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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214208/reduced-immunohistochemical-expression-of-adhesion-molecules-in-vitiligo-skin-biopsies
#1
Adriane Reichert Faria, Juliana Elizabeth Jung, Caio César Silva de Castro, Lucia de Noronha
Because defects in adhesion impairment seem to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of vitiligo, this study aimed to compare the immunohistochemical expression of several adhesion molecules in the epidermis of vitiligo and non lesional vitiligo skin. Sixty-six specimens of lesional and non lesional skin from 33 volunteers with vitiligo were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using anti-beta-catenin, anti-E-cadherin, anti-laminin, anti-beta1 integrin, anti-collagen IV, anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies. Biopsies of vitiligo skin demonstrated a significant reduction in the expression of laminin and integrin...
December 30, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213554/hypoxia-selectively-enhances-integrin-receptor-expression-to-promote-metastasis
#2
Julia A Ju, Ines Godet, I Chae Ye, Jungmin Byun, Hasini Jayatilaka, Sun Joo Lee, Lisha Xiang, Debangshu Samanta, Meng Horng Lee, Pei-Hsun Wu, Denis Wirtz, Gregg L Semenza, Daniele M Gilkes
: Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer (BCa)mortality. Previous studies have implicated hypoxia-induced changes in the composition and stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the metastatic process. Therefore, the contribution of potential ECM binding receptors in this process was explored. Using a bioinformatics approach the expression of all integrin receptor subunits, in two independent BCa patient data sets, were analyzed to determine if integrin status correlates with a validated hypoxiainducible gene signature...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213494/plc%C3%AE%C2%B51-regulates-sdf-1%C3%AE-induced-lymphocyte-adhesion-and-migration-to-sites-of-inflammation
#3
Marianne Strazza, Inbar Azoulay-Alfaguter, Michael Peled, Alan V Smrcka, Edward Y Skolnik, Shekhar Srivastava, Adam Mor
Regulation of integrins is critical for lymphocyte adhesion to endothelium and migration throughout the body. Inside-out signaling to integrins is mediated by the small GTPase Ras-proximate-1 (Rap1). Using an RNA-mediated interference screen, we identified phospholipase Cε 1 (PLCε1) as a crucial regulator of stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α)-induced Rap1 activation. We have shown that SDF-1α-induced activation of Rap1 is transient in comparison with the sustained level following cross-linking of the antigen receptor...
February 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213315/focal-adhesion-kinase-signaling-in-unexpected-places
#4
REVIEW
Elizabeth G Kleinschmidt, David D Schlaepfer
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase first identified at extracellular matrix and integrin receptor cell adhesion sites and is a key regulator of cell movement. FAK is activated by a variety of stimuli. Herein, we discuss advances in conformational-associated FAK activation and dimerization mechanisms. Additionally, new roles have emerged for FAK signaling at cell adhesions, adherens junctions, endosomes, and the nucleus. In light of these new findings, we review how FAK activation at these sites is connected to the regulation of integrin recycling-activation, vascular permeability, cell survival, and transcriptional regulation, respectively...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211875/a-hyaluronan-hydrogel-scaffold-based-xeno-free-culture-system-for-ex-vivo-expansion-of-human-corneal-epithelial-stem-cells
#5
D Chen, Y Qu, X Hua, L Zhang, Z Liu, S C Pflugfelder, D-Q Li
PurposeTo develop a hyaluronan hydrogel scaffold-based xeno-free culture system for ex vivo cultivation of human corneal epithelial stem cells (CESCs).Patients and MethodsCESCs were cultivated from donor limbal explants on the HyStem-C Hydrogel bio-scaffold in 12-well plates for 3 weeks. Group A used the traditional supplemented hormonal epidermal medium (SHEM) and group B used the defined SHEM (without fetal bovine serum and toxin A, adding 20% serum replacement). The growth and morphology of the cultured cells were assessed by phase contrast microscope...
