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Melanocortin system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429261/localization-of-the-dopamine-receptors-of-types-1-and-2-on-the-bodies-of-pomc-expressing-neurons-of-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-in-mice-and-rats
#1
I V Romanova, A L Mikhrina, A O Shpakov
Using immunofluorescent techniques, we have demonstrated the presence of two main types of dopamine receptors, D1 and D2, on the bodies of neurons of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus expressing the precursor of peptides of the melanocortin family proopiomelanocortin in C57Bl/6J mice and Wistar rats. These data show close functional relationship between the dopamine and melanocortin systems of the brain and involvement of dopamine in the control of synthesis and secretion of peptides of the melanocortin family...
January 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426141/melanocortin-2-3-and-4-receptor-gene-expressions-are-downregulated-in-cd8-t-cytotoxic-lymphocytes-and-cd19-b-lymphocytes-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-responding-to-tnf%C3%AE-inhibition
#2
Marlene Andersen, Ivan Nagaev, Michael Kruse Meyer, Olga Nagaeva, Jarl Wikberg, Lucia Mincheva-Nilsson, Grethe Neumann Andersen
Melanocortin signaling in leukocyte subsets elicits anti-inflammatory and immune tolerance inducing effects in animal experimental inflammation. In man, however, the effects of melanocortin signaling in inflammatory conditions have scarcely been examined. We explored the differential reactions of melanocortin 1-5 receptor (MC1-5R) gene expressions in pathogenetic leukocyte subsets in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to treatment with TNFα inhibitor adalimumab. Seven patients with active RA donated blood at start and at three months treatment...
April 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424592/new-implications-for-the-melanocortin-system-in-alcohol-drinking-behavior-in-adolescents-the-glial-dysfunction-hypothesis
#3
Juan A Orellana, Waldo Cerpa, Maria F Carvajal, José M Lerma-Cabrera, Eduardo Karahanian, Cesar Osorio-Fuentealba, Rodrigo A Quintanilla
Alcohol dependence causes physical, social, and moral harms and currently represents an important public health concern. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), alcoholism is the third leading cause of death worldwide, after tobacco consumption and hypertension. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown a growing trend in alcohol abuse among adolescents, characterized by the consumption of large doses of alcohol over a short time period. Since brain development is an ongoing process during adolescence, short- and long-term brain damage associated with drinking behavior could lead to serious consequences for health and wellbeing...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424580/the-role-of-microrna-in-the-modulation-of-the-melanocortinergic-system
#4
REVIEW
Adel Derghal, Mehdi Djelloul, Jérôme Trouslard, Lourdes Mounien
The central control of energy balance involves a highly regulated neuronal network within the hypothalamus and the dorsal vagal complex. In these structures, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are known to reduce meal size and to increase energy expenditure. In addition, leptin, a peripheral signal that relays information regarding body fat content, modulates the activity of melanocortin pathway neurons including POMC-, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)/Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, melanocortin receptors (MC3R and MC4R)-expressing neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409883/melanocortin-4-receptor-activation-attenuates-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-skeletal-muscle-of-diabetic-rats
#5
Hao-Hao Zhang, Jiao Liu, Gui-Jun Qin, Xia-Lian Li, Pei-Jie Du, Xiao Hao, Tian-Tian Tian, Jing- Wu, Meng- Yun, Yan-Hui Bai
Backgroud: A previous study has confirmed that the central melanocortin system was able to mediate skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in mice fed a high-fat diet, while activation of the AMPK signaling pathway significantly induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Our hypothesis was that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) was involved in the development of skeletal muscle injury in diabetic rats. METHODS: In this study, we treated diabetic rats intracerebroventricularly with MC4R agonist R027-3225 or antagonist SHU9119, respectively...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404581/maternal-and-postnatal-high-fat-diet-consumption-programs-energy-balance-and-hypothalamic-melanocortin-signaling-in-nonhuman-primate-offspring
#6
Elinor L Sullivan, Heidi M Rivera, Cadence A True, Juliana G Franco, Karalee Baquero, Tyler A Dean, Jeanette C Valleau, Diana L Takahashi, Tim Frazee, Genevieve Hanna, Melissa A Kirigiti, Leigh Ann A Bauman, Kevin L Grove, Paul Kievit
Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption during pregnancy decreased fetal body weight and impacted development of hypothalamic melanocortin neural circuitry in nonhuman primate offspring. We investigated whether these impairments during gestation persisted in juvenile offspring and examined the interaction between maternal and early postnatal HFD consumption. Adult dams consumed either a control diet (CTR, 15% calories from fat) or a high saturated-fat diet (HFD, 37% calories from fat) during pregnancy. Offspring were weaned onto a CTR or HFD at approximately 8 months of age...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384517/biomarker-response-and-hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal-axis-functioning-in-arctic-charr-from-bj%C3%A3-rn%C3%A3-ya-74%C3%A2-30-%C3%A2-n-norway-with-high-levels-of-organohalogenated-compounds
#7
Even H Jørgensen, Alec G Maule, Anita Evenset, Guttorm Christensen, Jenny Bytningsvik, Marianne Frantzen, Vladimir Nikiforov, Erin Faught, Mathilakath M Vijayan
The populations of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) residing in Lake Ellasjøen at Bjørnøya Island in the Norwegian Arctic (74° 30'N, 19° 00'E) possess substantially higher levels of organohalogenated compounds (strongly dominated by polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs) than conspecifics residing in other, proximate lakes on the island. In the present study we sampled large (<400g), immature charr from Lake Ellasjøen (high PCB levels) and Lake Laksvatn (reference lake, low PCB levels) by hook and line for an immediate blood sampling, and blood and tissue sampling after a 1h confinement stressor...
