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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788217/treatment-free-survival-in-patients-with-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#1
Mousumi Banerjee, David Reyes-Gastelum, Megan R Haymart
Purpose: Cancer recurrence is a primary concern for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer; however, population-level data on recurrent or persistent disease does not currently exist. The objective of this study was to determine treated recurrent or persistent thyroid cancer using a population-based registry, identify correlates of poor treatment-free survival, and define prognostic groups for treatment-free survival. Methods: In this population-based study, we evaluated treatment-free survival in 9,273 patients from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program - Medicare diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer between 1998 and 2012...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773991/first-biologic-drug-in-the-treatment-of-ras-wild-type-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-anti-egfr-or-bevacizumab-results-from-a-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Alessandro Ottaiano, Alfonso De Stefano, Monica Capozzi, Anna Nappi, Chiara De Divitiis, Carmela Romano, Lucrezia Silvestro, Antonino Cassata, Rossana Casaretti, Salvatore Tafuto, Michele Caraglia, Massimiliano Berretta, Guglielmo Nasti, Antonio Avallone
Introduction: We performed a meta-analysis in order to analyze and quantify the effect on survival of starting therapy in RAS wild-type (wt) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients with anti-EGFR agents or bevacizumab. Patients and Methods: Randomized, phase II or III, clinical trials reporting overall survival (OS) in RAS wt mCRC patients treated with first-line chemotherapy (CT) associated with bevacizumab or anti-EGFR agents were selected. The primary end-point of this meta-analysis was OS; findings were depicted in classical Forest plots...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769255/white-matter-hyperintensities-and-their-subtypes-in-patients-with-carotid-artery-stenosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Huirong Ye, Yujie Wang, Jianting Qiu, Qing Wu, Mengmeng Xu, Jian Wang
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association between white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and carotid artery (CA) stenosis. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PARTICIPANTS: CA stenosis was set at ≥50%, and WMHs were assessed by MRI and evaluated quantitatively or semiquantitatively. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library for studies evaluating the association between WMHs and CA stenosis ≥50% from inception to 13 September 2017...
May 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720449/development-of-a-stress-response-therapy-targeting-aggressive-prostate-cancer
#4
Hao G Nguyen, Crystal S Conn, Yae Kye, Lingru Xue, Craig M Forester, Janet E Cowan, Andrew C Hsieh, John T Cunningham, Charles Truillet, Feven Tameire, Michael J Evans, Christopher P Evans, Joy C Yang, Byron Hann, Constantinos Koumenis, Peter Walter, Peter R Carroll, Davide Ruggero
Oncogenic lesions up-regulate bioenergetically demanding cellular processes, such as protein synthesis, to drive cancer cell growth and continued proliferation. However, the hijacking of these key processes by oncogenic pathways imposes onerous cell stress that must be mitigated by adaptive responses for cell survival. The mechanism by which these adaptive responses are established, their functional consequences for tumor development, and their implications for therapeutic interventions remain largely unknown...
May 2, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709315/salvage-hdr-brachytherapy-multiple-hypothesis-testing-versus-machine-learning-analysis
#5
Gilmer Valdes, Albert J Chang, Yannet Interian, Kenton Owen, Shane T Jensen, Lyle H Ungar, Adam Cunha, Timothy D Solberg, I-Chow Hsu
PURPOSE: Salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy (sHDRB) is a treatment option for recurrences after prior radiation therapy. However, only approximately 50% of patients benefit, with the majority of second recurrences after salvage brachytherapy occurring distantly. Therefore, identification of characteristics that can help select patients who may benefit most from sHDRB is critical. Machine learning may be used to identify characteristics that predict outcome following sHDRB. We aimed to use machine learning to identify patient characteristics associated with biochemical failure (BF) following prostate sHDRB...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688409/methotrexate-for-the-treatment-of-pediatric-crohn-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Ruben J Colman, Rachel C Lawton, Marla C Dubinsky, David T Rubin
Background: Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunomodulator used for the treatment of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There are currently no RCTs that assess the treatment efficacy of methotrexate within the pediatric IBD patient population. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the efficacy of MTX therapy among the existing pediatric literature. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE and the Cochrane library from inception until March 2016...
April 23, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671390/bcdforest-a-boosting-cascade-deep-forest-model-towards-the-classification-of-cancer-subtypes-based-on-gene-expression-data
#7
Yang Guo, Shuhui Liu, Zhanhuai Li, Xuequn Shang
BACKGROUND: The classification of cancer subtypes is of great importance to cancer disease diagnosis and therapy. Many supervised learning approaches have been applied to cancer subtype classification in the past few years, especially of deep learning based approaches. Recently, the deep forest model has been proposed as an alternative of deep neural networks to learn hyper-representations by using cascade ensemble decision trees. It has been proved that the deep forest model has competitive or even better performance than deep neural networks in some extent...
