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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905172/recommendations-for-pathologic-staging-ptnm-of-cancer-of-the-esophagus-and-esophagogastric-junction-for-the-8th-edition-ajcc-uicc-staging-manuals
#1
T W Rice, H Ishwaran, W L Hofstetter, D P Kelsen, C Apperson-Hansen, E H Blackstone
We report analytic and consensus processes that produced recommendations for pathologic stage groups (pTNM) of esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancer for the AJCC/UICC cancer staging manuals, 8th edition. The Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration provided data for 22,654 patients with epithelial esophageal cancers; 13,300 without preoperative therapy had pathologic assessment after esophagectomy or endoscopic treatment. Risk-adjusted survival for each patient was developed using random survival forest analysis to identify data-driven pathologic stage groups wherein survival decreased monotonically with increasing group, was distinctive between groups, and homogeneous within groups...
November 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905170/recommendations-for-neoadjuvant-pathologic-staging-yptnm-of-cancer-of-the-esophagus-and-esophagogastric-junction-for-the-8th-edition-ajcc-uicc-staging-manuals
#2
Thomas W Rice, Hemant Ishwaran, David P Kelsen, Wayne L Hofstetter, Carolyn Apperson-Hansen, Eugene H Blackstone
We report analytic and consensus processes that produced recommendations for neoadjuvant pathologic stage groups (ypTNM) of esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancer for the AJCC/UICC cancer staging manuals, 8th edition. The Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration provided data for 22,654 patients with epithelial esophageal cancers; 7,773 had pathologic assessment after neoadjuvant therapy. Risk-adjusted survival for each patient was developed. Random forest analysis identified data-driven neoadjuvant pathologic stage groups wherein survival decreased monotonically with increasing group, was distinctive between groups, and homogeneous within groups...
November 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903285/prognostic-biomarkers-to-identify-patients-destined-to-develop-severe-crohn-s-disease-who-may-benefit-from-early-biological-therapy-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-external-validation
#3
Steve Halligan, Darren Boone, Gauraang Bhatnagar, Tariq Ahmad, Stuart Bloom, Manuel Rodriguez-Justo, Stuart A Taylor, Susan Mallett
BACKGROUND: It is believed increasingly that patients with severe Crohn's disease are best treated early with biological therapy, which may ameliorate subsequent disease course and diminish long-term complications. However, we cannot predict currently which new presentations of Crohn's disease are destined to develop severe disease so treatment cannot be targeted to the most appropriate patients. Accordingly, via systematic review and meta-analysis we aim to identify if biomarkers of disease activity are able to predict development of severe disease...
December 1, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893926/estimation-of-the-optimal-regime-in-treatment-of-prostate-cancer-recurrence-from-observational-data-using-flexible-weighting-models
#4
Jincheng Shen, Lu Wang, Jeremy M G Taylor
Prostate cancer patients are closely followed after the initial therapy and salvage treatment may be prescribed to prevent or delay cancer recurrence. The salvage treatment decision is usually made dynamically based on the patient's evolving history of disease status and other time-dependent clinical covariates. A multi-center prostate cancer observational study has provided us data on longitudinal prostate specific antigen (PSA) measurements, time-varying salvage treatment, and cancer recurrence time. These data enable us to estimate the best dynamic regime of salvage treatment, while accounting for the complicated confounding of time-varying covariates present in the data...
November 28, 2016: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864220/estimating-12-weeks-death-probability-in-patients-with-refractory-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-the-colon-life-nomogram
#5
F Pietrantonio, R Miceli, L Rimassa, S Lonardi, G Aprile, A Mennitto, F Marmorino, S Bozzarelli, L Antonuzzo, E Tamburini, F Morano, D Rossini, F Battaglin, M Baretti, R Berenato, V Formica, S Mosconi, F Petrelli, M Ghidini, F Loupakis, D Spada, S Cinieri, G Beretta, A Falcone, F de Braud, C Cremolini
BACKGROUND: Regorafenib and TAS-102 have recently demonstrated statistically significant survival gains in patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Life expectancy ≥12 weeks was an inclusion criterion in registrative trials, and the identification of proper clinical selection tools for the daily use of these drugs in heavily pre-treated patients is needed to improve the cost-benefit ratio. We aimed at building a nomogram able to predict death probability within 12 weeks from the date of assessment of refractory mCRC...
