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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471261/regulation-of-cortical-and-peripheral-gch1-expression-and-biopterin-levels-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#1
James D Clelland, Laura L Read, Jennifer Smeed, Catherine L Clelland
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4 ) is an essential cofactor for dopamine, serotonin and nitric oxide synthesis. Deficits of plasma total biopterin (a measure of BH4 ) have been described in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. GCH1 encodes the first and rate-limiting enzyme in BH4 synthesis. Peripheral GCH1 expression is lower in first episode psychosis patients versus controls, and we hypothesized that a GCH1 promoter polymorphism associated with psychiatric illness, contributes to regulation of both GCH1 expression and BH4 levels...
February 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470766/haloperidol-attenuates-methylphenidate-and-modafinil-induced-behavioural-sensitization-and-cognitive-enhancement
#2
Nausheen Alam, Kulsoom Choudhary
Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated psychostimulant administration produces behavioural sensitization and cognitive tolerance. Brain dopaminergic system and the involvement of dopamine D2 -receptors are considered to be important in psychostimulant-induced sensitization. Study designed to compared the motor activity by using familiar and novel enviroments and cognitive effects by water maze and passive avoidance test after long term administration of methylphenidate(at the dose 0.6 mg/kg/day, 2...
February 22, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470647/dopaminergic-innervation-and-modulation-of-hippocampal-networks
#3
REVIEW
Elke Edelmann, Volkmar Lessmann
The catecholamine dopamine plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent plasticity and related learning and memory processes. Dopamine secretion in the hippocampus is activated by, e.g., salient or novel stimuli, thereby helping to establish and to stabilize hippocampus-dependent memories. Disturbed dopaminergic function in the hippocampus leads to severe pathophysiological conditions. While the role and importance of dopaminergic modulation of hippocampal networks have been unequivocally proven, there is still a lack of detailed molecular and cellular mechanistic understanding of how dopamine orchestrates these hippocampal processes...
February 22, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468732/antidepressant-effects-of-dammarane-sapogenins-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-mice
#4
Ning Jiang, Bei-Yue Zhang, Li-Ming Dong, Jing-Wei Lv, Cong Lu, Qiong Wang, Lin-Xi Fan, Hong-Xia Zhang, Rui-Le Pan, Xin-Min Liu
Depression is a common, dysthymic, and psychiatric disorder, resulting in enormous social and economic burden. Dammarane sapogenins (DS), an active fraction from oriental ginseng, has shown antidepressant-like effects in chronic restraint rats and sleep interruption-induced mice, and the present study aimed to further confirm the antidepressant effects of DS in a model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and to explore the underlying mechanism. Oral administration of DS (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) markedly improved depressant-like behaviors, increasing the sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test and reducing the latency in the novelty-suppressed feeding test, and decreasing the immobility time in both the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, compared with the CUMS mice...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468383/effect-of-levocarnitine-on-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-conventional-therapy-in-children-with-dilated-cardiomyopathy-results-of-a-randomized-trial-in-29-children
#5
Yuwen Wang, Yi Xu, Runmei Zou, Lijia Wu, Ping Liu, Hong Yang, Zhenwu Xie, Cheng Wang
BACKGROUND: The effect of levocarnitine supplementation has not been evaluated in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of oral levocarnitine supplementation in pediatric patients with DCM. METHODS: Twenty-nine children with DCM (17 male, 12 female, aged 1 month to 13 years) were divided into two groups according to a simple randomization: control group (n = 10) and experimental group (n = 19)...
