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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437887/influence-of-sinomenine-upon-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-osteoclastogenesis
#1
Biao Zhou, Xiaolong Lu, Zhi Tang, Dan Liu, Youliang Zhou, Peng Zeng, Hui Xiong
With the advent of aging, the morbidity rates of such diseases as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoporosis has witnessed a significant increase. As a common rattan drug, sinomenine (SIN) has been widely applied for the treatment of various arthritic diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinics. Given that SIN has been reported to inhibit the expression of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in several types of cells, in this study, the influence of SIN treatment on PGE2 expression in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), thereby changing the osteoprotegerin (OPG) receptor/activator for the nuclear factor-κ B ligand (RANKL) ratio, was investigated...
April 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437733/the-establishment-of-in%C3%A2-vitro-culture-and-drug-screening-systems-for-a-newly-isolated-strain-of-trypanosoma-equiperdum
#2
Keisuke Suganuma, Shino Yamasaki, Nthatisi Innocentia Molefe, Peter Simon Musinguzi, Batdorj Davaasuren, Ehab Mossaad, Sandagdorj Narantsatsral, Banzragch Battur, Badgar Battsetseg, Noboru Inoue
Dourine is caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum via coitus with an infected horse. Although dourine is distributed in Equidae worldwide and is listed as an internationally important animal disease by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), no effective treatment strategies have been established. In addition, there are no reports on drug discovery, because no drug screening system exists for this parasite. A new T. equiperdum strain was recently isolated from the genital organ of a stallion that showed typical symptoms of dourine...
April 13, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437599/human-%C3%AE-defensin-3-induces-il-8-release-and-apoptosis-in-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#3
Weijia Wang, Xiaoyan Qu, Xiaomin Dang, Dong Shang, Liang Yang, Ying Li, Dan Xu, James G Martin, Qutayba Hamid, Jiankang Liu, Ying Chang
BACKGROUND: Human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) may have a pro-inflammatory role through the release of inflammatory mediators. Increasing evidence indicates that human β-defensins (HBDs) are related to pathogenesis of asthma. OBJECTIVES: To examine the plasma level of HBD-1, -2 and -3 in asthmatic patients and the expression of their mouse orthologs in the lung tissue of a mouse model of chronic severe asthma. Further to investigate the effect of HBD-3 on the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 and to explore the mechanisms...
April 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437571/label-free-high-temporal-resolution-assessment-of-cell-proliferation-using-digital-holographic-microscopy
#4
Birgit Janicke, Andreas Kårsnäs, Peter Egelberg, Kersti Alm
Cell proliferation assays are widely applied in biological sciences to understand the effect of drugs over time. However, current methods often assess cell population growth indirectly, that is, the cells are not actually counted. Instead other parameters, for example, the amount of protein, are determined. These methods often also demand phototoxic labels, have low temporal resolution, or employ end-point assays, and frequently are labor intensive. We have developed a robust and label-free kinetic cell proliferation assay with high temporal resolution for adherent cells using digital holographic microscopy (DHM), one of many quantitative phase microscopy techniques...
