Read by QxMD icon Read

Melanocortin system

Jennifer W Hill, Latrice D Faulkner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Minoru Kato, Yi-Ying Huang, Mina Matsuo, Yoko Takashina, Kazuyo Sasaki, Yasushi Horai, Aya Juni, Shin-Ichi Kamijo, Kaoru Saigo, Kumiko Ui-Tei, Hajime Tei
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for the study of gene function in mammalian systems, including transgenic mice. Here, we report a gene knockdown system based on the human mir-187 precursor. We introduced small interfering RNA (siRNA) sequences against the mouse melanocortin-4 receptor (mMc4r) to alter the targeting of miR-187. The siRNA-expressing cassette was placed under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) early enhancer/chicken β-actin promoter. In vitro, the construct efficiently knocked down the gene expression of a co-transfected mMc4r-expression vector in cultured mammalian cells...
September 30, 2016: Experimental Animals
Panpan You, Handan Hu, Yuting Chen, Yongliang Zhao, Yiqing Yang, Tongtong Wang, Roumei Xing, Yanjiao Shao, Wen Zhang, Dali Li, Huaqing Chen, Mingyao Liu
Melanocortin-3 and 4 receptors (MC3R and MC4R) can regulate energy homeostasis, but their respective roles especially the functions of MC3R need more exploration. Here Mc3r and Mc4r single and double knockout (DKO) rats were generated using CRISPR-Cas9 system. Metabolic phenotypes were examined and data were compared systematically. Mc3r KO rats displayed hypophagia and decreased body weight, while Mc4r KO and DKO exhibited hyperphagia and increased body weight. All three mutants showed increased white adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Pablo J Enriori, Weiyi Chen, Maria C Garcia-Rudaz, Bernadette E Grayson, Anne E Evans, Sarah M Comstock, Ursel Gebhardt, Hermann L Müller, Thomas Reinehr, Belinda A Henry, Russell D Brown, Clinton R Bruce, Stephanie E Simonds, Sara A Litwak, Sean L McGee, Serge Luquet, Sarah Martinez, Martin Jastroch, Matthias H Tschöp, Matthew J Watt, Iain J Clarke, Christian L Roth, Kevin L Grove, Michael A Cowley
OBJECTIVE: Central melanocortin pathways are well-established regulators of energy balance. However, scant data exist about the role of systemic melanocortin peptides. We set out to determine if peripheral α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) plays a role in glucose homeostasis and tested the hypothesis that the pituitary is able to sense a physiological increase in circulating glucose and responds by secreting α-MSH. METHODS: We established glucose-stimulated α-MSH secretion using humans, non-human primates, and mouse models...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Yuhuan Meng, Yujia Guan, Wenlu Zhang, Yu-E Wu, Huanhuan Jia, Yu Zhang, Xiuqing Zhang, Hongli Du, Xiaoning Wang
The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is an animal model of non-obese type 2 diabetes (T2D). The GK rat was generated through the introduction of various genetic mutations from continuous inbreeding; these rats develop diabetes spontaneously. The mutated genes in GK rats may play key roles in the regulation of diabetes. The hypothalamus plays a central role in systematic energy homeostasis. Here, the hypothalamic transcriptomes in GK and Wistar rats at 4, 8 and 12 weeks were investigated by RNA-seq, and multiple variants and gene expression profiles were obtained...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Luis M San-Jose, Anne-Lyse Ducrest, Valérie Ducret, Céline Simon, Hannes Richter, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Alexandre Roulin
The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene influences coloration by altering the expression of genes acting downstream in the melanin synthesis. MC1R belongs to the melanocortin system, a genetic network coding for the ligands that regulate MC1R and other melanocortin receptors controlling different physiological and behavioural traits. The impact of MC1R variants on these regulatory melanocortin genes was never considered, even though MC1R mutations could alter the influence of these genes on coloration (e.g...
September 24, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Aarat Patel, Georgia Seely, Rohit Aggarwal
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of systemic autoimmune diseases that involve inflammation of skeletal muscle. The two most common forms are dermatomyositis and polymyositis, the former of which entails a skin component. There are few approved therapeutics available for treatment of this group of diseases and the first-line therapy is usually corticosteroid treatment. Considering that a large proportion of patients do not respond to or cannot tolerate corticosteroids, additional treatments are required...
