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Culturally component

Soosan Abdollahi, Mohammad Hossein Ghahremani, Neda Setayesh, Nasrin Samadi
The Lactococcus lactis is known as a probiotic bacterium and also as a producer of nisin. Nisin has been approved by related legal agencies to be used as an antimicrobial peptide in food preservation. In fact, the L. lactis is present in different food products along with other micro-organisms especially pathogenic bacteria. So, it is important to predict the behavior of nisin-producer strain in contact with other pathogens. In this regard, nisin gene expression and the level of secreted biologically active form of nisin by L...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Fatemeh Suri, Shahin Yazdani, Elahe Elahi
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Although the etiology of glaucoma is incompletely understood, it is known that the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the trabecular meshwork, oxidative stress, TGFβ signaling pathways, and apoptosis are important components of glaucoma pathogenesis. These components appear to be interrelated, but knowledge on their interactions remains incomplete. Relevant to this gap in knowledge, LTBP2, glaucoma causing gene, may also be related to the mentioned components of glaucoma pathogenesis because of its putative roles in TGFβ signaling and ECM functions...
June 13, 2018: Gene
Muntaha Elayyan, Janet Rankin, M W Chaarani
Background: Healthcare professionals' empathic behaviour is an important component of quality health care. Patients' reports suggest that empathy is often lacking. Specific factors that may facilitate or inhibit empathetic behaviour have not been extensively examined. In Qatar, empathy may be affected by a completely multicultural, multilinguistic setting where healthcare professionals and patients interact. Aim: The purpose of this integrative literature review is to provide the latest evidence on factors that influence the demonstration of empathetic behaviour of nurses and physicians toward patients and to draw general conclusions that increase understanding...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Hiroyuki Kawai, Nozomi Asaoka, Takahito Miyake, Kazuki Nagayasu, Takayuki Nakagawa, Hisashi Shirakawa, Shuji Kaneko
Neurotropin (NTP) is a Japanese analgesic agent for treating neuropathic pain; however, its method of action remains unclear. This study examined the effects of NTP on the activity of small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using whole-cell patch clamp recordings. After 3 days of treatment, NTP decreased current injection-induced firing activity of cultured DRG neurons by raising the current threshold for action potential generation. Additionally, NTP increased the sustained component of voltage-gated potassium (Kv ) channel currents without affecting other K+ currents...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Hejia Hu, Yan Li, Zengfeng Xin, Xiangfeng Zhanga
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of degenerative and chronic diseases of articular joints. Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue, and its primary cellular component is chondrocytes. The main characteristic of OA is non-classic inflammation and cartilage degeneration. Ginkgolide B (GB) is a component of Ginkgo biloba which has diverse bioactivities. OBJECTIVES: The present study uses an in vitro experimental model to detect the underlying anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects of GB and provides a new way for future clinical therapy of OA...
June 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Hanna Wolling, Sarah A Konze, Anne Höfer, Jelena Erdmann, Andreas Pich, Robert Zweigerdt, Falk F R Buettner
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can be differentiated in vitro into cardiomyocytes (CMs) but the molecular mechanisms behind this process are still not fully understood. In particular identification of morphogens remained elusive because the mass spectrometry (MS)-based identification of secreted proteins from cell culture supernatants is impeded by high levels of albumin present in common differentiation media. Thus we established an albumin-free cardiomyogenic differentiation medium and performed secretomics at seven different time points during in vitro differentiation...
June 14, 2018: Proteomics
Megan A Catterton, Austin F Dunn, Rebecca R Pompano
Many in vivo tissue responses begin locally, yet most in vitro stimuli are delivered globally. Microfluidics has a unique ability to provide focal stimulation to tissue samples with precise control over fluid location, flow rate, and composition. However, previous devices utilizing fixed ports beneath the tissue required manual alignment of the tissue over the ports, increasing the risk of mechanical damage. Here we present a novel microfluidic device that allows the user to define the location of fluid delivery to a living tissue slice without manipulating the tissue itself...
