population health as distinct from a focus on clinical services. In this paper we report on a case study of population health planning in Australian primary health care (PHC) organisations (Medicare Locals, 2011-2015). Drawing on institutional theory, we describe how institutional forces, ideas and actors shaped such planning...
March 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
J Burgess-Allen, M Braithwaite, S Whiston
Public health competencies being illustrated; Planning, delivery and evaluation of health improvement programmes, addressing health inequalities, awareness of cultural impacts on health and wellbeing. Smile4Life, a schools-based, evidence informed oral health promotion programme, was designed to address high levels of oral health need and inequality within a UK City. The aims of the pilot described were to test the feasibility of delivering the programme (supervised tooth-brushing, take home kits, educational resources and application of fluoride varnish) in six culturally diverse schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, and evaluate its impact on caries prevalence...
March 20, 2018: Community Dental Health
Steven Visser, Henk F van der Molen, Judith K Sluiter, Monique Hw Frings-Dresen
To gain insight in the process of applying two guidance strategies -face-to-face (F2F) or e-guidance strategy (EC) - of a Participatory Ergonomics (PE) intervention and whether differences between these guidance strategies occur, 12 construction companies were randomly assigned to a strategy. The process evaluation contained reach, dose delivered, dose received, precision, competence, satisfaction and behavioural change of individual workers. Data were assessed by logbooks, and questionnaires and interviews at baseline and/or after six months...
March 20, 2018: Ergonomics
T Tiwari, L Jamieson, J Broughton, H P Lawrence, T S Batliner, R Arantes, J Albino
Indigenous populations around the world experience a disproportionate burden in terms of oral diseases and conditions. These inequalities are likely due to a complex web of social determinants that includes poverty, historical consequences of colonialism, social exclusion, government policies of assimilation, cultural annihilation, and racism in all its forms (societal, institutional). Despite documented oral health disparities, prevention interventions have been scarce in Indigenous communities. This review describes oral health interventions and their outcomes conducted for Indigenous populations of the United States, Canada, Brazil, Australia, and New Zealand...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Federica Cavalera, Mario Zanoni, Valeria Merico, Thi Thu Hien Bui, Martina Belli, Lorenzo Fassina, Silvia Garagna, Maurizio Zuccotti
Infertility clinics would benefit from the ability to select developmentally competent vs. incompetent oocytes using non-invasive procedures, thus improving the overall pregnancy outcome. We recently developed a classification method based on microscopic live observations of mouse oocytes during their in vitro maturation from the germinal vesicle (GV) to the metaphase II stage, followed by the analysis of the cytoplasmic movements occurring during this time-lapse period. Here, we present detailed protocols of this procedure...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ye Jianwen, Hu Dingkai, Che Xuemei, Jiang Xiaoran, Li Teng, Chen Jinchun, Zhang Haoqian, Chen Guo-Qiang
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] is one of the most promising biomaterials expected to be used in a wide range of scenarios. However, its large-scale production is still hindered by the high cost. Here we report the engineering of Halomonas bluephagenesis as a low-cost platform for non-sterile and continuous fermentative production of P(3HB-co-4HB) from glucose. Two interrelated 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) biosynthesis pathways were constructed to guarantee 4HB monomer supply for P(3HB-co-4HB) synthesis by working in concert with 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) pathway...
March 15, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Kristin J Effland, Karen Hays
Increasing the midwifery workforce requires that aspiring midwives complete education and training, but structural racism and microaggressions impact the lives of underrepresented midwifery students and apprentices, adding stressors and disparities to the usual demanding educational challenges. In order to be resilient, students rely on preceptors, faculty, administrators and institutions to promote equity. Equity-focused learning environments improve student experiences and success rates, and better prepare all students to provide culturally humble and sensitive care to diverse childbearing persons and other essential competencies outlined by the International Confederation of Midwives...
February 15, 2018: Midwifery
Smita Das, Roger B Peck, Rebecca Barney, Ihn Kyung Jang, Maria Kahn, Meilin Zhu, Gonzalo J Domingo
BACKGROUND: As malaria endemic countries shift from control to elimination, the proportion of low density Plasmodium falciparum infections increases. Current field diagnostic tools, such as microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDT), with detection limits of approximately 100-200 parasites/µL (p/µL) and 800-1000 pg/mL histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), respectively, are unable to detect these infections. A novel ultra-sensitive HRP2-based Alere™ Malaria Ag P.f RDT (uRDT) was evaluated in laboratory conditions to define the test's performance against recombinant HRP2 and native cultured parasites...