March 20, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356453/the-melanocortin-system-regulates-body-pigmentation-and-social-behaviour-in-a-colour-polymorphic-cichlid-fish
#8
Peter D Dijkstra, Sean M Maguire, Rayna M Harris, Agosto A Rodriguez, Ross S DeAngelis, Stephanie A Flores, Hans A Hofmann
The melanocortin system is a neuroendocrine system that regulates a range of physiological and behavioural processes. We examined the extent to which the melanocortin system simultaneously regulates colour and behaviour in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni We found that yellow males are more aggressive than blue males, in line with previous studies. We then found that exogenous α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) increases yellowness of the body and dispersal of xanthophore pigments in both morphs...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333235/ovarian-hormones-and-obesity
#9
Brigitte Leeners, Nori Geary, Philippe N Tobler, Lori Asarian
BACKGROUND: Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE...
March 2, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323039/pomc-and-npy-mrna-expression-during-development-is-increased-in-rat-offspring-brain-from-mothers-fed-with-a-high-fat-diet
#10
Marianne Orlandini Klein, Harry MacKay, Alexander Edwards, Su-Bin Park, Ana Carolina Inhasz Kiss, Luciano Freitas Felicio, Alfonso Abizaid
Developmental programming is influenced by perinatal nutrition and it has long-lasting impacts on adult metabolism in the offspring. In particular, maternal high fat diet has been associated with increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders during adulthood in the descendants. These effects may be due to the effects of the high fat diet on the development of the systems that regulate food intake and energy balance in the offspring hypothalamus. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) may be a particularly sensitive region to it as this nucleus contains the POMC and AgRP/NPY neurons that integrate the melanocortin system...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299639/age-related-changes-in-central-effects-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-suggest-a-role-for-this-mediator-in-aging-anorexia-and-cachexia
#11
Judit Tenk, Ildikó Rostás, Nóra Füredi, Alexandra Mikó, Margit Solymár, Szilvia Soós, Balázs Gaszner, Diana Feller, Miklós Székely, Erika Pétervári, Márta Balaskó
Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) lays downstream to catabolic melanocortins and at least partly mediates their catabolic effects. Age-related changes in the melanocortin system (weak responsiveness in middle-aged and a strong one in old rats) have been shown to contribute to middle-aged obesity and later to aging anorexia and cachexia of old age groups. We hypothesized that catabolic (anorexigenic and hypermetabolic) CRF effects vary with aging similarly to those of melanocortins. Thus, we aimed to test whether age-related variations of CRF effects may also contribute to middle-aged obesity and aging anorexia leading to weight loss of old age groups...
February 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274841/role-of-the-brain-melanocortins-in-blood-pressure-regulation
#12
Jussara M do Carmo, Alexandre A da Silva, Zhen Wang, Taolin Fang, Nicola Aberdein, Cecilia E Perez de Lara, John E Hall
Melanocortins play an important role in regulating blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity as well as energy balance, glucose and other metabolic functions in humans and experimental animals. In experimental models of hypertension with high SNS activity, blockade of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) reduces BP despite causing marked hyperphagia and obesity. Activation of the central nervous system (CNS) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-MC4R pathway appears to be an important link between obesity, SNS activation and hypertension...
March 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267582/melanocortin-4-receptor-ligands-modulate-energy-homeostasis-through-urocortin-1-neurons-of-the-centrally-projecting-edinger-westphal-nucleus
#13
Nóra Füredi, Ákos Nagy, Alexandra Mikó, Gergely Berta, Tamás Kozicz, Erika Pétervári, Márta Balaskó, Balázs Gaszner
The role of the urocortin 1 (Ucn1) expressing centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal (EWcp) nucleus in energy homeostasis and stress adaptation response has previously been investigated. Morphological and functional studies have proven that orexigenic and anorexigenic peptidergic afferents and receptors for endocrine messengers involved in the energy homeostasis are found in the EWcp. The central role of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in energy homeostasis is well known, however, no data have been published so far on possible crosstalk between melanocortins and EWcp-Ucn1...
