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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441413/langerhans-cells-prevent-subbasal-nerve-damage-and-upregulate-neurotrophic-factors-in-dry-eye-disease
#1
Eun Young Choi, Hyun Goo Kang, Chul Hee Lee, Areum Yeo, Hye Mi Noh, Nayeong Gu, Myoung Joon Kim, Jong Suk Song, Hyeon Chang Kim, Hyung Keun Lee
The functional role of Langerhans cells (LCs) in ocular surface inflammation and nerve damage in dry eye (DE) disease has yet to be determined. This study was performed to investigate this relationship through both clinical study on DE patients and in vivo mouse models with induced DE disease. In a cross-sectional case-control study (54 eyes of DE patients; 34 eyes of control patients), average cell density, area, and process length of LCs were measured using confocal microscopy. Data were analyzed to determine whether changes in LCs are correlated with subbasal nerve plexus (SNP) parameters (nerve density, beading, and tortuosity)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440477/synchronized-dual-pulse-gastric-electrical-stimulation-improves-gastric-emptying-and-activates-enteric-glial-cells-via-upregulation-of-gfap-and-s100b-with-different-courses-of-subdiaphragmatic-vagotomy-in-rats
#2
Nian Wang, Shuangning Song, Jie Chen
Previous research and clinical practice have indicated that damage to the vagal nerve may seriously affect gastrointestinal physiological movement behavior. The aim of the current study was to observe the change of gastric motility, as well as enteric glial cells (EGCs) in the stomach with different courses of vagal nerve transection in rats prior to and following synchronized dual pulse gastric electrical stimulation. The gastric emptying rates were measured to assess the gastric motility. The glial markers, containing calcium binding protein (S100B) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and double‑labeling immunofluorescence analysis...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440471/time-dependent-differential-expression-of-long-non-coding-rnas-following-peripheral-nerve-injury
#3
Bin Pan, Heng-Xing Zhou, Yi Liu, Jia-Yin Yan, Yao Wang, Xue Yao, Yan-Qiu Deng, Shu-Yi Chen, Lu Lu, Zhi-Jian Wei, Xiao-Hong Kong, Shi-Qing Feng
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are widely accepted as key players in various biological processes. However, the roles of lncRNA in peripheral nerve regeneration remain completely unknown. Thus, in this study, we performed microarray analysis to measure lncRNA expression in the distal segment of the sciatic nerve at 0, 3, 7 and 14 days following injury. We identified 5,354 lncRNAs that were differentially expressed: 3,788 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between days 0 and 3; 3,314 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between days 0 and 7; and 2,400 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between days 0 and 14...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440265/role-of-jun-amino-terminal-kinase-jnk-in-apoptosis-of-cavernosal-tissue-during-acute-phase-after-cavernosal-nerve-injury
#4
Won Hoon Song, Hwancheol Son, Soo Woong Kim, Jae-Seung Paick, Min Chul Cho
The present study aimed to identify which mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 or Jun amino-terminal kinase [JNK]) was involved in cavernosal apoptosis during the acute phase after cavernosal nerve crush injury (CNCI) in rats to ameliorate apoptosis of cavernosal tissue, such as smooth muscle (SM). A total of twenty 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into two groups: sham surgery (S) and CNCI (I). The I group approximated the clinical situation of men undergoing radical prostatectomy using two 60-second compressions of both CNs with a microsurgical vascular clamp...
April 18, 2017: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439432/posterior-interosseous-nerve-palsy-caused-by-a-ganglion-conservative-treatment-with-ultrasound-guided-needle-aspiration
#5
Yasuhiro Seki
Posterior interosseous nerve palsy caused by a ganglion is not common and most previous patients were treated with excisional surgery. We treated a case conservatively with needle aspiration using ultrasonography, after a nerve conduction study. A 77-year-old man presented with impaired active finger extension of the left metacarpophalangeal joints. The nerve conduction study revealed conduction block of the left radial nerve near the elbow. Ultrasonography demonstrated a hypoechoic mass anterior to the radial neck compressing the posterior interosseous nerve...
March 2017: Journal of Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439223/outer-hair-cell-and-auditory-nerve-function-in-speech-recognition-in-quiet-and-in-background-noise
#6
Richard Hoben, Gifty Easow, Sofia Pevzner, Mark A Parker
The goal of this study was to describe the contribution of outer hair cells (OHCs) and the auditory nerve (AN) to speech understanding in quiet and in the presence of background noise. Fifty-three human subjects with hearing ranging from normal to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were assayed for both speech in quiet (Word Recognition) and speech in noise (QuickSIN test) performance. Their scores were correlated with OHC function as assessed via distortion product otoacoustic emissions, and AN function as measured by amplitude, latency, and threshold of the VIIIth cranial nerve Compound Action Potential (CAP) recorded during electrocochleography (ECochG)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437509/thermal-perception-as-a-key-factor-for-assessing-effects-of-trigeminal-nerve-injury
#7
Hye-Kyoung Kim, Ki-Suk Kim, Mee-Eun Kim
AIMS: To conduct a functional examination using multimodal exploration of a sample of patients with iatrogenic trigeminal nerve injury to understand the underlying mechanisms of neuropathic pain following trigeminal nerve injury. METHODS: Subjective and objective symptoms and responses to thermal and electrical quantitative sensory testing (QST) were evaluated in 85 patients with unilateral trigeminal nerve injury. Objective symptoms were measured by seven clinical sensory tests...