November 17, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837497/the-changing-epidemiology-of-invasive-fungal-infections
#6
David A Enoch, Huina Yang, Sani H Aliyu, Christianne Micallef
Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are an emerging problem worldwide with invasive candidiasis and candidemia responsible for the majority of cases. This is predominantly driven by the widespread adoption of aggressive immunosuppressive therapy among certain patient populations (e.g., chemotherapy, transplants) and the increasing use of invasive devices such as central venous catheters (CVCs). The use of new immune modifying drugs has also opened up an entirely new spectrum of patients at risk of IFIs. While the epidemiology of candida infections has changed in the last decade, with a gradual shift from C...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831501/characterizing-cd137-upregulation-on-nk-cells-in-patients-receiving-monoclonal-antibody-therapy
#7
A Makkouk, V Sundaram, C Chester, S Chang, A D Colevas, J B Sunwoo, H Maecker, M Desai, H E Kohrt
BACKGROUND: In the era of personalized cancer medicine, identifying techniques for effectively matching patients to efficacious treatments is a critical step in the treatment process. The advent of anti-cancer immunotherapies necessitates novel approaches to biomarker identification beyond traditional genomic profiling. One promising approach is incorporation of nomograms into treatment decisions. Nomograms are prediction tools, based on statistical modeling, designed to predict treatment outcomes...
November 9, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798267/fully-automated-stroke-tissue-estimation-using-random-forest-classifiers-faster
#8
Richard McKinley, Levin Häni, Jan Gralla, M El-Koussy, S Bauer, M Arnold, U Fischer, S Jung, Kaspar Mattmann, Mauricio Reyes, Roland Wiest
Several clinical trials have recently proven the efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy for treating ischemic stroke, within a six-hour window for therapy. To move beyond treatment windows and toward personalized risk assessment, it is essential to accurately identify the extent of tissue-at-risk ("penumbra"). We introduce a fully automated method to estimate the penumbra volume using multimodal MRI (diffusion-weighted imaging, a T2w- and T1w contrast-enhanced sequence, and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783539/a-new-approach-for-identifying-patients-with-undiagnosed-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
Fernando J Martinez, David Mannino, Nancy Kline Leidy, Karen G Malley, Elizabeth D Bacci, R Graham Barr, Russ P Bowler, MeiLan K Han, Julia F Houfek, Barry Make, Catherine A Meldrum, Stephen Rennard, Byron Thomashow, John Walsh, Barbara P Yawn
OBJECTIVE: Develop a method for identifying undiagnosed COPD requiring treatment with currently available therapies (FEV1 <60% predicted and/or exacerbation risk). METHODS: Multi-site, cross-sectional, case-control study in U.S. pulmonary and primary care clinics that recruited subjects from primary care settings. CASES: COPD and ≥ 1 exacerbation past year or FEV1 <60% predicted without exacerbation past year. CONTROLS: No COPD or mild COPD (FEV1 ≥ 60% predicted, no exacerbation past year)...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775609/meta-analysis-of-early-nutrition-the-benefits-of-enteral-feeding-compared-to-a-nil-per-os-diet-not-only-in-severe-but-also-in-mild-and-moderate-acute-pancreatitis
#10
Katalin Márta, Nelli Farkas, Imre Szabó, Anita Illés, Áron Vincze, Gabriella Pár, Patrícia Sarlós, Judit Bajor, Ákos Szűcs, József Czimmer, Dóra Mosztbacher, Andrea Párniczky, Kata Szemes, Dániel Pécsi, Péter Hegyi
