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Michelle Fleury, Anna C Belkina, Elizabeth A Proctor, Christopher Zammitti, Robert W Simms, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Jennifer E Snyder-Cappione, Robert Lafyatis, Hans Dooms
OBJECTIVE: Immune dysfunction is an important component of the disease process underlying Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), but the mechanisms contributing to altered immune cell function in SSc remain poorly defined. Here, we measured the expression and function of the co-inhibitory receptors (co-IRs) PD-1, TIGIT, TIM-3, and LAG-3 in lymphocyte subsets from the peripheral blood of SSc patients. METHODS: Co-IR expression levels on immune cell subsets were analyzed using a 16-color flow cytometry panel...
December 15, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Russell J Butterfield, Diane M Dunn, Ying Hu, Kory Johnson, Carsten G Bönnemann, Robert B Weiss
OBJECTIVES: The collagen VI related muscular dystrophies (COL6-RD), Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and Bethlem myopathy (BM) are among the most common congenital muscular dystrophies and are characterized by distal joint laxity and a combination of distal and proximal joint contractures. Inheritance can be dominant negative (DN) or recessive depending on the type and location of the mutation. DN mutations allow incorporation of abnormal chains into secreted tetramers and are the most commonly identified mutation type in COL6-RD...
2017: PloS One
Saul S Siller, Himanshu Sharma, Shuai Li, June Yang, Yong Zhang, Michael J Holtzman, Wipawee Winuthayanon, Holly Colognato, Bernadette C Holdener, Feng-Qian Li, Ken-Ichi Takemaru
Multiciliated cells of the airways, brain ventricles, and female reproductive tract provide the motive force for mucociliary clearance, cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and ovum transport. Despite their clear importance to human biology and health, the molecular mechanisms underlying multiciliated cell differentiation are poorly understood. Prior studies implicate the distal appendage/transition fiber protein CEP164 as a central regulator of primary ciliogenesis; however, its role in multiciliogenesis remains unknown...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Genetics
Emily Stapley, Evelyn Sharples, Peter Lachman, Monica Lakhanpaul, Miranda Wolpert, Jessica Deighton
Objectives: To explore paediatric hospital staff members' perceptions of the emerging benefits and challenges of the huddle, a new safety improvement initiative, as well as the barriers and facilitators to its implementation. Design: A qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews to explore staff perspectives and experiences. Setting: Situation Awareness For Everyone (SAFE), a safety improvement programme, was implemented on a sample of National Health Service (NHS) paediatric wards from September 2014 to June 2016...
December 13, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Peter Mendel, Emily K Chen, Harold D Green, Courtney Armstrong, Justin W Timbie, Amii M Kress, Mark W Friedberg, Katherine L Kahn
OBJECTIVE: To understand the process of practice transformation by identifying pathways for attaining patient-centered medical home (PCMH) recognition. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: The CMS Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) Advanced Primary Care Practice Demonstration was designed to help FQHCs achieve NCQA Level 3 PCMH recognition and improve patient outcomes. We used a stratified random sample of 20 (out of 503) participating sites for this analysis. STUDY DESIGN: We developed a conceptual model of structural, cultural, and implementation factors affecting PCMH transformation based on literature and initial qualitative interview themes...
December 15, 2017: Health Services Research
Qi Wang, Jing-Jing Liu, Jin-Ping Si, Yu-Qiu Zhu, Lang Qin, Ju-Ling Zhang
In order to reveal the accumulation trend of polysaccharides in Dendrobium catenatum and determine the effect of sampling time on polysaccharides, D. Catenatum D21 clone was harvested from January to December after culturing for 2 to 5 months in the growth chamber with constant temperature. Polysaccharides were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method and the monosaccharide compositions were analyzed by pre-column derivative-UPLC. The results showed that the content of polysaccharide and its key component mannose was positively correlated with the culture time, but the contents of polysaccharides in all kinds of culture peaked from 5 to 6 months, which were consistent with the trend of field planting...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Mykhaylo Usyk, Christine P Zolnik, Hitesh Patel, Michael H Levi, Robert D Burk
Studies of the human microbiome frequently omit characterization of fungal communities (the mycobiome), which limits our ability to investigate how fungal communities influence human health. The internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the eukaryotic ribosomal cluster has features allowing for wide taxonomic coverage and has been recognized as a suitable barcode region for species-level identification of fungal organisms. We developed custom ITS1 primer sets using iterative alignment refinement. Primer performance was evaluated using in silico testing and experimental testing of fungal cultures and human samples...
