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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332075/patient-evaluation-and-selection-for-movement-disorders-surgery-the-changing-spectrum-of-indications
#1
Steffen Paschen, Günther Deuschl
This report summarizes the state-of-the-art and controversies around patient selection for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for various conditions. Parkinson's disease (PD): several class I studies have shown superiority of DBS over best medical treatment for advanced PD with fluctuations and further inclusion criteria. One class I study suggests that PD patients with early motor complications might gain more quality of life if operated within 3 years after the onset of fluctuations. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is still the standard target...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328501/cognitive-control-functions-in-individuals-with-obesity-with-and-without-binge-eating-disorder
#2
Ines Kollei, Martina Rustemeier, Stefanie Schroeder, Sebastian Jongen, Stephan Herpertz, Sabine Loeber
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in cognitive control are thought to contribute to the maintenance of obesity (OB). Cognitive control is referred to as impulsivity and binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by high levels of impulsivity. The present study sought to elucidate which cognitive control functions differentiate between severe OB with and without BED also taking into account hunger as a moderating factor. METHOD: The study included 48 individuals with OB and BED (OB + BED), 48 individuals with OB and no BED (OB - BED) and 48 normal-weight controls (NWC)...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302857/combination-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-valproic-acid-in-treatment-of-borderline-personality-disorder-a-follow-up-study
#3
Paola Bozzatello, Paola Rocca, Silvio Bellino
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Some evidence of efficacy has been found for omega-3 fatty acids in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In a previous 12-week randomized trial we assessed the efficacy of the combination of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with valproic acid, in comparison with valproic acid monotherapy, in 43 BPD outpatients. Combined therapy was superior to valproic acid monotherapy (the control group) in the treatment of some BPD symptoms: impulsive-behavioral dyscontrol, outbursts of anger, and self-harm...
January 5, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298691/volition-adaptive-control-for-gait-training-using-wearable-exoskeleton-preliminary-tests-with-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-individuals
#4
Vijaykumar Rajasekaran, Eduardo López-Larraz, Fernando Trincado-Alonso, Joan Aranda, Luis Montesano, Antonio J Del-Ama, Jose L Pons
BACKGROUND: Gait training for individuals with neurological disorders is challenging in providing the suitable assistance and more adaptive behaviour towards user needs. The user specific adaptation can be defined based on the user interaction with the orthosis and by monitoring the user intentions. In this paper, an adaptive control model, commanded by the user intention, is evaluated using a lower limb exoskeleton with incomplete spinal cord injury individuals (SCI). METHODS: A user intention based adaptive control model has been developed and evaluated with 4 incomplete SCI individuals across 3 sessions of training per individual...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294948/the-role-of-adhd-in-predicting-the-development-of-violent-behavior-among-juvenile-offenders-participation-versus-frequency
#5
Thomas W Wojciechowski
Past research has identified attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for engagement in violent offending. Despite the link between the disorder and violent offending, this risk factor has yet to be examined as a predictor of heterogeneity in the development of violent offending among juvenile offenders. It is likely that the impulsivity, genetic link, and generally chronic disorder course which are characteristics of the disorder play roles in predicting violent offending, which is consistent with both self-control theory and general developmental theory related to early life deficits and life-course persistent offending...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294865/domestic-violence-as-a-risk-factor-for-attempted-suicide-in-married-women
#6
Pankajakshan Vijayanthi Indu, Sivaraman Remadevi, Karunakaran Vidhukumar, Peer Mohammed Shah Navas, Thekkethayyil Viswanathan Anilkumar, Nanoo Subha
High rates of suicide attempts and domestic violence (DV) in women of reproductive age group have been reported from South India, but the association between them was not studied. Hence, this study was undertaken to assess whether DV is a risk factor for attempted suicide in married women of reproductive age group. A hospital-based case-control study with 77 incident cases of attempted suicide in married women of the age group of 18 to 45 years and 153 controls belonging to the same age group, without history of suicide attempt, was undertaken over a period of 6 months...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291508/trait-and-state-impulsivity-in-males-with-tendency-towards-internet-pornography-use-disorder
#7
Stephanie Antons, Matthias Brand
INTRODUCTION: Impulsivity has been identified to be involved in the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders (IUD). It can be differentiated between relatively stable trait impulsivity and state impulsivity which is dependent on environmental and affective factors such as craving. Following the I-PACE (Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution) model, both trait and state impulsivity may play an interactive role in IUD. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between trait and state impulsivity and symptom severity of Internet-pornography-use disorder (IPD) as one form of IUD...