2016: Case Reports in Rheumatology
Judit Tenk, Ildikó Rostás, Nóra Füredi, Alexandra Mikó, Szilvia Soós, Margit Solymár, Balázs Gaszner, Miklós Székely, Erika Pétervári, Márta Balaskó
Previously demonstrated age-related changes in the catabolic melanocortin system that may contribute to middle-aged obesity and aging anorexia, raise the question of the potential involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in these phenomena, as this catabolic hypothalamic mediator acts downstream to melanocortins. Catabolic effects of CRF were shown to be mediated by both CRF1 (hypermetabolism) and CRF2 (anorexia) receptors. To test the potential role of CRF in age-related obesity and aging anorexia, we investigated acute central effects of the peptide on energy balance in male and female rats during the course of aging...
September 13, 2016: Peptides
Michel E Mickael, Ashish Rajput, Jannetta Steyn, Lyle Wiemerslage, Thomas Bürglin
The comparative genomics between different rhodopsin-like family groups (α, β, γ and δ) is not well studied. We used a combination of phylogenetic analysis and statistical genomic methods to compare rhodopsin-like family proteins in species likely symbolic of this family's evolutionary progression. For intra-cluster relationships, we applied mathematical optimisation to enhance the tree search produced by the neighbour joining method (NJ) and compared it with maximum likelihood (ML) method. To infer inter-clusters relationships, we used Needleman-Wunsch analysis (NW), HHsearch, ancestral sequence reconstruction and phylogenetic network analysis...
September 3, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Julie-Ann P De Bond, Kristen P Tolson, Chanond Nasamran, Alexander S Kauffman, Jeremy T Smith
Kisspeptin controls reproduction by stimulating GnRH neurons via its receptor Kiss1r. Kiss1r is also expressed other brain areas and in peripheral tissues, suggesting additional non-reproductive roles. We recently determined that Kiss1r knockout (KO) mice develop an obese and diabetic phenotype. Here, we investigated whether Kiss1r KOs develop this metabolic phenotype due to alterations in the expression of metabolic genes involved in the appetite regulating system of the hypothalamus, including neuropeptide Y (Npy) and pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc), as well as leptin receptor (Lepr), ghrelin receptor (Ghsr), and melanocortin receptor 3 and 4 (Mc3r, Mc4r)...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Helene Johannessen, David Revesz, Yosuke Kodama, Nikki Cassie, Karolina Skibicka, Perry Barrett, Suzanne Dickson, Jens Holst, Jens Rehfeld, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Roger Adan, Bård Kulseng, Elinor Ben-Menachem, Chun-Mei Zhao, Duan Chen
BACKGROUND: Recently, the US FDA has approved "vagal blocking therapy or vBLoc® therapy" as a new treatment for obesity. The aim of the present study was to study the mechanism-of-action of "VBLOC" in rat models. METHODS: Rats were implanted with VBLOC, an intra-abdominal electrical device with leads placed around gastric vagal trunks through an abdominal incision and controlled by wireless device. Body weight, food intake, hunger/satiety, and metabolic parameters were monitored by a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system...
August 30, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Minying Cai, Victor J Hruby
This paper describes the development of cyclic peptides for G protein coupled receptors to enable structure-function knowledge and the design of novel therapeutics. One important property of cyclic peptides is that they tend to be resistant to the digestion, enabling them to survive in the human digestive tract. This trait makes them very important as drug leads or as scaffolds which, in theory, can be engineered to incorporate a peptide domain of medicinal value. This is especially important for delivery of peptides that would be destroyed without such implementation...
August 25, 2016: Biopolymers
C L Randall, D W McNeil, J R Shaffer, R J Crout, R J Weyant, M L Marazita
Fear of pain is experienced in acute and chronic pain populations, as well as in the general population, and it affects numerous aspects of the orofacial pain experience, including pain intensity, pain-related disability, and pain behavior (e.g., avoidance). A related but separate construct-dental fear-is also experienced in the general population, and it influences dental treatment-seeking behavior and oral and systemic health. Minimal work has addressed the role of genetics in the etiologies of fear of pain and dental fear...
September 2016: Journal of Dental Research
Lucy Peters, Emily Humble, Nicole Kröcker, Birgit Fuchs, Jaume Forcada, Joseph I Hoffman
Although the genetic basis of color variation has been extensively studied in humans and domestic animals, the genetic polymorphisms responsible for different color morphs remain to be elucidated in many wild vertebrate species. For example, hypopigmentation has been observed in numerous marine mammal species but the underlying mutations have not been identified. A particularly compelling candidate gene for explaining color polymorphism is the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), which plays a key role in the regulation of pigment production...