June 15, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Katja Sterflinger, Christian Voitl, Ksenija Lopandic, Guadalupe Piñar, Hakim Tafer
Recent investigations have shown that xerophilic fungi may pose a biodeterioration risk by threatening objects of cultural heritage including many types of materials, including wood, paint layers, organic glues or leather and even metal. Historic—and also new built—pipe organs combine all those materials. In this study, halotolerant aspergilli and penicillia with low optimal temperatures were shown to be the most frequent invaders of pipe organs. The fungi form white mycelia on the organic components of the organs with a clear preference for the bolus paint of the wooden pipes, the leather-made hinges of the stop actions and all parts fixed by organic glue...
June 14, 2018: Life
X Liu, Z Zhang, S Pan, S Shang, C Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In periodontitis, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is related to the metabolism of the alveolar bone; further, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) expression is correlated with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression and inflammation severity. The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the interaction between the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and the EMMPRIN/MMPs route in periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Chronic periodontitis and healthy gingival tissues were obtained to detect the expression of Wnt3a, β-catenin, EMMPRIN and MMP-2, 9 by using immunohistochemical analysis...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
Ezgi Özcan, David A Sela
Human milk contains a high concentration of indigestible oligosaccharides, which likely mediated the coevolution of the nursing infant with its gut microbiome. Specifically, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ( B. infantis ) often colonizes the infant gut and utilizes these human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) to enrich their abundance. In this study, the physiology and mechanisms underlying B. infantis utilization of two HMO isomers lacto- N -tetraose (LNT) and lacto- N -neotetraose (LNnT) was investigated in addition to their carbohydrate constituents...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Sabrina Noack, Monika Raab, Yves Matthess, Mourad Sanhaji, Andrea Krämer, Balázs Győrffy, Lars Kaderali, Ahmed El-Balat, Sven Becker, Klaus Strebhardt
The taxanes are effective microtubule-stabilizing chemotherapy drugs that inhibit mitosis, induce apoptosis, and produce regression in a fraction of cancers that arise at many sites including the ovary. Novel therapeutic targets that augment taxane effects are needed to improve clinical chemotherapy response in CCNE1 -amplified high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) cells. In this study, we conducted an siRNA-based kinome screen to identify modulators of mitotic progression in CCNE1 -amplified HGSOC cells that may influence clinical paclitaxel response...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
Zhe Xun, Qian Zhang, Tao Xu, Ning Chen, Feng Chen
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic, idiopathic, relapsing disorders of unclear etiology affecting millions of people worldwide. Aberrant interactions between the human microbiota and immune system in genetically susceptible populations underlie IBD pathogenesis. Despite extensive studies examining the involvement of the gut microbiota in IBD using culture-independent techniques, information is lacking regarding other human microbiome components relevant to IBD. Since accumulated knowledge has underscored the role of the oral microbiota in various systemic diseases, we hypothesized that dissonant oral microbial structure, composition, and function, and different community ecotypes are associated with IBD; and we explored potentially available oral indicators for predicting diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alexander Crits-Christoph, Spencer Diamond, Cristina N Butterfield, Brian C Thomas, Jillian F Banfield
In soil ecosystems, microorganisms produce diverse secondary metabolites such as antibiotics, antifungals and siderophores that mediate communication, competition and interactions with other organisms and the environment1,2 . Most known antibiotics are derived from a few culturable microbial taxa 3 , and the biosynthetic potential of the vast majority of bacteria in soil has rarely been investigated 4 . Here we reconstruct hundreds of near-complete genomes from grassland soil metagenomes and identify microorganisms from previously understudied phyla that encode diverse polyketide and nonribosomal peptide biosynthetic gene clusters that are divergent from well-studied clusters...
June 13, 2018: Nature
Alex Mesoudi, Alex Thornton
In recent years, the phenomenon of cumulative cultural evolution (CCE) has become the focus of major research interest in biology, psychology and anthropology. Some researchers argue that CCE is unique to humans and underlies our extraordinary evolutionary success as a species. Others claim to have found CCE in non-human species. Yet others remain sceptical that CCE is even important for explaining human behavioural diversity and complexity. These debates are hampered by multiple and often ambiguous definitions of CCE...
