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Anatomic pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547793/the-anatomy-and-physiology-of-normal-and-abnormal-swallowing-in-oropharyngeal-dysphagia
#1
REVIEW
A Sasegbon, S Hamdy
BACKGROUND: Eating and drinking are enjoyable activities that positively impact on an individual's quality of life. The ability to swallow food and fluid is integral to the process of eating. Swallowing occupies a dual role being both part of the enjoyment of eating and being a critically important utilitarian activity to enable adequate nutrition and hydration. Any impairment to the process of swallowing can negatively affect a person's perception of their quality of life. The process of swallowing is highly complex and involves muscles in the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus...
May 25, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546238/persistent-fetal-lobulation-of-kidney-mimicking-renal-tumour
#2
Syed Muhammad Nazim, Muhibullah Bangash, Basit Salam
Renal pseudotumour is a term coined to describe conditions of renal anatomic variants that simulate focal renal pathology like a tumour on ultrasonography. These include persistent fetal lobulation, hypertrophy of Bertin columns and dromedary humps. We report a case of a 30-year-old nulliparous woman who was managed in gynaecology clinic for menorrhagia and was subsequently referred to us for management of recurrent urinary tract infections. The clinical examination was normal and on ultrasound scan, she was found to have multiple enlarged heterogeneous solid masses in both kidneys with significantly increased vascularity, suspicious for neoplastic lesions...
May 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545380/from-stem-cell-biology-to-the-treatment-of-lung-diseases
#3
Dorina Esendagli, Aysen Gunel-Ozcan
The exposure of lung to noxious agents or gasses leads to injury, which further enhances repair mechanisms by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of lung stem cells. These cells could help preserve the anatomical structure and the function of the organ. Unfortunately in many lung diseases 'this scenario' is changed and injury progresses despite repair mechanisms or conventional treatment. This review summarizes the research on lung stem cells by giving an overview to the biology, function, niches and signaling that play role in lung stem cells and further to the regeneration of the lung...
May 23, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545351/assessing-coronary-blood-flow-physiology-in-the-cardiac-catheterisation-laboratory
#4
Sethumadhavan Vijayan, David S Barmby, Ian R Pearson, Andrew G Davies, Stephen B Wheatcroft, Mohan Sivananthan
Contemporary management of coronary disease focuses on the treatment of stenoses in the major epicardial vessels. However, myocardial blood flow is known to be contingent on a range of factors in addition to the patency of the epicardial vessels. These include anatomical and physiological factors such as the extent of myocardium supplied by the vessel, systemic blood pressure, the natural variation in vascular tone in response to physiological needs which allows for coronary autoregulation and pathological factors such as the presence of downstream obstruction to flow due to disease of the small coronary vessels or myocardium...
May 24, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544801/nanotherapeutic-systems-for-local-treatment-of-brain-tumors
#5
REVIEW
Rami Walid Chakroun, Pengcheng Zhang, Ran Lin, Paula Schiapparelli, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Honggang Cui
Malignant brain tumor, including the most common type glioblastoma, are histologically heterogeneous and invasive tumors known as the most devastating neoplasms with high morbidity and mortality. Despite multimodal treatment including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy, the disease inevitably recurs and is fatal. This lack of curative options has motivated researchers to explore new treatment strategies and to develop new drug delivery systems (DDSs); however, the unique anatomical, physiological, and pathological features of brain tumors greatly limit the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543541/human-schwann-cells-exhibit-long-term-cell-survival-are-not-tumorigenic-and-promote-repair-when-transplanted-into-the-contused-spinal-cord
#6
Johana Bastidas, Gagani Athauda, Gabriela De La Cruz, Wai-Man Chan, Roozbeh Golshani, Yerko Berrocal, Martha Henao, Anil Lalwani, Chikato Mannoji, Mazen Assi, P Anthony Otero, Aisha Khan, Alexander E Marcillo, Michael Norenberg, Allan D Levi, Patrick M Wood, James D Guest, W Dalton Dietrich, Mary Bartlett Bunge, Damien D Pearse
The transplantation of rodent Schwann cells (SCs) provides anatomical and functional restitution in a variety of spinal cord injury (SCI) models, supporting the recent translation of SCs to phase 1 clinical trials for human SCI. Whereas human (Hu)SCs have been examined experimentally in a complete SCI transection paradigm, to date the reported behavior of SCs when transplanted after a clinically relevant contusive SCI has been restricted to the use of rodent SCs. Here, in a xenotransplant, contusive SCI paradigm, the survival, biodistribution, proliferation and tumorgenicity as well as host responses to HuSCs, cultured according to a protocol analogous to that developed for clinical application, were investigated...