The recently published guidelines for acute pancreatitis (AP) suggest that enteral nutrition (EN) should be the primary therapy in patients suffering from severe acute pancreatitis (SAP); however, none of the guidelines have recommendations on mild and moderate AP (MAP). A meta-analysis was performed using the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P). The following PICO (problem, intervention, comparison, outcome) was applied: P: nutrition in AP; I: enteral nutrition (EN); C: nil per os diet (NPO); and O: outcome...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754282/hw-04-3-global-network-for-her-based-big-data-analysis
#11
Peter Rijnbeek
Massive numbers of electronic health records are currently being collected globally, including structured data in the form of diagnoses, medications, laboratory test results, and unstructured data contained in clinical narratives. This opens unprecedented possibilities for research and ultimately patient care. However, actual use of these databases in a multi-center study is severely hampered by a variety of challenges, e.g., each database has a different database structure and uses different terminology systems...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742636/drug-concentration-thresholds-predictive-of-therapy-failure-and-death-in-children-with-tuberculosis-bread-crumb-trails-in-random-forests
#12
Soumya Swaminathan, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Geetha Ramachandran, A K Hemanth Kumar, Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Eric Nuermberger, Tawanda Gumbo
BACKGROUND:  The role of drug concentrations in clinical outcomes in children with tuberculosis is unclear. Target concentrations for dose optimization are unknown. METHODS:  Plasma drug concentrations measured in Indian children with tuberculosis were modeled using compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses. The children were followed until end of therapy to ascertain therapy failure or death. An ensemble of artificial intelligence algorithms, including random forests, was used to identify predictors of clinical outcome from among 30 clinical, laboratory, and pharmacokinetic variables...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742486/antiviral-activities-of-niclosamide-and-nitazoxanide-against-chikungunya-virus-entry-and-transmission
#13
Yu-Ming Wang, Jeng-Wei Lu, Chang-Chi Lin, Yuan-Fan Chin, Tzong-Yuan Wu, Liang-In Lin, Zheng-Zong Lai, Szu-Cheng Kuo, Yi-Jung Ho
Chikungunya disease results from an infection with the arbovirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Symptoms of CHIKV include fever and persistent, severe arthritis. In recent years, several antiviral drugs have been evaluated in clinical trials; however, no registered antivirals have been approved for clinical therapy. In this study, we established a high-throughput screening (HTS) system based on CHIKV 26S mediated insect cell fusion inhibition assay. Our screening system was able to search potential anti-CHIKV drugs in vitro...
October 11, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740961/basic-molecular-pathology-and-cytogenetics-for-practicing-pathologists-correlation-with-morphology-and-with-a-focus-on-aspects-of-diagnostic-or-therapeutic-utility
#14
Georgia Karpathiou, Anna Batistatou, Fabien Forest, Alix Clemenson, Michel Peoc'h
Morphology, as confronted in the everyday practice, often correlates with specific molecular features, which have important implications not only in pathogenesis and in diagnosis but also in prognosis and therapy. Thus, it is important that the classical pathology includes a sound knowledge of molecular aspects of disease. These molecular concepts are complex and not easily understood by all engaged in the routine practice of histopathology. Thus, the aim of this review is to present a summary of most of the necessary concepts for pathologists involving molecular pathology and genetics, beginning from basic definitions and mechanisms to major abnormalities and the methodology to detect them, correlating at the same time, the specific morphologic features associated with every abnormality...