June 13, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Devika Mehra, Archana Sarkar, Priyanka Sreenath, Jagannath Behera, Sunil Mehra
BACKGROUND: Child marriage is being increasingly recognized globally as a fundamental violation of human rights. Child marriages occur globally in varying degrees across countries and regions. South Asia alone accounted for almost half of the total number of child marriages that have occurred globally. Early marriage can lead to serious ramifications such as school drop-out, early pregnancy, maternal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess impact of a multi-pronged community based intervention on early marriage, early pregnancy and school retention among young people in two states of India...
June 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Ryan J Cornelius, Chong Zhang, Kayla J Erspamer, Larry N Agbor, Curt D Sigmund, Jeffrey D Singer, Chao-Ling Yang, David H Ellison
Familial hyperkalemic hypertension is caused by mutations in WNK kinases, or in proteins that mediate their degradation, KLHL3 and cullin 3 (Cul3). While the mechanisms by which WNK and KLHL3 mutations cause the disease are now clear, the effects of the disease-causing Cul3Δ403-459 mutation remain controversial. Possible mechanisms including hyperneddylation, altered ubiquitin ligase activity, decreased association with the COP9 signalosome (CSN), and increased association with and degradation of KLHL3 have all been postulated...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Xiaoyan Lin, Yingfang Bian, Renxiang Mou, Zhaoyun Cao, Zhenzhen Cao, Zhiwei Zhu, Mingxue Chen
Ustilaginoidea (U.) virens grows on rice grains and leads to significant rice yield losses in most of the major rice producing areas. Meanwhile, ustiloxins produced by U. virens are a serious hazard to human health and ecological safety of farmlands. The other key point is that ustiloxins have been regarded as a novel resource with their potential in the treatment of cancers. There is no better way to extract ustiloxins than from pure culture of the high ustilotoxin-producing strains. U. virens has become a key research organism...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Kyung Hwan Ryu, Min-Gyu Sung, Boeun Kim, Seongmin Heo, Yong Keun Chang, Jay H Lee
Microalgae is a promising biomass source for renewable fuels and chemicals production. To describe microalgal behavior and improve their cultivation, various kinetic models have been proposed. However, previous works have focused on biomass formation and lipids production only, even though carbohydrates and proteins are also important products, not only for understanding the metabolic behavior of microalgae but also for enhancing the economic viability through value-added side products. In this research, a new mathematical model is proposed to explain core biological mechanisms of growth and macromolecules syntheses based on the central metabolism of carbon and nitrogen...
June 13, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Rosa Fregel, Fernando L Méndez, Youssef Bokbot, Dimas Martín-Socas, María D Camalich-Massieu, Jonathan Santana, Jacob Morales, María C Ávila-Arcos, Peter A Underhill, Beth Shapiro, Genevieve Wojcik, Morten Rasmussen, André E R Soares, Joshua Kapp, Alexandra Sockell, Francisco J Rodríguez-Santos, Abdeslam Mikdad, Aioze Trujillo-Mederos, Carlos D Bustamante
The extent to which prehistoric migrations of farmers influenced the genetic pool of western North Africans remains unclear. Archaeological evidence suggests that the Neolithization process may have happened through the adoption of innovations by local Epipaleolithic communities or by demic diffusion from the Eastern Mediterranean shores or Iberia. Here, we present an analysis of individuals' genome sequences from Early and Late Neolithic sites in Morocco and from Early Neolithic individuals from southern Iberia...
June 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Megan Clancy, Ryan McGhan, Jeremy Gitomer, Ana Marie Inocencio, Christina Aldrich, Roberto Iaderosa, Ryan Stevens
PURPOSE: A case report of fatal disseminated cryptococcosis in a patient treated with eculizumab is presented along with a review of literature suggesting a possible etiologic mechanism. SUMMARY: A 23-year-old man with a history of minimal change nephrotic syndrome was hospitalized for acute kidney injury and abdominal pain and swelling. He was found to have disseminated pneumococcal disease, including peritonitis, bacteremia, and pulmonic endocarditis. The patient developed evidence of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, leading to a diagnosis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, and was started on eculizumab...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
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