May 22, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540832/concerning-ct-features-used-to-select-patients-for-treatment-of-peritoneal-metastases-a-pictoral-essay
#7
Paul H Sugarbaker, Armando Sardi, Gina Brown, Clarisse Dromain, Pascal Rousset, James S Jelinek
BACKGROUND: During the Fifth International Workshop on Peritoneal Surface Malignancy in Milan in 2008, a consensus was reached that contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT) was the principal imaging modality for patients being evaluated for treatment of peritoneal metastases. This fact being accepted, the radiologic criteria for that may exclude patients from a high value cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic perioperative chemotherapy (HIPEC) have not been reliably determined. METHODS: From a consensus of surgeons and radiologists, radiologic images were selected and their determinant radiologic characteristics described...
April 9, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538884/evaluation-of-surgical-margins-according-to-the-histological-type-of-basal-cell-carcinoma
#8
Charles Antonio Pires de Godoy, Alice Lima de Oliveira Neta, Sofia Silveira de Souza Leão, Raul Lima Dantas, Valeska Oliveira Fonseca Carvalho, Samuel Freire da Silva
Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical margin of basal cell carcinoma and correlate this with its histologic subtype. A retrospective analysis of pathology laboratory records from 1990 to 2000 was performed and the following data was collected: age, sex, race, anatomical location, histological type, and state of the excision margins in 1,428 histopathological reports of basal cell carcinoma. Ages ranged from 6 to 99 years, with an average of 57...
March 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538780/anatomic-pulmonary-resection-via-video-assisted-thoracic-surgery-analysis-of-117-cases-at-a-referral-center-in-brazil
#9
Stephan Adamour Soder, Frederico Barth, Fabiola Adelia Perin, José Carlos Felicetti, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo, Spencer Marcantônio Camargo
Objective: To describe our experience with video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) for anatomic pulmonary resection at a referral center for thoracic surgery in Brazil. Methods: All patients who underwent anatomic pulmonary resection by VATS between 2010 and 2015 were included. Clinical and pathological data, as well as postoperative complications, were analyzed. Results: A total of 117 pulmonary resections by VATS were performed, of which 98 were lobectomies and 19 were anatomic segmentectomies...
March 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538362/statistical-analysis-of-organ-morphometric-parameters-and-weights-in-south-iranian-adult-autopsies
#10
Saeid Gholamzadeh, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Mahmoud Montazeri, Marzieh Zareikordshooli, Ghazaleh Sadeghi, Abdorrasoul Malekpour, Sanaz Hoseni, Mohammadreza Bahrani, Razieh Hajatmand
Organ weight is one important indicator to discern normal from abnormal condition in forensic pathology as well as in clinical medicine. The present study aimed to investigate morphometric parameters and organ weights of southern Iranian adults, which can be fundamental sources to be compared to abnormal cases.Morphometric parameters and weights of 6 organs (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, appendix, and brain), which were harvested from 501 southern Iranian adults (385 males and 116 females) during ordinary postmortem examination, were measured...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538019/if-background-lung-abnormalities-do-not-affect-the-presentation-of-spontaneous-pneumothorax-is-lung-resection-always-justified
#11
Rocco Bilancia, Annabel J Sharkey, Amit Paik, David A Waller
BACKGROUND: The suggestion that spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) may result from diffuse porosity rather than discrete anatomic abnormality challenges the practice of targeted bullectomy. We assessed whether underlying pulmonary abnormalities are correlated or could be predicted from the mode of presentation, with potential implications for treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 192 consecutive video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery resections for SP (139 primary, 53 secondary) in 171 patients (115 male, age 36, range, 16 to 81)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537569/inguinal-pain-syndrome-the-influence-of-intraoperative-local-administration-of-0-5-bupivacaine-on-postoperative-pain-control-following-lichtenstein-hernioplasty-a-prospective-case-control-study
#12
Bartosz Cybułka
With current technological advancement and availability of synthetic materials used in inguinal hernia repair, a recurrence after first intervention is not a common and important adverse event. On the other hand, however, some patients complain about chronic pain of the operated site after surgeries using a polypropylene mesh. Many patients are constrained to a prolonged use of analgesics and increased frequency of control visits, which may eventually result in loss of trust in the operator. Every surgical intervention is associated with the risk of immediate or delayed complications...
April 30, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533176/the-mouse-thermoregulatory-system-its-impact-on-translating-biomedical-data-to-humans
#13
REVIEW
Christopher J Gordon
The laboratory mouse has become the predominant test species in biomedical research. The number of papers that translate or extrapolate data from mouse to human has grown exponentially since the year 2000. There are many physiological and anatomical factors to consider in the process of extrapolating data from one species to another. Body temperature is, of course, a critical determinant in extrapolation because it has a direct impact on metabolism, cardiovascular function, drug efficacy, pharmacokinetics of toxins and drugs, and many other effects...
May 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530074/-patellofemoral-instability-anatomy-clinical-evaluation-imaging-and-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Noam Shohat, Dror Lindner, Iftach Beer, Gabriel Agar
Patellofemoral instability is a complex anatomical phenomena that requires deep understanding. The cause for instability could be a result of an anatomical defect or a soft tissue pathology. A thorough patient history, physical examination and imaging are paramount for a correct diagnosis and for deciding on the correct treatment. The proper treatment is often debatable. Conservative treatment is suitable for acute dislocation but has a high failure rate in chronic instability, which usually necessitates surgical treatment...