February 17, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209987/targeting-phospholipase-d-in-cancer-infection-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#6
REVIEW
H Alex Brown, Paul G Thomas, Craig W Lindsley
Lipid second messengers have essential roles in cellular function and contribute to the molecular mechanisms that underlie inflammation, malignant transformation, invasiveness, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious and other pathophysiological processes. The phospholipase D (PLD) isoenzymes PLD1 and PLD2 are one of the major sources of signal-activated phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) generation downstream of a variety of cell-surface receptors, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and integrins...
February 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208020/graphene-oxide-induced-perturbation-to-plasma-membrane-and-cytoskeletal-meshwork-sensitize-cancer-cells-to-chemotherapeutic-agents
#7
Jianqiang Zhu, Ming Xu, Ming Gao, Zhihong Zhang, Yong Xu, Tian Xia, Sijin Liu
The outstanding physicochemical properties endow graphene materials (e.g. graphene oxide, GO) with beneficial potentials in diverse biomedical fields such as bioimaging, drug delivery and biomolecular detection. GO recently emerges to act as chemosensitizer; however, the detailed molecular bases underlying GO-conducted sensitization and according biological effects are still elusive. Based on our recent findings that GO treatment at sublethal concentrations could impair the general cellular priming state including disorders of plasma membrane and cytoskeleton construction, we here aimed to explore the mechanism of GO as a sensitizer to make cancer cells more susceptible to chemotherapeutic agents...
February 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207301/mucosal-chemokines
#8
Marcela Hernández-Ruiz, Albert Zlotnik
Several chemokines have important functions in mucosal immunity. While there are many chemokines, 4 of them (CCL25, CCL28, CXCL14, and CXCL17) are especially important in mucosal immunity because they are homeostatically expressed in mucosal tissues. Of these, only CCL25 and CCL28 have been widely recognized as mucosal chemokines. In this study, we review the physiology of these chemokines with specific emphasis on their function in mucosal immunity. CCL25 recruits certain important subsets of T cells that express CCR9 to the small intestine...
February 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205127/apoptosis-induced-by-a-snake-venom-metalloproteinase-from-bothrops-alternatus-venom-in-c2c12-muscle-cells
#9
Soledad Bustillo, Andrea C Van de Velde, Verónica Matzner Perfumo, Claudia C Gay, Laura C Leiva
In this study, the apoptosis inducing effects of baltergin as well as its influence on cell adhesion and migration on muscles cells in vitro were studied. Morphological analysis made by scanning electron and phase contrast microscopy demonstrated typical futures of programmed cell death, apoptosis. This mechanism was confirmed by fluorescence staining, molecular analysis of endonuclease activity and increased mRNA expression level of two representative genes (p53 and bax). On the other hand, baltergin exert an inhibition effect on myoblast cell adhesion and migration in vitro probably through a mechanism that involves the interaction of this enzyme with cell integrins...
February 15, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204969/convergent-evolution-of-the-osmoregulation-system-in-decapod-shrimps
#10
Jianbo Yuan, Xiaojun Zhang, Chengzhang Liu, Hu Duan, Fuhua Li, Jianhai Xiang
In adaptating to different aquatic environments, seawater (SW) and freshwater (FW) shrimps have exploited different adaptation strategies, which should generate clusters of genes with different adaptive features. However, little is known about the genetic basis of these physiological adaptations. Thus, in this study, we performed comparative transcriptomics and adaptive evolution analyses on SW and FW shrimps and found that convergent evolution may have happened on osmoregulation system of shrimps. We identified 275 and 234 positively selected genes in SW and FW shrimps, respectively, which enriched in the functions of ion-binding and membrane-bounded organelles...