March 17, 2018: Malaria Journal
Chen Geng, Tengfei Zhao, Chunxian Yang, Qiaozhuo Zhang, Feng Bai, Junlan Zeng, Fangyuan Zhang, Xiaoqiang Liu, Xiaozhong Lan, Min Chen, Zhihua Liao
N-methylputrescine is the precursor of nicotine and pharmaceutical tropane alkaloids such as hyoscyamine. Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) catalyzes the N-methylation of putrescine to form N-methylputrescine. While the role of PMT in nicotine biosynthesis is clear, knowledge of PMT in the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids (TAs) and the regulation of polyamines remains limited. We characterized a PMT gene from Hyoscyamus niger, designated HnPMT that was specifically expressed in roots, especially in the secondary roots and dramatically induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA)...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Shana Harris, Rebecca A Weiss
In the United States, competency to stand trial (CST) evaluations ensure that criminal defendants are capable of participating in their defenses, thus ensuring an important legal right. However, some research has suggested that the CST process may be impacted by legally irrelevant factors such as a defendant's race and cultural background. However, the majority of researchers examined factors that are predictive of CST recommendations and decisions. Few studies have focused on potential racial discrepancies in attorney referrals for CST evaluations and whether they are exacerbated by professional experience...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Stephane M Shepherd, Cynthia Willis-Esqueda, Yin Paradies, Diane Sivasubramaniam, Juanita Sherwood, Teresa Brockie
BACKGROUND: Disparities across a number of health indicators between the general population and particular racial and cultural minority groups including African Americans, Native Americans and Latino/a Americans have been well documented. Some evidence suggests that particular groups may receive poorer standards of care due to biased beliefs or attitudes held by health professionals. Less research has been conducted in specifically non-urban areas with smaller minority populations. METHODS: This study explored the self-reported health care experiences for 117 racial and cultural minority Americans residing in a Mid-Western jurisdiction...
March 16, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Cheng-Chen Pan, Christophe Maïano, Alexandre J S Morin
BACKGROUND: Little research has looked at the associations between sex, weight status and culture, and the physical self-perceptions and body dissatisfaction of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) involved in Special Olympics (SO) sports. AIMS: To examine sex- (male vs female), weight status- (non-overweight/obese vs. overweight/obese), and culture-based (North American vs. Asian) differences in physical self-concept and body dissatisfaction among SO athletes...
March 12, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Kenzie A Cameron, Elaine R Cohen, Joelle R Hertz, Diane B Wayne, Debi Mitra, Jeffrey H Barsuk
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to identify perceived barriers and facilitators to central venous catheter (CVC) insertion among healthcare providers and to understand the extent to which an existing Simulation-Based Mastery Learning (SBML) program may address barriers and leverage facilitators. METHODS: Providers participating in a CVC insertion SBML train-the-trainer program, in addition to intensive care unit nurse managers, were purposively sampled from Veterans Administration Medical Centers located in geographically diverse areas...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Cara R Dunkley, Lori A Brotto
BDSM is an overlapping acronym referring to the practices of Bondage and Discipline, Dominance and Submission, and Sadism and Masochism. This paper reviews the psychological literature on BDSM practitioners, and discusses issues concerning BDSM that are relevant to clinicians and sexual health care providers. The literature concerning the psychological health of BDSM practitioners and clinical issues in treating BDSM practitioners was exhaustively reviewed. BDSM practitioners differ minimally from the general population in terms of psychopathology...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
Phillip Joy, Matthew Numer
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer people (LGBTQ) have unique concerns regarding their nutritional health while experiencing disparities within the Canadian healthcare system. Dietetic training programs often do not provide adequate knowledge or skills to students to be competent in meeting the needs of this population. Drawing from literature from other health programs, this paper outlines key strategies to the integration of LGBTQ curriculum into dietetic training programs. LGBTQ training can help students gain cultural competencies, knowledge and understanding of the LGBTQ communities, and the nutritional concerns within them...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Pamela Fergusson, Nicole Greenspan, Lukas Maitland, Rémy Huberdeau
Transgender people are an important group for whom access to healthcare is often problematic. Dietitians need to be aware of key issues in transgender health to provide culturally competent clinical nutritional care. This article serves as a primer, clarifying key terms and concepts, exploring the impact of stigma and discrimination on health and nutrition for people from transgender communities, and offering practical advice for nutritional and other related issues. Education for dietitians both pre- and postqualification is an important part of improving care and building skills and awareness of cultural humility...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Folakemi T Odedina, R R Reams, E Kaninjing, J Nguyen, B Mochona, D E Lyon, N Askins, L S Behar-Horenstein
With the growing burden of cancer in minority populations and limited progress in eliminating cancer disparities, it has become important to develop a diverse oncology workforce in basic, clinical, and behavioral research who will address cancer disparities and increase the participation of minority populations in clinical trials. To address the lack of well-trained underrepresented minority cancer scientists in Florida, the University of Florida collaborated with Florida A&M University in 2012 to establish the Florida Prostate Cancer Research Training Opportunities for Outstanding Leaders (ReTOOL) Program...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Lin Cao, Jizheng Chen, Yaxin Wang, Yuting Yang, Jie Qing, Zihe Rao, Xinwen Chen, Zhiyong Lou
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. Although several HCV protease/polymerase inhibitors were recently approved by U.S. FDA, the combination of antivirals targeting multiple processes of HCV lifecycle would optimize anti-HCV therapy and against potential drug-resistance. Viral entry is an essential target step for antiviral development, but FDA-approved HCV entry inhibitor remains exclusive. Here we identify serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2A R) is a HCV entry factor amendable to therapeutic intervention by a chemical biology strategy...
March 14, 2018: Protein & Cell
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