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Charles Agyemang, Karlijn Meeks, Erik Beune, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Juliet Addo, Ama de Graft Aikins, Silver Bahendeka, Ina Danquah, Matthias B Schulze, Joachim Spranger, Tom Burr, Peter Agyei-Baffour, Stephen K Amoah, Cecilia Galbete, Peter Henneman, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Mary Nicolaou, Adebowale Adeyemo, Jan van Straalen, Liam Smeeth, Karien Stronks
BACKGROUND: Rising rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are impending major threats to the health of African populations, but the extent to which they differ between rural and urban settings in Africa and upon migration to Europe is unknown. We assessed the burden of obesity and T2D among Ghanaians living in rural and urban Ghana and Ghanaian migrants living in different European countries. METHODS: A multi-centre cross-sectional study was conducted among Ghanaian adults (n = 5659) aged 25-70 years residing in rural and urban Ghana and three European cities (Amsterdam, London and Berlin)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Medicine
J Ellison, C Nagamuthu, S Vanderloo, B McRae, C Waters
INTRODUCTION: Chronic disease rates are produced from the Public Health Agency of Canada's Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (CCDSS) using administrative health data from provincial/territorial health ministries. Denominators for these rates are based on estimates of populations derived from health insurance files. However, these data may not be accessible to all researchers. Another source for population size estimates is the Statistics Canada census. The purpose of our study was to calculate the major differences between the CCDSS and Statistics Canada's population denominators and to identify the sources or reasons for the potential differences between these data sources...
October 2016: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Catherine A Martin, Usha Gowda, Ben J Smith, Andre M N Renzaho
A systematic review was undertaken to identify lifestyle intervention studies in South Asian migrant populations to determine the effect on the components of the metabolic syndrome. A total of seven studies were identified, of which six focused on educational advice and the seventh on intensive exercise intervention. Four studies were Randomised Controlled Trials of which two studies reported significant reductions in waist circumference. One of these studies focused on home based education with cooperation of the home cook (adjusted waist reduction of 1...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Lydia W Li, Hongwei Xu, Zhenmei Zhang, Jinyu Liu
China accounts for a large number of suicides worldwide, and most occur in rural areas. Suicide research in China has primarily focused on individual-level risk factors, few have studied the influence of neighborhood contexts. This ecological study examines the association of suicide rates with social fragmentation and socioeconomic deprivation in Chinese rural villages. Data from the community survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were analyzed using negative binomial regression. A total of 307 rural villages were included...
December 2016: SSM—Population Health
Miriam Ethel Bentwich, Nomy Dickman, Amitai Oberman
OBJECTIVES: To explore whether gaps exist between caretakers from different ethno-cultural groups (Israeli-born Jews [Sabras], Israeli Arabs [Arabs], and migrants from Russia [Russians]) regarding their perceptions of autonomy and human dignity of patients with dementia. DESIGN: A mixed-methods research scheme was used, comprised of qualitative and quantitative methods, utilizing semi-structured interviews and self-reported questionnaires. Twenty formal caretakers participated in the qualitative portion, and approximately 200 caretakers were included in the quantitative portion...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Rena Zendedel, Barbara C Schouten, Julia C M van Weert, Bas van den Putte
OBJECTIVE: To explore the perspective of Turkish-Dutch general practitioner (GP) patients on informal interpreting from an integrated theory base, focusing on interpreters' roles, trust and power. DESIGN: Semi-structured in depth interviews were conducted with 21 first-generation Turkish-Dutch migrant patients who made use of informal interpreters to communicate with their GPs. An interview guide was designed based on the theoretical framework of interpreter's roles, trust and power, covering questions about interpreters' role, trust in informal/professional interpreters and power division in the medical consultation...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Xueye Wang, Zihua Tang, Jing Wu, Xinhua Wu, Yiqun Wu, Xinying Zhou
Archeological researches have proposed arguments for human mobility and long-distance trading over the Eurasia before the Silk Roads. Here we utilize biologically available strontium isotope analysis to assess the extent of pre-Silk Road population movements and cultural communications across the Asian interior. From an early Iron Age cemetery (ca. 2500 yr B.P.) on the eastern Pamir Plateau, mean (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios from 34 individuals display considerable isotopic variability, and 10 individuals are distinguished as migrants based on the local strontium isotope range of 0...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Asad Mohammadzadeh, Adel Spotin, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Ali Haghighi, Nozhat Zebardast, Kobra Kohansal
In the microevolutionary scales of Entamoeba isolates, the gene migration shows how Entamoeba spp. has epidemiologically drifted among border countries. Five hundred fecal samples were taken from patients suffering gastrointestinal disorders, abdominal pain, and diarrhea at Saggez, northwest Iran located within the border Iraq country. Following parasitological techniques, DNA samples were extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 18S rRNA region to identify Entamoeba infections. To distinguish the Entamoeba spp...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology Research
Margaret Giorgio, Loraine Townsend, Yanga Zembe, Mireille Cheyip, Sally Guttmacher, Farzana Kapadia, Cathy Mathews
Female cross-border migrants experience elevated risks for HIV, and migrants in South Africa may face additional risks due to the country's underlying HIV prevalence. These risks may be mitigated by the receipt of social support. A behavioral risk-factor survey was administered using respondent-driven sampling. Multivariable regression models assessed the relationships between social support and two HIV outcomes: HIV serostatus and perceived HIV status. Low social support was not significantly associated with HIV status (aOR = 1...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Victor Agadjanian, Karine Markosyan
Unlike in most of the world, HIV incidence in the former Soviet Union continues to rise. While international labor migration has been identified as a potentially important contributor to this trend, most attention has been focused on risks of male migrants themselves. This study uses recent household survey data to examine HIV-related perceptions and actions of migrants' left-behind wives in Armenia. Multivariate logistic regression analyses show that migrants' wives are significantly more likely to suspect their husbands of extramarital sex than are non-migrants' wives...