December 23, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287910/ventral-tegmental-area-d2-receptor-knockdown-enhances-choice-impulsivity-in-a-delay-discounting-task-in-rats
#8
Kimberly A Bernosky-Smith, Yan-Yan Qiu, Malte Feja, Yun Beom Lee, Brian Loughlin, Jun-Xu Li, Caroline E Bass
Impulsivity associated with abnormal dopamine (DA) function has been observed in several disorders, including addiction. Choice impulsivity is the preference for small, immediate rewards over larger rewards after a delay, caused by excessive discounting of future rewards. Addicts have abnormally high discount rates and prefer the smaller rewards sooner. While impulsivity has been inversely correlated with DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability in the midbrain and striatum, it is difficult to mechanistically link the two, due to the diverse neuroanatomical localization of D2Rs, which are found throughout the brain, in many types of neurons and neuronal subcompartments...
December 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280953/risk-factors-for-internet-gaming-disorder-psychological-factors-and-internet-gaming-characteristics
#9
Mi Jung Rho, Hyeseon Lee, Taek-Ho Lee, Hyun Cho, Dong Jin Jung, Dai-Jin Kim, In Young Choi
Background: Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods: Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277285/the-effects-of-working-memory-load-and-attention-refocusing-on-delay-discounting-rates-in-alcohol-use-disorder-with-comorbid-antisocial-personality-disorder
#10
Rachel L Gunn, Kyle R Gerst, Allison J Lake, Peter R Finn
Executive working memory capacity (eWMC) is central to adaptive decision-making. Research has revealed reduced eWMC and higher rates of impulsive decision making in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs: DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence of Alcohol Abuse) and antisocial psychopathology (AP). Recent work has shown that placing a load on working memory (WM) further increases impulsive decision making on the delay discounting (DD) task in those with AUDs and AP. The current study examined the effects of an attention refocusing manipulation to offset the effects of this WM-load on DD rates in control subjects, those with AUDs without AP, and AUDs with AP (AUD-AP)...
February 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250007/how-do-stress-exposure-and-stress-regulation-relate-to-borderline-personality-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Nadège Bourvis, Aveline Aouidad, Clémence Cabelguen, David Cohen, Jean Xavier
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and frequent disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability affecting impulse control, emotional regulation, cognitive processing, self-image and interpersonal relationships. Patients' personal histories are often marked by stressful or traumatic experiences, either unique or repeated. Moreover, while clinical signs of the disorder include both chronic and acute features, acute features are mostly triggered by acute stressful situations. Such features include transient cognitive distortion, intense anger, uncontrollable impulsivity, and self-harm behavior - including suicide - and contribute to the burden of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238197/effect-of-handedness-on-auditory-attentional-performance-in-adhd-students
#12
Sergio L Schmidt, Ana Lucia Novais Carvaho, Eunice N Simoes
The relationship between handedness and attentional performance is poorly understood. Continuous performance tests (CPTs) using visual stimuli are commonly used to assess subjects suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, auditory CPTs are considered more useful than visual ones to evaluate classroom attentional problems. A previous study reported that there was a significant effect of handedness on students' performance on a visual CPT. Here, we examined whether handedness would also affect CPT performance using only auditory stimuli...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234453/an-association-study-of-taq1a-ankk1-and-c957t-and-%C3%A2-141c-drd2-polymorphisms-in-adults-with-internet-gaming-disorder-a-pilot-study
#13
Soo-Hyun Paik, Mi Ran Choi, Su Min Kwak, Sol Hee Bang, Ji-Won Chun, Jin-Young Kim, Jihye Choi, Hyun Cho, Jo-Eun Jeong, Dai-Jin Kim
Background: Though Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is considered to share similar genetic vulnerability with substance addictions, little has been explored about the role of the genetic variants on IGD. This pilot study was designed to investigate the association of the Taq1A polymorphism of the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) gene and C957T and - 141C of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) with IGD and their role on the personality and temperament traits in IGD among adult population...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221791/online-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-prefrontal-metabolites-in-gambling-disorder
#14
Maya Dickler, Christophe Lenglos, Emmanuelle Renauld, Francine Ferland, Richard A Edden, Jean Leblond, Shirley Fecteau
Gambling disorder is characterized by persistent maladaptive gambling behaviors and is now considered among substance-related and addictive disorders. There is still unmet therapeutic need for these clinical populations, however recent advances indicate that interventions targeting the Glutamatergic/GABAergic system hold promise in reducing symptoms in substance-related and addictive disorders, including gambling disorder. There is some data indicating that transcranial direct current stimulation may hold clinical benefits in substance use disorders and modulate levels of brain metabolites including glutamate and GABA...