November 2017: MSphere
Louisi Souza de Oliveira, Diogo Antonio Tschoeke, Ana Carolina Rubem Magalhães Lopes, Daniela Bueno Sudatti, Pedro Milet Meirelles, Cristiane C Thompson, Renato Crespo Pereira, Fabiano L Thompson
The ability to recognize and respond to the presence of microbes is an essential strategy for seaweeds to survive in the marine environment, but understanding of molecular seaweed-microbe interactions is limited. Laurencia dendroidea clones were inoculated with the marine bacterium Vibrio madracius. The seaweed RNA was sequenced, providing an unprecedentedly high coverage of the transcriptome of Laurencia, and the gene expression levels were compared between control and inoculated samples after 24, 48, and 72 h...
November 2017: MSphere
Changlu Xu, Yanjie Bai, Shaofeng Yang, Huilin Yang, David A Stout, Phong Tran, Lei Yang
The fabrication strategies of three-dimensional porous biomaterials have been extensively studied and well established in the past decades, yet the biocompatibility and versatility in preparing porous architecture still lacks. Herewith, we present a novel and green fabrication technique of 3D porous foams for both soft and hard engineering. By utilizing the gelatinization and retrogradation property of starches, stabilized porous constructs made of various building blocks from living cells to ceramic particles were created for the first time...
December 15, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Chao Xu, Guo-Yan Li, Hua Zhang, Yu-Na Zu, Zhen-Hua Li, Jian-Li Chen
The main objective of the current study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia asiatica together with investigating the antibacterial effects it exerts on several common respiratory infection causing bacteria including Haemophilus influenzae. Its mechanism of action was studied using various state-of-the-art assays like scanning electron microscopy, DNA, RNA and protein leakage assays, growth curve assays etc. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of A. asiatica by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction technology...
December 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Long Wang, Zhenhua Liu, Meng Qiao, Fengning Xiang
A large number of genes are involved in the control of shoot regeneration from in vitro cultured plant material. The abundance of the miR393 was different between regenerable and non-regenerable calli induced from Arabidopsis thaliana explants. The regenerability of root explants derived from p35S:miR393a (the miR393a over-expressing line) was shown here to be poorer than that of the wild type (WT). Also, explants derived from plants engineered to constitutively express MIM393 (a mutated form of miR393) had an enhanced level of shoot regeneration...
January 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Ying Chen, Chow S Lam, Hong Deng, Patrick W Corrigan, Eva Yau
OBJECTIVES: Self-determination is viewed as an important ingredient of successful recovery in psychiatric rehabilitation. The concept of autonomy, a key component of self-determination, may be of less importance in Chinese cultures, whereby an individual's choices may be in conflict with the family's expectations. This study aimed to develop an instrument to measure opinions about self-determination among Chinese consumers and their family members. METHODS: A 27-item questionnaire, the Consumer and Family Decision Making Scale (CFDMS), was constructed to measure consumers' and family members' views of self-determination in various aspects of daily life...
December 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Swatantra Pratap Singh, Yilun Li, Jibo Zhang, James M Tour, Christopher J Arnusch
Graphene based materials have profoundly impacted research in nanotechnology and this has significantly advanced biomedical, electronics, energy, and environmental applications. Laser-induced graphene (LIG) is made photothermally and has enabled a rapid route for graphene layers on polyimide surfaces. However, polysulfone (PSU), polyethersulfone (PES), and polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) are highly used in numerous applications including medical, energy and water treatment and they are critical components of polymer membranes...