October 19, 2016: AIDS Care
Wouter M G Vansteelant, Judy Shamoun-Baranes, Willem van Manen, Jan van Diermen, Willem Bouten
Avian migrants often make substantial detours between their seasonal destinations. It is likely some species do this to make the most of predictable wind regimes along their respective flyways. We test this hypothesis by studying orientation behaviour of a long-distance soaring migrant in relation to prevailing winds along the East Atlantic Flyway. We tracked 62 migratory journeys of 12 adult European Honey Buzzards Pernis apivorus with GPS loggers. Hourly fixes were annotated with local wind vectors from a global atmospheric model to determine orientation behaviours with respect to the buzzards' seasonal goal destinations...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Zhi Ye, Lihua Chen, Sayward E Harrison, Haiying Guo, Xiaoming Li, Danhua Lin
Peer victimization can have a profound effect on children's wellbeing and is a known risk factor for depression in childhood. Migrant children experience peer victimization at higher rates than non-migrant peers; however, limited research has examined psychological factors that may serve to reduce depression risk for this group. In particular, no studies have yet investigated whether resilience, including personal characteristics, and a strong social support network, may moderate the relationship between peer victimization and depressive symptoms for migrant children...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Abi Rimmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Krishnendu Ray
The sociology of food consumption has emerged as a robust field with rich empirical material and engaged theorization about taste, omnivorousness, distinction, and practice theory. Nevertheless there are continuing empirical and conceptual lacunae. For instance, although transnational and rural-to-urban migrants play a crucial role in food businesses in many global cities, they are mostly unaccounted for in the sociology of taste. Taking the American case, in particular based on data from New York City, this article provides reasons for that gap and shows what might be gained if migrants were accounted for in the urban sociology of taste...
October 15, 2016: Appetite
Chengxiang Tang, Judy Xu, Meng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Public health care dominated the services provision in China before 1980s. However, the number of private health care providers in China has been increasing since then. The growth of private hospitals escalated after a market-oriented reform was implemented in 2001. Through an experimental approach, this study aims to a better understanding of the dynamic change in preference of health care utilisation among the residents in urban China. METHODS: Based on a discrete choice experiment (DCE) from a random sample of respondents in urban China, the study evaluated preference over health care attributes affecting individuals' choice for the utilisation of hospital health care...
October 18, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
O Razum, J Wenner, K Bozorgmehr
Health and access to health care are considered a human right. "Regular" immigrants such as work migrants in Germany have the same entitlement to health care coverage through the statutory health insurance as the majority population. This, however, is not the case for refugees and asylum seekers. According to paragraphs 4 and 6 of the Asylum Seekers' Benefit Act, their entitlement is restricted to care for acute pain, pregnancy and childbirth, as well as immunizations in the first 15 months. Additional care can be financed on a case-by-case basis...
October 18, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Nina Repina, Tatiana Brodskaya, Vera Nevzorova, Margarita Моkshinа, Evgeniy Аbramov
OBJECTIVE: In conditions of existing immigration flows, the special relevance has researches concerning cardiovascular risk stratification among of different ethnic origin patients living outside the traditional habitats. DESIGN AND METHOD: 180 residents of Sakhalin region with arterial hypertension (AG) I-III degree, I-II stage, 88 Korean ethnicity patients, migrants of 2-3-rd generation, 92 Slavic ethnicity patients (58,2 ± 0,93 years old) were examined. The common risk factors and left ventricle (LV) structural-functional characteristics (Echocardiograph Aсuson X-300 HP, USA) were analyzed...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Gregers Stig Andersen, Zaza Kamper-Jørgensen, Bendix Carstensen, Marie Norredam, Ib Christian Bygbjerg, Marit Eika Jørgensen
OBJECTIVE: Studies of diabetes in migrant populations have shown a higher prevalence compared to their respective countries of origin and to people natively born in the host country, but there is little population-based data on diabetes incidence and mortality in migrant populations. The aim of the current study was (1) to describe the incidence rates and prevalence of diabetes among first generation migrants in Denmark compared to the Danish background population, and (2) to compare standardised mortality rates (SMRs) for individuals with and without diabetes according to country of origin...
September 30, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Olaf von dem Knesebeck, Christopher Kofahl, Anna Christin Makowski
BACKGROUND: Ethnic minorities and people with a low socio-economic status (SES) are often mentioned groups potentially affected by double stigma when faced with the burden of mental illness. Against this background we examine differences in public attitudes towards a) migrant vs. non-migrant persons with depression and b) low vs. high SES persons with depression. METHOD: Analyses are based on data of a representative cross-sectional telephone survey among the adult population in Germany (N=2013)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Kevin Riley, Jennifer Nazareno, Sterling Malish
INTRODUCTION: Live-in formal caregivers spend consecutive days in patients' homes, raising questions about their ability to secure adequate sleep while on duty. Few studies have examined sleeping conditions and outcomes for this growing workforce. METHODS: We collected weeklong sleep logs and interview data from 32 Filipino caregivers in Los Angeles who provide live-in services at least 3 consecutive days per week. RESULTS: Respondents recorded a total average of 6...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
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