April 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437223/exercise-and-peripheral-nerve-grafts-as-a-strategy-to-promote-regeneration-after-acute-or-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Catherine C Theisen, Rahul Sachdeva, Scarett Austin, Danielle Kulich, Victoria Kranz, John D Houle
Therapeutic interventions after spinal cord injury (SCI) routinely are designed to address multiple aspects of the primary and/or secondary damage that occurs. Exercise has a demonstrated efficacy for post-SCI complications such as cardiovascular dysfunction, neuropathic pain and chronic inflammation yet there is little understanding of the mechanisms by which improvements might result from this non-invasive approach. Here we review several of our observations of molecular and cellular changes within the injured spinal cord following acute or delayed exercise regimens that illustrate the potential for positive effects on neuroprotection and rehabilitation...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434472/tai-chi-with-mental-imagery-theory-improves-soleus-h-reflex-and-nerve-conduction-velocity-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
Abdulrahman Alsubiheen, Jerrold Petrofsky, Noha Daher, Everett Lohman, Edward Balbas, Haneul Lee
OBJECTIVES: Diabetes is a disease that leads to damage to the peripheral nerves which may eventually cause balance instability. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) training combined with mental imagery (MI) on soleus H-reflex and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) of the sural and superficial peroneal nerves in people with diabetes. DESIGNS: Quasi-experimental, one group pretest-posttest design. SETTING: Human Research Laboratory...
April 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434448/gastric-hypomotility-after-second-generation-cryoballoon-ablation-unrecognized-silent-nerve-injury-after-cryoballoon-ablation
#10
Shinsuke Miyazaki, Hiroaki Nakamura, Hiroshi Taniguchi, Hitoshi Hachiya, Takamitsu Takagi, Miyako Igarashi, Takatsugu Kajiyama, Tomonori Watanabe, Takashi Niida, Kenzo Hirao, Yoshito Iesaka
BACKGROUND: Few data are available on gastric hypomotility (GH) after cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation. Also, the use of esophageal temperature monitoring for the prevention of endoscopically detected esophageal lesions (EDELs) is not well established. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate GH and the impact of an esophageal probe on EDELs during second-generation cryoballoon ablation. METHODS: One hundred four patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation undergoing second-generation cryoballoon ablation under conscious sedation followed by esophagogastroscopy were prospectively included...
May 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429852/anti-inflammatory-and-retinal-protective-effects-of-capsaicin-on-ischemia-induced-injuries-through-the-release-of-endogenous-somatostatin
#11
Jun Wang, Wenke Tian, Shuaiwei Wang, Wenqiang Wei, Dongdong Wu, Honggang Wang, Li Wang, Ruisheng Yang, Ailing Ji, Yanzhang Li
The mechanisms regarding the retinal protective and anti-inflammatory effects of capsaicin (CAP) remain unclear. Somatostatin is contained in CAP-sensitive sensory neurons, including nerve terminals, from which it can be released by capsaicin. The present study provides a novel neurohumoral regulatory mechanism for CAP-induced-endogenous somatostatin in a retinal ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) mouse model. CAP (0.5 mg kg(-1) ) was injected subcutaneously 5 min after I/R. A selective somatostatin-depleting agent, cysteamine, was applied subcutaneously 4 hours before the experiment to examine the effects of endogenous somatostatin...