August 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Mila F M Madeira, Celso M Queiroz-Junior, Trinidad Montero-Melendez, Silvia M C Werneck, Jôice D Corrêa, Frederico M Soriani, Gustavo P Garlet, Daniele G Souza, Mauro M Teixeira, Tarcilia A Silva, Mauro Perretti
Alveolar bone loss is a result of an aggressive form of periodontal disease (PD) associated with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) infection. PD is often observed with other systemic inflammatory conditions, including arthritis. Melanocortin peptides activate specific receptors to exert antiarthritic properties, avoiding excessing inflammation and modulating macrophage function. Recent work has indicated that melanocortin can control osteoclast development and function, but whether such protection takes place in infection-induced alveolar bone loss has not been investigated...
August 17, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Cristina García-Cáceres, Carmelo Quarta, Luis Varela, Yuanqing Gao, Tim Gruber, Beata Legutko, Martin Jastroch, Pia Johansson, Jovica Ninkovic, Chun-Xia Yi, Ophelia Le Thuc, Klara Szigeti-Buck, Weikang Cai, Carola W Meyer, Paul T Pfluger, Ana M Fernandez, Serge Luquet, Stephen C Woods, Ignacio Torres-Alemán, C Ronald Kahn, Magdalena Götz, Tamas L Horvath, Matthias H Tschöp
We report that astrocytic insulin signaling co-regulates hypothalamic glucose sensing and systemic glucose metabolism. Postnatal ablation of insulin receptors (IRs) in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing cells affects hypothalamic astrocyte morphology, mitochondrial function, and circuit connectivity. Accordingly, astrocytic IR ablation reduces glucose-induced activation of hypothalamic pro-opio-melanocortin (POMC) neurons and impairs physiological responses to changes in glucose availability...
August 11, 2016: Cell
Chintan K Patel, Nelson Bennett
Erectile dysfunction adversely affects up to 20% of all men and is the most commonly treated sexual disorder. The public health implications of this condition are significant and represent a challenge for our healthcare system. The physiological pathways responsible for erections have been extensively studied, and much advancement has been made since the introduction of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors. Newer agents, such as dopaminergic and melanocortin receptor agonists, which target central erectogenic pathways, are under investigation...
2016: F1000Research
Cathrine Laustrup Møller, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Pablo J Enriori, Thomas Elbenhardt Jensen, Cecilia Garcia-Rudaz, Sara A Litwak, Kirsten Raun, Jørgen Wojtaszewski, Birgitte Schjellerup Wulff, Michael A Cowley
The melanocortin system includes five G-protein coupled receptors (family A) defined as MC1R-MC5R, which are stimulated by endogenous agonists derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC). The melanocortin system has been intensely studied for its central actions in body weight and energy expenditure regulation, which are mainly mediated by MC4R. The pituitary gland is the source of various POMC-derived hormones released to the circulation, which raises the possibility that there may be actions of the melanocortins on peripheral energy homeostasis...
2016: PloS One
Bin Qiu, Richard L Bell, Yong Cao, Lingling Zhang, Robert B Stewart, Tamara Graves, Lawrence Lumeng, Weidong Yong, Tiebing Liang
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes. It is located within the rat quantitative trait locus (QTL) for alcohol preference on chromosome 4. Alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats consume very little alcohol, but have significantly higher NPY expression in the brain than alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We capitalized on this phenotypic difference by creating an Npy knockout (KO) rat using the inbred NP background to evaluate NPY effects on alcohol consumption...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
Nada El Ghorayeb, Isabelle Bourdeau, André Lacroix
The major physiological regulators of aldosterone production from the adrenal zona glomerulosa are potassium and angiotensin II; other acute regulators include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and serotonin. Their interactions with G-protein coupled hormone receptors activate cAMP/PKA pathway thereby regulating intracellular calcium flux and CYP11B2 transcription, which is the specific steroidogenic enzyme of aldosterone synthesis. In primary aldosteronism (PA), the increased production of aldosterone and resultant relative hypervolemia inhibits the renin and angiotensin system; aldosterone secretion is mostly independent from the suppressed renin-angiotensin system, but is not autonomous, as it is regulated by a diversity of other ligands of various eutopic or ectopic receptors, in addition to activation of calcium flux resulting from mutations of various ion channels...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"