April 11, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670464/-calophyllum-brasiliense-modulates-the-immune-response-and-promotes-leishmania-amazonensis-intracellular-death
#8
L Domeneghetti, I G Demarchi, J Z Caitano, R B Pedroso, T G V Silveira, M V C Lonardoni
Calophyllum brasiliense is a plant from the Brazilian rain forests and has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases, including leishmaniasis. This infectious disease depends on the Leishmania sp. and the host immune response. C. brasiliense antileishmanial activity is well known, but the effects on immune response remain to be investigated. This study showed the leishmanicidal and immunomodulatory effects of a 30  μ g/mL of hydroalcoholic extract of C. brasiliense in murine macrophages before and after Leishmania ( Leishmania ) amazonensis infection...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668915/predicting-corticosteroid-free-biologic-remission-with-vedolizumab-in-crohn-s-disease
#9
Akbar K Waljee, Boang Liu, Kay Sauder, Ji Zhu, Shail M Govani, Ryan W Stidham, Peter D R Higgins
Background and Aims: Vedolizumab (VDZ) is effective for Crohn's disease (CD) but costly and is slow to produce remission. Early knowledge of whether vedolizumab is likely to succeed is valuable for physicians, patients, and insurers. Methods: Phase 3 clinical trial data on VZD for CD were used to predict outcomes. Random forest modeling on the training cohort was used to predict the outcome of corticosteroid-free biologic remission at week 52 on the testing cohort...
April 13, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650709/machine-learning-methods-improve-prognostication-identify-clinically-distinct-phenotypes-and-detect-heterogeneity-in-response-to-therapy-in-a-large-cohort-of-heart-failure-patients
#10
Tariq Ahmad, Lars H Lund, Pooja Rao, Rohit Ghosh, Prashant Warier, Benjamin Vaccaro, Ulf Dahlström, Christopher M O'Connor, G Michael Felker, Nihar R Desai
BACKGROUND: Whereas heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome, conventional approaches to its management have treated it as a singular disease, leading to inadequate patient care and inefficient clinical trials. We hypothesized that applying advanced analytics to a large cohort of HF patients would improve prognostication of outcomes, identify distinct patient phenotypes, and detect heterogeneity in treatment response. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Swedish Heart Failure Registry is a nationwide registry collecting detailed demographic, clinical, laboratory, and medication data and linked to databases with outcome information...
April 12, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625787/tropical-diseases-in-the-icu-a-syndromic-approach-to-diagnosis-and-treatment
#11
Dilip R Karnad, Guy A Richards, Gisele Sampaio Silva, Pravin Amin
Tropical infections form 20-30% of ICU admissions in tropical countries. Diarrheal diseases, malaria, dengue, typhoid, rickettsial diseases and leptospirosis are common causes of critical illness. Overlapping clinical features makes initial diagnosis challenging. A systematic approach involving (1) history of specific continent or country of travel, (2) exposure to specific environments (forests or farms, water sports, consumption of exotic foods), (3) incubation period, and (4) pattern of organ involvement and subtle differences in manifestations help in differential diagnosis and choice of initial empiric therapy...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582713/a-mixed-treatment-comparison-on-efficacy-and-safety-of-treatments-for-spasticity-caused-by-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#12
Xiying Fu, Yanqiao Wang, Can Wang, Huijie Wu, Jinyao Li, Ming Li, Qianqian Ma, Wei Yang
OBJECTIVES: This study is aimed at providing a quantitative evaluation on different therapies of spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase database. REVIEW METHODS: We searched for randomized controlled trials that met the requirements. Percentages of improved patients' spasticity scale, mild adverse effect and severe adverse effect were extracted as outcomes. The forest plots accompanied with surface under the cumulative ranking curves were used to reveal the efficacy and safety of these therapies...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557486/treatment-related-features-improve-machine-learning-prediction-of-prognosis-in-soft-tissue-sarcoma-patients
#13
Jan C Peeken, Tatyana Goldberg, Christoph Knie, Basil Komboz, Michael Bernhofer, Francesco Pasa, Kerstin A Kessel, Pouya D Tafti, Burkhard Rost, Fridtjof Nüsslin, Andreas E Braun, Stephanie E Combs
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current prognostic models for soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients are solely based on staging information. Treatment-related data have not been included to date. Including such information, however, could help to improve these models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-center retrospective cohort of 136 STS patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) was analyzed for patients' characteristics, staging information, and treatment-related data. Therapeutic imaging studies and pathology reports of neoadjuvantly treated patients were analyzed for signs of response...
March 20, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548875/predicting-treatment-response-to-intra-arterial-therapies-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-the-use-of-supervised-machine-learning-an-artificial-intelligence-concept
#14
Aaron Abajian, Nikitha Murali, Lynn Jeanette Savic, Fabian Max Laage-Gaupp, Nariman Nezami, James S Duncan, Todd Schlachter, MingDe Lin, Jean-François Geschwind, Julius Chapiro
PURPOSE: To use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and clinical patient data to create an artificial intelligence (AI) framework for the prediction of therapeutic outcomes of transarterial chemoembolization by applying machine learning (ML) techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 36 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transarterial chemoembolization. The cohort (age 62 ± 8.9 years; 31 men; 13 white; 24 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0, 10 status 1, 2 status 2; 31 Child-Pugh stage A, 4 stage B, 1 stage C; 1 Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0, 12 stage A, 10 stage B, 13 stage C; tumor size 5...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544449/development-and-validation-of-a-diagnostic-model-for-early-differentiation-of-sepsis-and-non-infectious-sirs-in-critically-ill-children-a-data-driven-approach-using-machine-learning-algorithms
#15
Florian Lamping, Thomas Jack, Nicole Rübsamen, Michael Sasse, Philipp Beerbaum, Rafael T Mikolajczyk, Martin Boehne, André Karch
BACKGROUND: Since early antimicrobial therapy is mandatory in septic patients, immediate diagnosis and distinction from non-infectious SIRS is essential but hampered by the similarity of symptoms between both entities. We aimed to develop a diagnostic model for differentiation of sepsis and non-infectious SIRS in critically ill children based on routinely available parameters (baseline characteristics, clinical/laboratory parameters, technical/medical support). METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted at a German tertiary-care pediatric intensive care unit (PICU)...