April 24, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437458/isomalto-oligosaccharides-ameliorate-visceral-hyperalgesia-with-repair-damage-of-ileal-epithelial-ultrastructure-in-rats
#5
Weida Wang, Haiwei Xin, Xiucai Fang, Hongtao Dou, Fangyi Liu, Dan Huang, Shaomei Han, Guijun Fei, Liming Zhu, Shenghua Zha, Hong Zhang, Meiyun Ke
BACKGROUND: Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with probiotics has achieved effectiveness to a certain extent. Whether prebiotics will work is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of the prebiotic isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) on visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) in rats and to explore potential mechanism. METHODS: Water avoidance stress (WAS) was used to induce VHS in rats. The score for the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) was determined while colorectal distension and compared between VHS group and control group in order to validate VHS preparation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437437/use-of-short-interfering-rna-delivered-by-cationic-liposomes-to-enable-efficient-down-regulation-of-ptpn22-gene-in-human-t-lymphocytes
#6
Valentina Perri, Marsha Pellegrino, Francesca Ceccacci, Anita Scipioni, Stefania Petrini, Elena Gianchecchi, Anna Lo Russo, Serena De Santis, Giovanna Mancini, Alessandra Fierabracci
Type 1 diabetes and thyroid disease are T cell-dependent autoimmune endocrinopathies. The standard substitutive administration of the deficient hormones does not halt the autoimmune process; therefore, development of immunotherapies aiming to preserve the residual hormonal cells, is of crucial importance. PTPN22 C1858T mutation encoding for the R620W lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase variant, plays a potential pathophysiological role in autoimmunity. The PTPN22 encoded protein Lyp is a negative regulator of T cell antigen receptor signaling; R620W variant, leading to a gain of function with paradoxical reduced T cell activation, may represent a valid therapeutic target...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437224/structure-process-and-culture-of-intensive-care-units-treating-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-survey-of-centers-participating-in-the-american-college-of-surgeons-trauma-quality-improvement-program
#7
Aziz S Alali, Victroia McCredie, Todd G Mainprize, David Gomez, Avery B Nathens
Outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) differs substantially between hospitals. Explaining this variation begins with understanding the differences in structures and processes of care, particularly at intensive care units (ICUs) where acute TBI care takes place. We invited trauma medical directors (TMDs) from 187 centers participating in the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program to complete a survey. The survey domains included ICU model, type, availability of specialized units, staff, training programs, standard protocols and order sets, approach to withdrawal of life support, and perceived level of neurosurgeons' engagement in the ICU management of TBI...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437187/synergy-between-choroid-plexus-epithelial-cells-conditioned-medium-and-knockout-serum-replacement-converts-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-to-dopamine-secreting-neurons
#8
Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Mossa Gardaneh, Mehrnoosh Hasan Shahriari, Abbas Aliaghaei, Sanaz Hasani
Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) have great capacity to differentiate into mesodermal origins as well as non-mesodermal lineages including neural cells. This valuable feature paves the way for the therapeutic application of hADSCs for neurodegenerative maladies such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We tested the capacity of Choroid Plexus epithelial cells-conditioned medium (CPEC-CM) alone or cocktailed with knock-out serum (KS) to induce dopaminergic differentiation of hADSCs. To this end, hADSCs from lipoaspirate were phenotypically characterized and shown to maintain mesodermal multipotency so selected media easily differentiated them into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes...
March 2, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437179/mechanically-oriented-3d-collagen-hydrogel-for-directing-neurite-growth
#9
Merav Antman-Passig, Shahar Levy, Chaim Gartenberg, Hadas Schori, Orit Shefi
Recent studies in the field of neuro-tissue engineering have demonstrated the promising effects of aligned contact guidance cue scaffolds of enhancement and direction of neuronal growth. In-vivo, neurons grow and develop neurites in a complex 3-Dimensional (3D) extra cellular matrix (ECM) surrounding. Studies have utilized hydrogel scaffolds derived from ECM molecules to better simulate natural growth. While many efforts have been made to control neuronal growth on 2D surfaces, the development of 3D scaffolds with an elaborate oriented topography to direct neuronal growth still remains a challenge...
February 21, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437080/comparison-of-tumor-penetration-of-podophyllotoxin-carboxymethylcellulose-conjugates-with-various-chemical-compositions-in-tumor-spheroid-culture-and-in-vivo-solid-tumor
#10
Yang Yang, Aniruddha Roy, Yucheng Zhao, Elijus Undzys, Shyh-Dar Li
Polymer conjugation is an attractive approach for delivering insoluble and highly toxic drugs to tumors. However, most reports in the literature only disclose the optimal composition without emphasizing rational design or composition optimization to achieve maximized biological effects. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that composition of a polymer conjugate would determine its physiochemical characteristics, tumor penetration and, ultimately, the in vivo efficacy. We also aimed to examine whether the tumor spheroid model could generate comparable results with the in vivo tumor model in terms of tumor penetration and efficacy of the various polymer conjugates...