November 2016: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739033/pseudo-typed-semliki-forest-virus-delivers-egfp-into-neurons
#15
Fan Jia, Huan Miao, Xutao Zhu, Fuqiang Xu
Semliki Forest virus (SFV), a neurotropic virus, has been used to deliver heterologous genes into cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we constructed a reporter SFV4-FL-EGFP and found that it can deliver EGFP into neurons located at the injection site without disseminating throughout the brain. Lacking of the capsid gene of SFV4-FL-EGFP does not block its life cycle, while forming replication-competent virus-like particles (VLPs). These VLPs hold subviral genome by using the packaging sequence (PS) located within the nsP2 gene, and can transfer their genome into cells...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736893/detection-of-independent-associations-of-plasma-lipidomic-parameters-with-insulin-sensitivity-indices-using-data-mining-methodology
#16
Steffi Kopprasch, Srirangan Dheban, Kai Schuhmann, Aimin Xu, Klaus-Martin Schulte, Charmaine J Simeonovic, Peter E H Schwarz, Stefan R Bornstein, Andrej Shevchenko, Juergen Graessler
OBJECTIVE: Glucolipotoxicity is a major pathophysiological mechanism in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). We aimed to detect subtle changes in the circulating lipid profile by shotgun lipidomics analyses and to associate them with four different insulin sensitivity indices. METHODS: The cross-sectional study comprised 90 men with a broad range of insulin sensitivity including normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 33), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 32) and newly detected T2D (n = 25)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703049/detection-of-genomic-dna-damage-from-radiated-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells-via-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-sers
#17
Lin Ou, Yang Chen, Ying Su, Changyan Zou, Zhong Chen
Structural changes and chemical modifications in DNA during interactions with X-ray radiation are still not clear within 48 h of incubation. We investigate genomic DNA from the radiated CNE2 cell line within 48 h of incubation using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Multivariate methods including principal component analysis (PCA) and random forest are proposed to explore the statistical significance before and after radiation. Our results show that intensities of several bands change after radiation, which indicates backbone damage and base-unstacking...
October 4, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663387/an-independently-validated-nomogram-for-individualized-estimation-of-survival-among-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-glioblastoma-nrg-oncology-rtog-0525-and-0825
#18
Haley Gittleman, Daniel Lim, Michael W Kattan, Arnab Chakravarti, Mark R Gilbert, Andrew B Lassman, Simon S Lo, Mitchell Machtay, Andrew E Sloan, Erik P Sulman, Devin Tian, Michael A Vogelbaum, Tony J C Wang, Marta Penas-Prado, Emad Youssef, Deborah T Blumenthal, Peixin Zhang, Minesh P Mehta, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor. Nomograms are often used for individualized estimation of prognosis. This study aimed to build and independently validate a nomogram to estimate individualized survival probabilities for patients with newly diagnosed GBM, using data from 2 independent NRG Oncology Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials. METHODS: This analysis included information on 799 (RTOG 0525) and 555 (RTOG 0825) eligible and randomized patients with newly diagnosed GBM and contained the following variables: age at diagnosis, race, gender, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), extent of resection, O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status, and survival (in months)...
September 23, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662651/sequence-based-prediction-of-antioxidant-proteins-using-a-classifier-selection-strategy
#19
Lina Zhang, Chengjin Zhang, Rui Gao, Runtao Yang, Qing Song
Antioxidant proteins perform significant functions in maintaining oxidation/antioxidation balance and have potential therapies for some diseases. Accurate identification of antioxidant proteins could contribute to revealing physiological processes of oxidation/antioxidation balance and developing novel antioxidation-based drugs. In this study, an ensemble method is presented to predict antioxidant proteins with hybrid features, incorporating SSI (Secondary Structure Information), PSSM (Position Specific Scoring Matrix), RSA (Relative Solvent Accessibility), and CTD (Composition, Transition, Distribution)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651465/validating-genetic-markers-of-response-to-recombinant-human-growth-hormone-r-hgh-in-children-with-growth-hormone-deficiency-ghd-and-turner-syndrome-ts-the-predict-validation-study
#20
Adam Stevens, Philip George Murray, Jerome Wojcik, John Raelson, Ekaterina Koledova, Pierre Chatelain, Peter E Clayton
OBJECTIVE: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the response to r-hGH have previously been identified in GHD and TS children in the PREDICT long-term follow-up (LTFU) study (NCT00699855). Here we describe the PREDICT validation (VAL) study (NCT01419249) which aimed to confirm these genetic associations. DESIGN AND METHODS: Children with GHD (n=293) or TS (n=132) were recruited retrospectively from 29 sites in nine countries. All children had completed one year of r-hGH therapy...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
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