March 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539425/the-cdk4-6-inhibitor-abemaciclib-induces-a-t-cell-inflamed-tumor-microenvironment-and-enhances-the-efficacy-of-pd-l1-checkpoint-blockade
#16
David A Schaer, Richard P Beckmann, Jack A Dempsey, Lysiane Huber, Amelie Forest, Nelusha Amaladas, Yanxia Li, Ying Cindy Wang, Erik R Rasmussen, Darin Chin, Andrew Capen, Carmine Carpenito, Kirk A Staschke, Linda A Chung, Lacey M Litchfield, Farhana F Merzoug, Xueqian Gong, Philip W Iversen, Sean Buchanan, Alfonso de Dios, Ruslan D Novosiadly, Michael Kalos
Abemaciclib, an inhibitor of cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6), has recently been approved for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. In this study, we use murine syngeneic tumor models and in vitro assays to investigate the impact of abemaciclib on T cells, the tumor immune microenvironment and the ability to combine with anti-PD-L1 blockade. Abemaciclib monotherapy resulted in tumor growth delay that was associated with an increased T cell inflammatory signature in tumors. Combination with anti-PD-L1 therapy led to complete tumor regressions and immunological memory, accompanied by enhanced antigen presentation, a T cell inflamed phenotype, and enhanced cell cycle control...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535202/fecal-microbiota-signatures-are-associated-with-response-to-ustekinumab-therapy-among-crohn-s-disease-patients
#17
Matthew K Doherty, Tao Ding, Charlie Koumpouras, Shannon E Telesco, Calixte Monast, Anuk Das, Carrie Brodmerkel, Patrick D Schloss
The fecal microbiota is a rich source of biomarkers that have previously been shown to be predictive of numerous disease states. Less well studied is the effect of immunomodulatory therapy on the microbiota and its role in response to therapy. This study explored associations between the fecal microbiota and therapeutic response of Crohn's disease (CD) patients treated with ustekinumab (UST; Stelara) in the phase 2 CERTIFI study. Using stool samples collected over the course of 22 weeks, the composition of these subjects' fecal bacterial communities was characterized by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene...
March 13, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518090/gait-phenotypes-in-paediatric-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia-revealed-by-dynamic-time-warping-analysis-and-random-forests
#18
Irene Pulido-Valdeolivas, David Gómez-Andrés, Juan Andrés Martín-Gonzalo, Irene Rodríguez-Andonaegui, Javier López-López, Samuel Ignacio Pascual-Pascual, Estrella Rausell
The Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias (HSP) are a group of heterogeneous disorders with a wide spectrum of underlying neural pathology, and hence HSP patients express a variety of gait abnormalities. Classification of these phenotypes may help in monitoring disease progression and personalizing therapies. This is currently managed by measuring values of some kinematic and spatio-temporal parameters at certain moments during the gait cycle, either in the doctor´s surgery room or after very precise measurements produced by instrumental gait analysis (IGA)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516608/comparison-of-single-versus-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-after-tavr-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Hitesh Raheja, Aakash Garg, Sunny Goel, Kinjal Banerjee, Gerald Hollander, Jacob Shani, Stephanie Mick, Jonathan White, Amar Krishnaswamy, Samir Kapadia
OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate the efficacy of dual versus single anti-platelet therapy (SAPT) after TAVR through a systematic review and meta-analysis of published research. BACKGROUND: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel is a commonly practiced strategy after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). However, there is lack of sufficient evidence supporting this approach. METHOD: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and the clinical trial registry maintained at clinicaltrials...
March 8, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514017/mr-imaging-of-rectal-cancer-radiomics-analysis-to-assess-treatment-response-after-neoadjuvant-therapy
#20
Natally Horvat, Harini Veeraraghavan, Monika Khan, Ivana Blazic, Junting Zheng, Marinela Capanu, Evis Sala, Julio Garcia-Aguilar, Marc J Gollub, Iva Petkovska
Purpose To investigate the value of T2-weighted-based radiomics compared with qualitative assessment at T2-weighted imaging and diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging for diagnosis of clinical complete response in patients with rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy-radiation therapy (CRT). Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 114 patients with rectal cancer who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging after CRT between March 2012 and February 2016. Median age among women (47 of 114, 41%) was 55...
March 7, 2018: Radiology
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