December 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215777/atypical-anorexia-nervosa-is-not-related-to-brain-structural-changes-in-newly-diagnosed-adolescent-patients
#15
Gaia Olivo, Linda Solstrand Dahlberg, Lyle Wiemerslage, Ingemar Swenne, Christina Zhukovsky, Helena Salonen-Ros, Elna-Marie Larsson, Santino Gaudio, Samantha J Brooks, Helgi B Schiöth
OBJECTIVE: Patients with atypical anorexia nervosa (AN) have many features overlapping with AN in terms of genetic risk, age of onset, psychopathology and prognosis of outcome, although the weight loss may not be a core factor. While brain structural alterations have been reported in AN, there are currently no data regarding atypical AN patients. METHOD: We investigated brain structure through a voxel-based morphometry analysis in 22 adolescent females newly-diagnosed with atypical AN, and 38 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC)...
January 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210144/adolescent-impulsivity-as-a-sex-dependent-and-subtype-dependent-predictor-of-impulsivity-alcohol-drinking-and-dopamine-d2-receptor-expression-in-adult-rats
#16
Lindsey R Hammerslag, Amogh P Belagodu, Olubankole A Aladesuyi Arogundade, Angela G Karountzos, Qingrou Guo, Roberto Galvez, Brent W Roberts, Joshua M Gulley
Impulsivity is a personality trait associated with a heightened risk for drug use and other psychiatric conditions. Because impulsivity-related disorders typically emerge during adolescence, there has been interest in exploring methods for identifying adolescents that will be at risk to develop substance use disorders in adulthood. Here, we used a rodent model to assess inhibitory control (impulsive action) and impulsive decision making (impulsive choice) during adolescence (43-50 days old) or adulthood (93-100 days old) and then examined the impact of development on these impulsivity traits by re-testing rats 50 days later...
December 5, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205115/the-overlap-between-binge-eating-behaviors-and-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-an-etiological-integrative-model
#17
Chiara Paganini, Gregory Peterson, Vasilis Stavropoulos, Isabel Krug
Studies indicate that Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) features (e.g. insulin instability, food cravings, overproduction of androgens and menstrual irregularities) associate with increased appetite, impaired impulse control and feelings of body dissatisfaction. Counter intuitively, binge eating behaviors have been shown to reinforce PCOS symptomatology, precipitating concurrently body dissatisfaction, weight gain, insulin instability and overproduction of androgens. The present systematic literature review aspires to investigate the relationship between binge eating, in the broader context of eating disorder behaviors, and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), taking into account shared characteristics between EDs (Eating Disorders) and PCOS...
December 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203153/focused-ultrasound-subthalamotomy-in-patients-with-asymmetric-parkinson-s-disease-a-pilot-study
#18
Raul Martínez-Fernández, Rafael Rodríguez-Rojas, Marta Del Álamo, Frida Hernández-Fernández, Jose A Pineda-Pardo, Michele Dileone, Fernando Alonso-Frech, Guglielmo Foffani, Ignacio Obeso, Carmen Gasca-Salas, Esther de Luis-Pastor, Lydia Vela, José A Obeso
BACKGROUND: Ablative neurosurgery has been used to treat Parkinson's disease for many decades. MRI-guided focused ultrasound allows focal lesions to be made in deep brain structures without skull incision. We investigated the safety and preliminary efficacy of unilateral subthalamotomy by focused ultrasound in Parkinson's disease. METHODS: This prospective, open-label pilot study was done at CINAC (Centro Integral de Neurociencias), University Hospital HM Puerta del Sur in Madrid, Spain...
December 1, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199955/a-selective-role-for-ventromedial-subthalamic-nucleus-in-inhibitory-control
#19
Robert S Turner, Benjamin Pasquereau
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is hypothesized to play a central role in the rapid stopping of movement in reaction to a stop signal. Single-unit recording evidence for such a role is sparse, however, and it remains uncertain how that role relates to the disparate functions described for anatomic subdivisions of the STN. Here we address that gap in knowledge using non-human primates and a task that distinguishes reactive and proactive action inhibition, switching and skeletomotor functions. We found that specific subsets of STN neurons have activity consistent with causal roles in reactive action stopping or switching...
December 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198499/markers-of-impaired-motor-and-cognitive-volition-in-parkinson-s-disease-correlates-of-dopamine-dysregulation-syndrome-impulse-control-disorder-and-dyskinesias
#20
Jared T Hinkle, Kate Perepezko, Liana S Rosenthal, Kelly A Mills, Alexander Pantelyat, Zoltan Mari, Laura Tochen, Jee Yun Bang, Medha Gudavalli, Nadine Yoritomo, Ankur Butala, Catherine C Bakker, Vanessa Johnson, Emile Moukheiber, Ted M Dawson, Gregory M Pontone
INTRODUCTION: Dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) can be associated with both motoric (e.g., dyskinesias) and neuropsychiatric adverse effects. Examples of the latter include Dopamine Dysregulation Syndrome (DDS) and impulse control disorder (ICD), which are separate but related behavioral/psychiatric complications of treatment in PD. Dysregulation of volition characterizes both dyskinesias and DDS/ICD; thus, we analyzed potential disease-related correlates in a large PD cohort...
November 21, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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