February 15, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204866/vedolizumab-treatment-for-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-induced-enterocolitis
#11
Viktoria Bergqvist, Erik Hertervig, Peter Gedeon, Marija Kopljar, Håkan Griph, Sara Kinhult, Ana Carneiro, Jan Marsal
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPI), such as ipilimumab [anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibody] and nivolumab or pembrolizumab [anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) antibodies], improve survival in several cancer types. Since inhibition of CTLA-4 or PD-1 leads to non-selective activation of the immune system, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are frequent. Enterocolitis is a common irAE, currently managed with corticosteroids and, if necessary, anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203099/a-new-dermocosmetic-containing-retinaldehyde-delta-tocopherol-glucoside-and-glycylglycine-oleamide-for-managing-naturally-aged-skin-results-from-in-vitro-to-clinical-studies
#12
Céline Rouvrais, Daniel Bacqueville, Patrick Bogdanowicz, Marie-José Haure, Laure Duprat, Christine Coutanceau, Nathalie Castex-Rizzi, Hélène Duplan, Valérie Mengeaud, Sandrine Bessou-Touya
INTRODUCTION: Natural aging of skin tissues, the addition of the cumulative action of the time and radiation exposure result in skin atrophy, wrinkles and degeneration of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The aim of the study was to investigate the beneficial effect of a combination containing retinaldehyde (RAL), delta-tocopherol glucoside (delta-TC) and glycylglycine ole-amide (GGO) and of a dermocosmetic containing the combination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protective effect of the combination was assessed through in vitro gene expression of ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated fibroblasts...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202937/focal-adhesion-kinase-activity-is-required-for-actomyosin-contractility-based-invasion-of-cells-into-dense-3d-matrices
#13
Claudia T Mierke, Tony Fischer, Stefanie Puder, Tom Kunschmann, Birga Soetje, Wolfgang H Ziegler
The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates the dynamics of integrin-based cell adhesions important for motility. FAK's activity regulation is involved in stress-sensing and focal-adhesion turnover. The effect of FAK on 3D migration and cellular mechanics is unclear. We analyzed FAK knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts and cells expressing a kinase-dead FAK mutant, R454-FAK, in comparison to FAK wild-type cells. FAK knock-out and FAK(R454/R454) cells invade dense 3D matrices less efficiently. These results are supported by FAK knock-down in wild-type fibroblasts and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells showing reduced invasiveness...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198180/engineering-recombinant-virus-like-nanoparticles-from-plants-for-cellular-delivery
#14
Lou Brillault, Philippe V Jutras, Noor Dashti, Eva C Thuenemann, Garry Morgan, George P Lomonossoff, Michael J Landsberg, Frank Sainsbury
Understanding capsid assembly following recombinant expression of viral structural proteins is critical to the design and modification of virus-like nanoparticles for biomedical and nanotechnology applications. Here, we use plant-based transient expression of the Bluetongue virus (BTV) structural proteins, VP3 and VP7, to obtain high yields of empty and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encapsidating core-like particles (CLPs) from leaves. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy of both types of particles revealed considerable differences in CLP structure compared to the crystal structure of infection-derived CLPs; in contrast, the two recombinant CLPs have an identical external structure...
February 15, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197173/targeting-cell-surface-receptors-for-axon-regeneration-in-the-central-nervous-system
#15
REVIEW
Menghon Cheah, Melissa R Andrews
Axon regeneration in the CNS is largely unsuccessful due to excess inhibitory extrinsic factors within lesion sites together with an intrinsic inability of neurons to regrow following injury. Recent work demonstrates that forced expression of certain neuronal transmembrane receptors can recapitulate neuronal growth resulting in successful growth within and through inhibitory lesion environments. More specifically, neuronal expression of integrin receptors such as alpha9beta1 integrin which binds the extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-C, trk receptors such as trkB which binds the neurotrophic factor BDNF, and receptor PTPσ which binds chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans, have all been show to significantly enhance regeneration of injured axons...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195700/discovery-and-characterization-of-a-potent-and-specific-peptide-ligand-targeting-endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-endothelial-cells-for-tissue-regeneration
#16
Dake Hao, Wenwu Xiao, Ruiwu Liu, Priyadarsini Kumar, YuanPei Li, Ping Zhou, Fuzheng Guo, Diana L Farmer, Kit S Lam, Fengshan Wang, Aijun Wang
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) play a vital role in endothelialization and vascularization for tissue regeneration. Various EPC/EC targeting biomolecules have been investigated to improve tissue regeneration with limited success often due to their limited functional specificity and structural stability. One-Bead-One-Compound (OBOC) combinatorial technology is an ultra-high throughput chemical library synthesis and screening method suitable for ligand discovery against a wide range of biological targets, such as integrins...