April 24, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437065/a-macrocyclic-peptide-ligand-binds-the-oncogenic-microrna-21-precursor-and-suppresses-dicer-processing
#11
Matthew D Shortridge, Matthew J Walker, Tom Pavelitz, Yu Chen, Gabriele Varani
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) help orchestrate cellular growth and survival through post-transcriptional mechanisms. The dysregulation of miRNA biogenesis can lead to cellular growth defects, chemotherapeutic resistance and plays a direct role in the development of many chronic diseases. Among these RNAs, miR-21 is consistently overexpressed in most human cancers leading to the down regulation of key tumor suppressing and pro-apoptotic factors; suggesting that inhibition of miR-21 biogenesis could reverse these negative effects...
April 24, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436711/mir-33b-5p-sensitizes-gastric-cancer-cells-to-chemotherapy-drugs-via-inhibiting-hmga2-expression
#12
Xiaoyan Yang, Qian Zhao, Huali Yin, Xiaoyong Lei, Runliang Gan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are internal, noncoding, and ∼22 nt small RNAs that display cell- and tissue-specific expression. They play important regulatory roles in cell proliferation and chemo-sensitivity. This study focused on tumor-suppressive miR-33b-5p expression as well as its role in gastric cancer. MiR-33b-5p was found low expression in gastric cancer cell lines. Functionally, western blots and the luciferase reporter assay were used to confirme that HMGA2 was the potential target of miR-33b-5p. Next, we used CCK-8 kits to analyze the effect of miR-33b-5p combined chemotherapy drugs on cell inhibition rate, and flow cytometry to analyze cells apoptosis...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436656/cellulose-anionic-hydrogels-based-on-cellulose-nanofibers-as-natural-stimulants-for-seed-germination-and-seedling-growth
#13
Hao Zhang, Minmin Yang, Qian Luan, Hu Tang, Fenghong Huang, Xia Xiang, Chen Yang, Yuping Bao
Cellulose anionic hydrogels were successfully prepared from dissolving Tempo-oxidized cellulose nanofibers in NaOH/urea aqueous solution and then crosslinked with epichlorohydrin. The hydrogels exhibit microporous structure and high hydrophilicity, contribute to the excellent water absorption property. The growth indexes including the germination rate, root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings were investigated and the cellulose anionic hydrogel showed no significant difference compared with soil medium...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436621/risk-factors-for-mortality-before-age-18-years-in-cystic-fibrosis
#14
Susanna A McColley, Michael S Schechter, Wayne J Morgan, David J Pasta, Marcia L Craib, Michael W Konstan
BACKGROUND: Understanding early-life risk factors for childhood death in cystic fibrosis (CF) is important for clinical care, including the identification of effective interventions. METHODS: Data from the Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis (ESCF) collected 1994-2005 were linked with the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) demographic and mortality data from 2013. Inclusion criteria were ≥1 visit annually at age 3-5 years and ≥1 FEV1 measurement at age 6-8 years...
April 24, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436514/cpg-loaded-mos2-nanosheets-as-multifunctional-agents-for-photothermal-enhanced-cancer-immunotherapy
#15
Qiusen Han, Xinhuan Wang, Xinghang Jia, Shuangfei Cai, Wei Liang, Yan Qin, Rong Yang, Chen Wang
Single or few-layered MoS2 nanosheets, as a novel class of 2D nanomaterials, have received tremendous attention due to their fantastic physical and chemical properties. Here, we fabricated MoS2-PEG-CpG with a small and uniform size as a multifunctional platform for photothermal enhanced immunotherapy. MoS2 nanosheets were fabricated by chemical exfoliation and further probe sonication. To realize MoS2-based adjuvant delivery, MoS2 nanosheets were functionalized with cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to form MoS2-PEG-CpG nanoconjugates...