February 21, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468294/behavioral-phenotyping-and-dopamine-dynamics-in-mice-with-conditional-deletion-of-the-glutamate-transporter-glt-1-in-neurons-resistance-to-the-acute-locomotor-effects-of-amphetamine
#6
Kathryn D Fischer, Alex C W Houston, Rajeev I Desai, Michelle R Doyle, Jack Bergman, Maha Mian, Rebekah Mannix, David L Sulzer, Se Joon Choi, Eugene V Mosharov, Nathaniel W Hodgson, Anita Bechtholt, Klaus A Miczek, Paul A Rosenberg
RATIONALE: GLT-1 is the major glutamate transporter in the brain and is expressed predominantly in astrocytes but is also present in excitatory axon terminals. To understand the functional significance of GLT-1 expressed in neurons, we generated a conditional GLT-1 knockout mouse and inactivated GLT-1 in neurons using Cre-recombinase expressed under the synapsin 1 promoter, (synGLT-1 KO). OBJECTIVES: Abnormalities of glutamate homeostasis have been shown to affect hippocampal-related behaviors including learning and memory as well as responses to drugs of abuse...
February 22, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468191/a-neural-circuit-mechanism-for-the-involvements-of-dopamine-in-effort-related-choices-decay-of-learned-values-secondary-effects-of-depletion-and-calculation-of-temporal-difference-error
#7
Kenji Morita, Ayaka Kato
Dopamine has been suggested to be crucially involved in effort-related choices. Key findings are that dopamine depletion (i) changed preference for a high-cost, large-reward option to a low-cost, small-reward option, (ii) but not when the large-reward option was also low-cost or the small-reward option gave no reward, (iii) while increasing the latency in all the cases but only transiently, and (iv) that antagonism of either dopamine D1 or D2 receptors also specifically impaired selection of the high-cost, large-reward option...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467662/purinergic-signaling-in-neuron-astrocyte-interactions-circadian-rhythms-and-alcohol-use-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Daniel Lindberg, Lindsey Andres-Beck, Yun-Fang Jia, Seungwoo Kang, Doo-Sup Choi
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a debilitating condition marked by cyclic patterns of craving, use, and withdrawal. These pathological behaviors are mediated by multiple neurotransmitter systems utilizing glutamate, GABA, dopamine, ATP, and adenosine. In particular, purines such as ATP and adenosine have been demonstrated to alter the phase and function of the circadian clock and are reciprocally regulated by the clock itself. Importantly, chronic ethanol intake has been demonstrated to disrupt the molecular circadian clock and is associated with altered circadian patterns of activity and sleep...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467630/neural-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-active-forgetting
#9
REVIEW
Jorge H Medina
The neurobiology of memory formation attracts much attention in the last five decades. Conversely, the rules that govern and the mechanisms underlying forgetting are less understood. In addition to retroactive interference, retrieval-induced forgetting and passive decay of time, it has been recently demonstrated that the nervous system has a diversity of active and inherent processes involved in forgetting. In Drosophila , some operate mainly at an early stage of memory formation and involves dopamine (DA) neurons, specific postsynaptic DA receptor subtypes, Rac1 activation and induces rapid active forgetting...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467627/basal-ganglia-neuromodulation-over-multiple-temporal-and-structural-scales-simulations-of-direct-pathway-msns-investigate-the-fast-onset-of-dopaminergic-effects-and-predict-the-role-of-kv4-2
#10
Robert Lindroos, Matthijs C Dorst, Kai Du, Marko Filipović, Daniel Keller, Maya Ketzef, Alexander K Kozlov, Arvind Kumar, Mikael Lindahl, Anu G Nair, Juan Pérez-Fernández, Sten Grillner, Gilad Silberberg, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski
The basal ganglia are involved in the motivational and habitual control of motor and cognitive behaviors. Striatum, the largest basal ganglia input stage, integrates cortical and thalamic inputs in functionally segregated cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loops, and in addition the basal ganglia output nuclei control targets in the brainstem. Striatal function depends on the balance between the direct pathway medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs) that express D1 dopamine receptors and the indirect pathway MSNs that express D2 dopamine receptors...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467617/quantitative-proteomics-of-synaptosomal-fractions-in-a-rat-overexpressing-human-disc1-gene-indicates-profound-synaptic-dysregulation-in-the-dorsal-striatum
#11
Fernando J Sialana, An-Li Wang, Benedetta Fazari, Martina Kristofova, Roman Smidak, Svenja V Trossbach, Carsten Korth, Joseph P Huston, Maria A de Souza Silva, Gert Lubec
Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a key protein involved in behavioral processes and various mental disorders, including schizophrenia and major depression. A transgenic rat overexpressing non-mutant human DISC1, modeling aberrant proteostasis of the DISC1 protein, displays behavioral, biochemical and anatomical deficits consistent with aspects of mental disorders, including changes in the dorsal striatum, an anatomical region critical in the development of behavioral disorders. Herein, dorsal striatum of 10 transgenic DISC1 (tgDISC1) and 10 wild type (WT) littermate control rats was used for synaptosomal preparations and for performing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based quantitative proteomics, using isobaric labeling (TMT10plex)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467589/cabergoline-induced-pneumocephalus-following-treatment-for-giant-invasive-macroprolactinoma-presenting-with-spontaneous-cerebrospinal-fluid-rhinorrhea
#12
Souha S Elabd, Maswood M Ahmad, Sameer Q Qetab, Mussa Hussain Almalki
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea is rarely reported as the first presenting feature of giant invasive macroprolactinomas. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea is usually reported as a complication of trauma, neurosurgical, and skull-based procedures (such as pituitary surgery or radiations), and less frequently after medical treatment with dopamine agonists (DAs) for macroprolactinomas. This phenomenon results from fistula creation that communicates between the subarachnoid space and the nasal cavity. Meanwhile, pneumocephalus is another well-recognized complication after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary macroadenomas...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Endocrinology and Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467419/a-neuronal-mechanism-underlying-decision-making-deficits-during-hyperdopaminergic-states
#13
Jeroen P H Verharen, Johannes W de Jong, Theresia J M Roelofs, Christiaan F M Huffels, Ruud van Zessen, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Ralph Hamelink, Ingo Willuhn, Hanneke E M den Ouden, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Roger A H Adan, Louk J M J Vanderschuren
Hyperdopaminergic states in mental disorders are associated with disruptive deficits in decision making. However, the precise contribution of topographically distinct mesencephalic dopamine pathways to decision-making processes remains elusive. Here we show, using a multidisciplinary approach, how hyperactivity of ascending projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) contributes to impaired flexible decision making in rats. Activation of the VTA-nucleus accumbens pathway leads to insensitivity to loss and punishment due to impaired processing of negative reward prediction errors...
February 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466910/the-role-of-ventral-tegmental-area-gaba-on-the-chronic-neuropathic-pain-following-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat
#14
Moon Yi Ko, Eun Young Jang, June Yeon Lee, Su Phil Kim, Sung Hun Whang, Bong Hyo Lee, Hee Young Kim, Char Ha Yang, Hee Jung Cho, Young Seob Gwak
Spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently results in chronic neuropathic pain (CNP). However, the understanding of brain neural circuits in CNP modulation is unclear. The present study examined the changes of ventral tegmental area (VTA) putative GABAergic and dopaminergic neuronal activity with CNP attenuation in rats. SCI was established by T10 clip compression injury (35 g, 1 min) in rats, and neuropathic pain behaviors, in vivo extracellular single cell recording of putative VTA GABA/dopamine neurons, extracellular GABA level, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and vesicular GABA transporters (VGAT) were measured in the VTA, respectively...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466446/the-cannabinoid-1-receptor-is-abundantly-expressed-in-striatal-striosomes-and-striosome-dendron-bouquets-of-the-substantia-nigra
#15
Margaret I Davis, Jill R Crittenden, Austin Y Feng, David A Kupferschmidt, Alipi Naydenov, Nephi Stella, Ann M Graybiel, David M Lovinger
Presynaptic cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1-R) bind endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids to modulate neurotransmitter release. CB1-Rs are expressed throughout the basal ganglia, including striatum and substantia nigra, where they play a role in learning and control of motivated actions. However, the pattern of CB1-R expression across different striatal compartments, microcircuits and efferent targets, and the contribution of different CB1-R-expressing neurons to this pattern, are unclear. We use a combination of conventional techniques and novel genetic models to evaluate CB1-R expression in striosome (patch) and matrix compartments of the striatum, and in nigral targets of striatal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466326/structure-of-the-d-2-dopamine-receptor-bound-to-the-atypical-antipsychotic-drug-risperidone
#16
Sheng Wang, Tao Che, Anat Levit, Brian K Shoichet, Daniel Wacker, Bryan L Roth
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that has been implicated in processes as diverse as reward, addiction, control of coordinated movement, metabolism and hormonal secretion. Correspondingly, dysregulation of the dopaminergic system has been implicated in diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, nausea and vomiting, among others. Dopamine's actions are mediated by a family of five G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) (viz. D1 , D2 , D3 , D4 and D5 )1 ...