February 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194217/schisandra-chinensis-and-morus-alba-synergistically-inhibit-in-vivo-thrombus-formation-and-platelet-aggregation-by-impairing-the-glycoprotein-vi-pathway
#17
Dong-Seon Kim, Muhammad Irfan, Yoon-Young Sung, Seung Hyung Kim, Sun Haeng Park, Young Hyun Choi, Man Hee Rhee, Ho Kyoung Kim
Morus alba L. (MAL) extract has been used in traditional medicine for its cardioprotective and antiplatelet effects, while another herbal remedy, Schisandra chinensis (SCC), has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We evaluated underlying cellular changes exerted by extracts of these plants on platelet function and effects of SCC + MAL on in vivo thrombus formation using AV shunt and tail thrombosis-length models in rats. In vitro platelet aggregation, granule secretion, and [Ca(2+)] i release assays were carried out...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193885/essential-role-of-immobilized-chemokine-cxcl12-in-the-regulation-of-the-humoral-immune-response
#18
Aleksandr Barinov, Lingjie Luo, Pamela Gasse, Vannary Meas-Yedid, Emmanuel Donnadieu, Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos, Paulo Vieira
Chemokines control the migration of a large array of cells by binding to specific receptors on cell surfaces. The biological function of chemokines also depends on interactions between nonreceptor binding domains and proteoglycans, which mediate chemokine immobilization on cellular or extracellular surfaces and formation of fixed gradients. Chemokine gradients regulate synchronous cell motility and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Of the various chemokines, CXCL12 has a unique structure because its receptor-binding domain is distinct and does not overlap with the immobilization domains...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193541/a-nano-scaled-and-multi-layered-recombinant-fibronectin-cadherin-chimera-composite-selectively-concentrates-osteogenesis-related-cells-and-factors-to-aid-bone-repair
#19
Junchao Xing, Tieniu Mei, Keyu Luo, Zhiqiang Li, Aijun Yang, Zhilin Li, Zhao Xie, Zehua Zhang, Shiwu Dong, Tianyong Hou, Jianzhong Xu, Fei Luo
: Easily accessible and effective bone grafts are in urgent need in clinic. The selective cell retention (SCR) strategy, by which osteogenesis-related cells and factors are enriched from bone marrow into bio-scaffolds, holds great promise. However, the retention efficacy is limited by the relatively low densities of osteogenesis-related cells and factors in marrow; in addition, a lack of satisfactory surface modifiers for scaffolds further exacerbates the dilemma. To address this issue, a multi-layered construct consisting of a recombinant fibronectin/cadherin chimera was established via a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique (LBL-rFN/CDH) and used to modify demineralised bone matrix (DBM) scaffolds...
February 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193317/identification-of-differentially-expressed-placental-transcripts-during-multiple-gestations-in-the-eurasian-beaver-castor-fiber-l
#20
A Lipka, L Paukszto, M Majewska, J P Jastrzebski, K Myszczynski, G Panasiewicz, B Szafranska
The Eurasian beaver is one of the largest rodents that, despite its high impact on the environment, is a non-model species that lacks a reference genome. Characterising genes critical for pregnancy outcome can serve as a basis for identifying mechanisms underlying effective reproduction, which is required for the success of endangered species conservation programs. In the present study, high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to analyse global changes in the Castor fiber subplacenta transcriptome during multiple pregnancy...
February 14, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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