March 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264929/the-agouti-related-peptide-binds-heparan-sulfate-through-segments-critical-for-its-orexigenic-effects
#14
Rafael Palomino, Hsiau-Wei Lee, Glenn L Millhauser
Syndecans potently modulate agouti-related peptide (AgRP) signaling in the central melanocortin system. Through heparan sulfate moieties, syndecans are thought to anchor AgRP near its receptor, enhancing its orexigenic effects. Original work proposed that AgRP's N-terminal domain facilitates this interaction. However, this is not compatible with evidence that this domain is post-translationally cleaved. Addressing this long-standing incongruity, we used calorimetry and magnetic resonance to probe interactions of AgRP peptides with glycosaminoglycans including heparan sulfate...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243712/altered-sucrose-self-administration-following-injection-of-melanocortin-receptor-agonists-and-antagonists-into-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#15
Laranci Shanmugarajah, Anna I Dunigan, Kyle J Frantz, Aaron G Roseberry
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) are antagonistic neuropeptides that play an important role in the control of feeding and body weight through their central actions on the melanocortin-3 and melanocortin-4 receptors. Increasing evidence indicates that αMSH and AgRP can interact with the mesolimbic dopamine system to regulate feeding as well as other behaviors. For example, we have shown previously that injection of melanocortin receptor agonists and antagonists into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) alters both normal home-cage feeding and the intake of sucrose solutions, but it remains unknown whether αMSH and AgRP can also act in the VTA to affect reward-related feeding...
February 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236139/iron-dopamine-genetics-and-hormones-in-the-pathophysiology-of-restless-legs-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Farhan H Khan, Caitlyn D Ahlberg, Christopher A Chow, Divya R Shah, Brian B Koo
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common, chronic neurologic condition, which causes a persistent urge to move the legs in the evening that interferes with sleep. Human and animal studies have been used to study the pathophysiologic state of RLS and much has been learned about the iron and dopamine systems in relation to RLS. Human neuropathologic and imaging studies have consistently shown decreased iron in different brain regions including substantia nigra and thalamus. These same areas also demonstrate a state of relative dopamine excess...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229938/participation-of-ghrelin-signalling-in-the-reciprocal-regulation-of-hypothalamic-npy-pomc-mediated-appetite-control-in-amphetamine-treated-rats
#17
Ching-Han Yu, Shu-Chen Chu, Pei-Ni Chen, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Dong-Yih Kuo
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) have been documented to participate in amphetamine (AMPH)-induced appetite suppression. This study investigated whether ghrelin signalling is associated with changes in NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control. Rats were given AMPH daily for four days, and changes in food intake, body weight, plasma ghrelin, hypothalamic NPY, melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), acyl ghrelin (AG) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) were examined and compared...
February 14, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220105/acth-receptor-mc2r-specificity-what-do-we-know-about-underlying-molecular-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Davids Fridmanis, Ance Roga, Janis Klovins
Coincidentally, the release of this Research Topic in Frontiers in Endocrinology takes place 25 years after the discovery of the adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR) by Mountjoy and colleagues. In subsequent years, following the discovery of other types of mammalian melanocortin receptors (MCRs), ACTHR also became known as melanocortin type 2 receptor (MC2R). At present, five types of MCRs have been reported, all of which share significant sequence similarity at the amino acid level, and all of which specifically bind melanocortins (MCs)-a group of biologically active peptides generated by proteolysis of the proopiomelanocortin precursor...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192062/pomc-neurons-from-birth-to-death
#19
Chitoku Toda, Anna Santoro, Jung Dae Kim, Sabrina Diano
The hypothalamus is an evolutionarily conserved brain structure that regulates an organism's basic functions, such as homeostasis and reproduction. Several hypothalamic nuclei and neuronal circuits have been the focus of many studies seeking to understand their role in regulating these basic functions. Within the hypothalamic neuronal populations, the arcuate melanocortin system plays a major role in controlling homeostatic functions. The arcuate pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in particular have been shown to be critical regulators of metabolism and reproduction because of their projections to several brain areas both in and outside of the hypothalamus, such as autonomic regions of the brain stem and spinal cord...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164623/decreased-synovial-fluid-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-%C3%AE-msh-levels-reflect-disease-severity-in-patients-with-posttraumatic-ankle-osteoarthritis
#20
Guangyu Liu, Yunzhen Chen, Guichun Wang, Jianbing Niu
BACKGROUND: α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), an endogenous melanocortin peptide, has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammation effects and protect against cartilage damage. Objective In this study, we aimed to investigate whether α-MSH in ankle joint synovial fluid is associated with the disease severity of posttraumatic ankle osteoarthritis (PTAOA). METHODS: 66 PTAOA patients undergoing ankle arthroscopical debridement or ankle joint replacement were enrolled in the study...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
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