November 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527930/outcomes-of-open-and-endovascular-lower-extremity-revascularization-in-active-smokers-with-advanced-peripheral-arterial-disease
#15
Samuel L Chen, Matthew D Whealon, Nii-Kabu Kabutey, Isabella J Kuo, Michael D Sgroi, Roy M Fujitani
OBJECTIVE: Concern over perioperative and long-term durability of lower extremity revascularizations among active smokers is a frequent deterrent for vascular surgeons to perform elective lower extremity revascularization. In this study, we examined perioperative outcomes of lower extremity endovascular (LEE) revascularization and open lower extremity bypass (LEB) in active smokers with intermittent claudication (IC) and critical limb ischemia (CLI). METHODS: Active smokers undergoing LEE or LEB from 2011 to 2014 were identified in the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) targeted vascular data set...
June 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526243/histopathology-in-ureteropelvic-junction-obstruction-with-and-without-crossing-vessels
#16
Madeline Cancian, Gyan Pareek, Anthony Caldamone, Liza Aguiar, Hai Wang, Ali Amin
OBJECTIVE: To determine if the histopathology of the ureteropelvic junction differs between those with and without crossing vessels who present with a ureteropelvic junction obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our database was queried for patients undergoing pyeloplasty (CPT 50400, 50405, 50544) between 6/1/2002 to 3/10/3016. We excluded patients with other renal anatomic abnormalities and patients undergoing surgery for upper tract tumor. One genitourinary pathologist reviewed all slides for muscle hypertrophy, fibrosis, edema and inflammation...
May 16, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525544/bistability-causality-and-complexity-in-cortical-networks-an-in-vitro-perturbational-study
#17
Mattia D'Andola, Beatriz Rebollo, Adenauer G Casali, Julia F Weinert, Andrea Pigorini, Rosa Villa, Marcello Massimini, Maria V Sanchez-Vives
Measuring the spatiotemporal complexity of cortical responses to direct perturbations provides a reliable index of the brain's capacity for consciousness in humans under both physiological and pathological conditions. Upon loss of consciousness, the complex pattern of causal interactions observed during wakefulness collapses into a stereotypical slow wave, suggesting that cortical bistability may play a role. Bistability is mainly expressed in the form of slow oscillations, a default pattern of activity that emerges from cortical networks in conditions of functional or anatomical disconnection...
May 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523130/the-development-of-uniportal-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-from-diagnosis-to-lobectomy
#18
Alexandre de Oliveira, Thais Amarante P P Couto
BACKGROUND: The use of uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been increasing worldwide. Our main goal was to describe the evolution of uniportal surgery in the biggest private hospital in Latin America that is located in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This descriptive and retrospective study included patients who underwent uniportal VATS in the thoracic surgical department of Beneficencia Portuguesa Hospital, after being referred to our team to undergo the aforementioned procedure within the period from February 2012 to March 2016...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516968/preliminary-experience-with-4k-ultra-high-definition-endoscope-analysis-of-pros-and-cons-in-skull-base-surgery
#19
M Rigante, G La Rocca, L Lauretti, G Q D'Alessandris, A Mangiola, C Anile, A Olivi, G Paludetti
During the last two decades endoscopic skull base surgery observed a continuous technical and technological development 3D endoscopy and ultra High Definition (HD) endoscopy have provided great advances in terms of visualisation and spatial resolution. Ultra-high definition (UHD) 4K systems, recently introduced in the clinical practice, will shape next steps forward especially in skull base surgery field. Patients were operated on through transnasal transsphenoidal endoscopic approaches performed using Olympus NBI 4K UHD endoscope with a 4 mm 0° Ultra Telescope, 300 W xenon lamp (CLV-S400) predisposed for narrow band imaging (NBI) technology connected through a camera head to a high-quality control unit (OTV-S400 - VISERA 4K UHD) (Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan)...
June 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516246/aspergillus-species-in-bronchiectasis-challenges-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-and-non-cystic-fibrosis-airways
#20
REVIEW
Sanjay H Chotirmall, Maria Teresa Martin-Gomez
Bronchiectasis is a chronic irreversible airway abnormality associated with infectious agents that either cause or superinfect the airways. While the role of bacteria is well studied, much remains to be determined about fungi in both cystic fibrosis- and non-cystic fibrosis-related bronchiectasis. The airway is constantly exposed to inhaled ambient moulds of which Aspergillus represent the most ubiquitous. In a normal healthy host, this situation is of little consequence. The presence of anatomical or immunological abnormalities such as those in bronchiectasis leads to a range of fungal-related pathologies from asymptomatic airway colonization to fungal sensitization, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or chronic pulmonary aspergillosis...
May 17, 2017: Mycopathologia
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