December 14, 2017: ACS Nano
Kuniko Kadoya, Elizabeth T Makino, Lily I Jiang, Michael Bachelor, Robin Chung, Priscilla Tan, Tsing Cheng, Gail K Naughton, Rahul C Mehta
<p>Skin care products may use various active ingredients to support skin rejuvenation including growth factors and other molecules that help to regenerate extracellular matrix (ECM) and promote skin repair. The biological effect of skin care products with a strong anti-aging claim was assessed in gene expression analyses using an in vitro human skin model. Application of products containing human fbroblast-derived growth factors resulted in signifcant upregulation of genes encoding ECM components including collagens and elas-tin...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Robert Bing-You, Saradha Ramesh, Victoria Hayes, Kalli Varaklis, Denham Ward, Maria Blanco
Construct: Medical educators consider feedback a core component of the educational process. Effective feedback allows learners to acquire new skills, knowledge, and attitudes. Learners' perceptions of feedback are an important aspect to assess with valid methods in order to improve the feedback skills of educators and the feedback culture. BACKGROUND: Although guidelines for delivering effective feedback have existed for several decades, medical students and residents often indicate that they receive little feedback...
December 14, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Michael J Peluso, Adam Rodman, Douglas A Mata, Anne T Kellett, Susan van Schalkwyk, Robert M Rohrbaugh
Phenomenon: Global health education (GHE) is expanding to include socioculturally and resource-different settings, with the goal of developing a workforce with members who can promote health equity locally and globally. GHE is also no longer limited to students from high-income countries (HICs). However, it is unknown whether the motivations and experiences of medical students from HICs and from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) participating in GHE clinical electives through institutional partnerships are similar or different...
December 14, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Sheila Cardoso-Silva, Julio Cesar López-Doval, Viviane Moschini-Carlos, Marcelo Pompêo
Reservoirs in urban areas are used for different purposes and are liable to different types of pressures that can cause the loss of chemical and biological quality, hence diminishing their ecological, economic, and cultural benefits. Here, a study of surface water heterogeneity was undertaken at the Guarapiranga urban reservoir (São Paulo, Brazil) in order to improve understanding of the structure and functioning of these ecosystems. Sampling was performed during the dry and rainy seasons at 33 sites. Limnological variables and total contents of the metals cadmium, nickel, lead, and zinc were analyzed...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Dongwei Hou, Zhijian Huang, Shenzheng Zeng, Jian Liu, Dongdong Wei, Xisha Deng, Shaoping Weng, Zhili He, Jianguo He
The effects of environmental factors on water microbial communities have been extensively studied, but little is known about the effects in shrimp cultural enclosure ecosystems. We analyzed 16S rRNA gene amplicons to determine the principal environmental factors that shape the structure and function of microbial communities in shrimp cultural enclosure ecosystems from Guangdong and Hainan provinces, in China. High quality sequences were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% similarity level, generating 659-1,835 OTUs per sample...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Imma Gifuni, Giuseppe Olivieri, Antonino Pollio, Antonio Marzocchella
The recent trends in microalgal cultures are focused on the biorefinery of the biomass components. Some of them are not completely valorised, for example starch. Since there is a wide market for starch products in food and non-food industries, the exploitation of microalgal starch fractions could improve the economic sustainability of microalgae production. In this perspective, the optimization of nitrogen and carbon source uptake for starch accumulation is a critical point for reducing the nitrogen requirement footprint and to increase CO2 capture...
December 10, 2017: New Biotechnology
Sergio Hernández-Sánchez, Emilio José Poveda-Pagán, Yasser Alakhdar, Maria Dolores Hidalgo-Montesinos, César Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, José L Arias-Buría
Study Design Clinical measurement study. Background Achilles tendinopathy is a prevalent sport-related injury. The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaire is a widely-used patient-reported outcome to assess the severity of symptoms for this injury. Objective To adapt the VISA-A questionnaire into Spanish and to assess its psychometric properties. Methods Cross-cultural adaptation was conducted according to recommended guidelines. The Spanish VISA-A (VISA-A-Sp) questionnaire was administered to 210 subjects: 70 healthy students, 70 active at risk subjects (participating in running and jumping) and 70 patients with Achilles tendinopathy diagnosis...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
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