January 24, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465896/insights-into-the-structure-and-function-of-the-hippocampal-formation-relevance-to-parkinson-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Orsolya Györfi, Helga Nagy, Magdolna Bokor, Szabolcs Kéri
The link between the hippocampus and declarative memory dysfunctions following the removal of the medial temporal lobe opened unexplored fields in neuroscience. In the first part of our review, we summarized current theoretical frameworks discussing the role of hippocampus in learning and memory. Several theories are highlighted suggesting that the hippocampus is responsible for assembling stimulus elements into a unitary representation that later can be utilized to simulate future events. The hippocampal formation has been implicated in a growing number of disorders, from neurodegenerative diseases to atypical cognitive ageing and depression...
January 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465221/polydopamine-surface-chemistry-a-decade-of-discovery
#18
Ji Hyun Ryu, Phillip B Messersmith, Haeshin Lee
Polydopamine is one of the simplest and most versatile approaches to functionalizing material surfaces, having been inspired by the adhesive nature of catechols and amines in mussel adhesive proteins. Since its first report in 2007, a decade of studies on polydopamine molecular structure, deposition conditions, and physicochemical properties have ensued. During this time, potential uses of polydopamine coatings have expanded in many unforeseen directions, seemingly only limited by the creativity of researchers seeking simple solutions to manipulating surface chemistry...
February 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464814/drd2-promoter-methylation-and-measures-of-alcohol-reward-functional-activation-of-reward-circuits-and-clinical-severity
#19
L Cinnamon Bidwell, Hollis C Karoly, Rachel E Thayer, Eric D Claus, Angela D Bryan, Barbara J Weiland, Sophie YorkWilliams, Kent E Hutchison
Studies have identified strong associations between D2 receptor binding potential and neural responses to rewarding stimuli and substance use. Thus, D2 receptor perturbations are central to theoretical models of the pathophysiology of substance dependence, and epigenetic changes may represent one of the fundamental molecular mechanisms impacting the effects of alcohol exposure on the brain. We hypothesized that epigenetic alterations in the promoter region of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene would be associated with cue-elicited activation of neural reward regions, as well as severity of alcohol use behavior...
February 21, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464572/brain-renin-angiotensin-system-blockade-attenuates-methamphetamine-induced-hyperlocomotion-and-neurotoxicity
#20
Linhong Jiang, Ruiming Zhu, Qian Bu, Yan Li, Xue Shao, Hui Gu, Jueying Kong, Li Luo, Hailei Long, Wei Guo, Jingwei Tian, Yinglan Zhao, Xiaobo Cen
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse has become a major public health concern worldwide without approved pharmacotherapies. The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the regulation of neuronal function as well as neurological disorders. Angiotensin II (Ang II), which interacts with Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1 -R) in the brain, plays an important role as a neuromodulator in dopaminergic transmission. However, the role of brain RAS in METH-induced behavior is largely unknown. Here, we revealed that repeated METH administration significantly upregulated the expression of AT1 -R in the striatum of mice, but downregulated dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) expression...
February 20, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
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