April 24, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436502/arsenolipids-exert-less-toxicity-in-a-human-neuron-astrocyte-co-culture-as-compared-to-the-respective-monocultures
#16
B Witt, J Bornhorst, H Mitze, F Ebert, S Meyer, K A Francesconi, T Schwerdtle
Arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHCs), natural products found in seafood, have recently been shown to exert toxic effects in human neurons. In this study we assessed the toxicity of three AsHCs in cultured human astrocytes. Due to the high cellular accessibility and substantial toxicity observed astrocytes were identified as further potential brain target cells for arsenolipids. Thereby, the AsHCs exerted a 5-19-fold higher cytotoxicity in astrocytes as compared to arsenite. Next we compared the toxicity of the arsenicals in a co-culture model of the respective human astrocytes and neurons...
April 24, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436481/fusions-of-tumor-derived-endothelial-cells-with-dendritic-cells-induces-antitumor-immunity
#17
Yingying Huang, Qiqi Mao, Jian He, Jing Su, Yi Peng, Wei Liang, Zixi Hu, Sufang Zhou, Xiaoling Lu, Yongxiang Zhao
To explore dendritic cells/tumor-derived endothelial cells (DC/EC) fusion cells are potent stimulators of T cells to impact tumor progression. ECs were isolated from mice hepatoma cell line (H22) Xenograft, and dendritic cells were isolated from bone marrow of BALB/c mice, then the isolated ECs were cultured and detected the endothelial surface expression of CD105 by flow cytometry. The endothelial characteristics of ECs were detected by tube formation assay and Dil-Ac-LDL uptake assay. After the fusion with polyethylene glycol (PEG), we used DCs, ECs, DCs mixed ECs as the control groups, DC/EC fusion cells as the experimental group, Secretion of IFN-α and IFN-γ was evaluated, T lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) were detected in vitro...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436458/development-of-a-fluorescent-asfv-strain-that-retains-the-ability-to-cause-disease-in-swine
#18
Manuel V Borca, Vivian O'Donnell, Lauren G Holinka, Brent Sanford, Paul A Azzinaro, Guillermo R Risatti, Douglas P Gladue
African swine fever is a contagious and often lethal disease for domestic pigs with a significant economic impact for the swine industry. The etiological agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly structurally complex double stranded DNA virus. No effective vaccines or antiviral treatment are currently commercially available. We present here the development of a strain of ASFV that has been shown to retain its ability to cause disease in swine, efficiently replicate in swine macrophage and that is fluorescently tagged...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436332/applications-of-three-dimensional-cell-cultures-in-the-early-stages-of-drug-discovery-focusing-on-gene-expressions-drug-metabolism-and-susceptibility
#19
Maddaly Ravi
Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures represent advances in the way in which cells are grown in vitro, and they are gaining ground for a variety of applications. Advantages of 3D systems include reliable and realistic study endpoints. Cells grown in 3D conditions mimic in vivo conditions to an extent that is not possible with traditional 2D cell-culture methods. One major area in which 3D cell cultures have proven to make a difference is with drug discovery. The facets taken advantage of for drug discovery are the cells' complex microenvironment, including the production of extracellular matrices, altered gene expressions and their protein products, drug metabolism, and susceptibility to drugs when compared to 2D cultures...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436327/mechanism-of-glucose-regulates-the-fruiting-body-formation-in-the-beech-culinary-medicinal-mushroom-hypsizygus-marmoreus-agaricomycetes
#20
Jin-Jing Zhang, Hui Chen, Min-Ying Xie, Ming-Jie Chen, Hai-Bo Hao, Hong Wang, Zhi-Yong Feng
To understand the fruiting process of Hypsizygus marmoreus, a synthetic liquid medium (SLM) was optimized to induce fruiting body initiation. Dependent on the SLM, the effect of a monofactor (glucose) on the fruiting bodies of H. marmoreus was studied at different concentrations (10 and 40 g/L). Primordia appeared approximately 10 days earlier in low-glucose media (LGM) than in high-glucose media (HGM), whereas mature fruiting bodies formed on mushrooms approximately 7 days earlier and more primordia developed into mature fruiting bodies when cultured in HGM...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
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