April 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425503/nerve-degeneration-and-regeneration-in-the-cephalopod-mollusc-octopus-vulgaris-the-case-of-the-pallial-nerve
#12
Pamela Imperadore, Sameer B Shah, Helen P Makarenkova, Graziano Fiorito
Regeneration is a process that restores structure and function of tissues damaged by injury or disease. In mammals complete regeneration is often unsuccessful, while most of the low phyla animals can re-grow many parts of their body after amputation. Cephalopod molluscs, and in particular Octopus vulgaris, are well known for their capacity to regenerate their arms and other body parts, including central and peripheral nervous system. To better understand the mechanism of recovery following nerve injury in this species we investigated the process of axon regrowth and nerve regeneration after complete transection of the Octopus pallial nerves...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425487/persimmon-leaves-diospyros-kaki-extract-protects-optic-nerve-crush-induced-retinal-degeneration
#13
Hong Ryul Ahn, Kyung-A Kim, Suk Woo Kang, Joo Young Lee, Tae-Jin Kim, Sang Hoon Jung
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is part of many retinal diseases. Here, we report that the ethanol extract of Diospyros kaki (EEDK) exhibits protective properties against retinal degeneration, both in vitro and in vivo. Upon exposure to cytotoxic compounds, RGC-5 cells showed approximately 40% cell viability versus the control, while pre-treatment with EEDK markedly increased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Further studies revealed that cell survival induced by EEDK was associated with decreased levels of apoptotic proteins, such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, p53, and cleaved caspase-3...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424493/regulation-of-intraocular-pressure-by-microrna-cluster-mir-143-145
#14
Xinyu Li, Fangkun Zhao, Mei Xin, Guorong Li, Coralia Luna, Guigang Li, Qinbo Zhou, Yuguang He, Bo Yu, Eric Olson, Pedro Gonzalez, Shusheng Wang
Glaucoma is a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which causes optic nerve damage and retinal ganglion cell death, is the primary risk factor for blindness in glaucoma patients. IOP is controlled by the balance between aqueous humor secretion from the ciliary body (CB) and its drainage through the trabecular meshwork (TM). How microRNAs (miRs) regulate IOP and glaucoma in vivo is largely unknown. Here we show that miR-143 and miR-145 expression is enriched in the smooth muscle and trabecular meshwork in the eye...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422078/antivenom-for-neuromuscular-paralysis-resulting-from-snake-envenoming
#15
REVIEW
Anjana Silva, Wayne C Hodgson, Geoffrey K Isbister
Antivenom therapy is currently the standard practice for treating neuromuscular dysfunction in snake envenoming. We reviewed the clinical and experimental evidence-base for the efficacy and effectiveness of antivenom in snakebite neurotoxicity. The main site of snake neurotoxins is the neuromuscular junction, and the majority are either: (1) pre-synaptic neurotoxins irreversibly damaging the presynaptic terminal; or (2) post-synaptic neurotoxins that bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Pre-clinical tests of antivenom efficacy for neurotoxicity include rodent lethality tests, which are problematic, and in vitro pharmacological tests such as nerve-muscle preparation studies, that appear to provide more clinically meaningful information...
April 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420964/identification-of-the-spinal-expression-profile-of-non-coding-rnas-involved-in-neuropathic-pain-following-spared-nerve-injury-by-sequence-analysis
#16
Jun Zhou, Qingming Xiong, Hongtao Chen, Chengxiang Yang, Youling Fan
Neuropathic pain (NP) is caused by damage to the nervous system, resulting in aberrant pain, which is associated with gene expression changes in the sensory pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. A non-coding Ribose Nucleic Acid (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein. NcRNAs are involved in many cellular processes, and mutations or imbalances of the repertoire within the body can cause a variety of diseases. Although ncRNAs have recently been shown to play a role in NP pathogenesis, the specific effects of ncRNAs in NP remain largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420434/the-neuroprotective-effects-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-are-dose-dependent-in-tnbs-colitis
#17
Ainsley M Robinson, Ahmed A Rahman, Sarah Miller, Rhian Stavely, Samy Sakkal, Kulmira Nurgali
BACKGROUND: The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is increasing worldwide with patients experiencing severe impacts on their quality of life. It is well accepted that intestinal inflammation associates with extensive damage to the enteric nervous system (ENS), which intrinsically innervates the gastrointestinal tract and regulates all gut functions. Hence, treatments targeting the enteric neurons are plausible for alleviating IBD and associated complications. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are gaining wide recognition as a potential therapy for many diseases due to their immunomodulatory and neuroprotective qualities...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416844/clinical-characteristics-of-neurogenic-dysphagia-in-adult-patients-with-chiari-malformation-type-i
#18
T Yu, J Li, K Wang, Y Ge, A C Jiang, L P Duan, Z Y Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes of swallowing function and associated symptoms in Chiari malformation typeI (CMI) patients with and without dysphagia by the analysis of their clinical and high-resolution manometry (HRM) parameters. METHODS: A total of 42 patients diagnosed with symptomatic CMI without atlantoaxial dislocations which were confirmed by clinical manifestations and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings between January 2010 and July 2015 at Peking University Third Hospital were included in this study...
April 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416828/-application-of-bilateral-direct-anterior-approach-total-hip-arthroplasty-a-report-of-22-cases
#19
J Tang, M Lv, Y X Zhou, J Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the operation technique and the methods to avoid early complications on the learning curve for bilateral direct anterior approach (DAA) total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: We retrospectively studied a series of continued cases with bilateral avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN) or degenerative dysplastic hip and rheumatoid arthritis that were treated by DAA THA in Beijing Jishuitan Hospital. A total of 22 patients with 44 hips were analyzed from June 2014 to August 2016 in this study...
April 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414805/measurements-of-the-parapapillary-atrophy-zones-in-en-face-optical-coherence-tomography-images
#20
Atsuya Miki, Yasushi Ikuno, Robert N Weinreb, Junko Yokoyama, Tomoko Asai, Shinichi Usui, Kohji Nishida
OBJECTIVE: To measure the parapapillary atrophy (PPA) area in en face images obtained with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), and to evaluate its relationship to glaucoma, myopia, and age in non-highly myopic subjects. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty eyes of 30 subjects with open-angle glaucoma (G group) and forty-three eyes of 26 healthy control subjects (C group). Eyes with high myopia (spherical equivalent refractive error ≤ -8 diopters or axial length ≥ 26...
2017: PloS One
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