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Nicholas Agar
Transformation is a memorable feature of some of the most iconic works of science fiction. These works feature characters who begin as humans and change into radically different kinds of being. This paper examines transformative change in the context of the Invasion of the Body Snatchers movies. I discuss how humans should approach the prospect of being body snatched. I argue that we shouldn't welcome the transformation even if we are convinced that we will have very positive experiences as pod aliens. When considering a transformative change, it is appropriate to give priority to your pre-transformation attitudes to potential future experiences and achievements over your predicted post-transformation attitudes...
February 19, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Peng-Wei Wang, Ray C Hsiao, Li Ming Chen, Yu-Hsien Sung, Huei-Fan Hu, Cheng-Fang Yen
PURPOSE: This study examined associations between callous-unemotional (CU) traits and involvement in school bullying among 613 Taiwanese adolescents. METHODS: CU traits were determined using the self-reported Chinese versions of the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits (C-ICUT) and the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire (C-SBEQ). The study used logistic regression analysis to assess associations between CU traits and types of involvement in school bullying, with controls for the effect of age, sex, and residential background...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Taiping Qing, Huanhuan Sun, Xiaoxiao He, Xiaoqin Huang, Dinggeng He, Hongchang Bu, Zhenzhen Qiao, Kemin Wang
A novel and adjustable lamp based on competitive interaction among dsDNA-SYBR Green I (SGI), ion quencher, and analyte was designed for bioanalysis. The "filament" and switch of the lamp could be customized by employing different dsDNA and ion quencher. The poly(AT/TA) dsDNA was successfully screened as the most effective filament of the lamp. Two common ions, Hg2+ and Fe3+, were selected as the model switch, and the corresponding ligand molecules cysteine (Cys) and pyrophosphate ions (PPi) were selected as the targets...
December 26, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Alexander Pflug, Stephanie Gaudon, Patricia Resa-Infante, Mathilde Lethier, Stefan Reich, Wiebke M Schulze, Stephen Cusack
Influenza polymerase uses short capped primers snatched from nascent Pol II transcripts to initiate transcription of viral mRNAs. Here we describe crystal structures of influenza A and B polymerase bound to a capped primer in a configuration consistent with transcription initiation ('priming state') and show by functional assays that conserved residues from both the PB2 midlink and cap-binding domains are important for positioning the capped RNA. In particular, mutation of PB2 Arg264, which interacts with the triphosphate linkage in the cap, significantly and specifically decreases cap-dependent transcription...
January 25, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Antonella Maselli, Aishwar Dhawan, Benedetta Cesqui, Marta Russo, Francesco Lacquaniti, Andrea d'Avella
The ability to intercept or avoid a moving object, whether to catch a ball, snatch one's prey, or avoid the path of a predator, is a skill that has been acquired throughout evolution by many species in the animal kingdom. This requires processing early visual cues in order to program anticipatory motor responses tuned to the forthcoming event. Here, we explore the nature of the early kinematics cues that could inform an observer about the future direction of a ball projected with an unconstrained overarm throw...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Aartjan J W Te Velthuis, Judith Oymans
The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of the influenza A virus replicates and transcribes the viral genome segments in the nucleus of the host cell. To transcribe these viral genome segments, the RdRp 'snatches' capped RNA oligonucleotides from nascent host cell mRNAs and aligns these primers to the ultimate or penultimate nucleotide of the segments for the initiation of viral mRNA synthesis. It has been proposed that this initiation process is not processive and that the RdRp uses a prime-realign mechanism during transcription...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
Xiaojuan Liu, Jing Jin, Ping Qiu, Fangluan Gao, Wenzhong Lin, Guohui Xie, Simiao He, Shunmin Liu, Zhenguo Du, Zujian Wu
Most segmented negative sense RNA viruses employ a process termed cap-snatching during which they snatch capped-RNA leaders from host cellular mRNAs and use the snatched leaders as primers for transcription, leading to the synthesis of viral mRNAs with 5' heterogeneous sequences (HSs). With traditional methods, only a few HSs can be determined and identification of their donors is difficult. Here, the mRNA 5' -ends of Rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV) and Rice grassy stunt tenuivirus (RGSV) and those of their host rice were determined by high throughput sequencing...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
Abdennour Amroun, Stéphane Priet, Gilles Querat
Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne phlebovirus within the family Phenuiviridae in the order Bunyavirales. It seems to be an important agent of human meningoencephalitis in the warm season in the Mediterranean area. Because the polymerase of Bunyavirales lacks a capping activity, it cleaves short-capped RNA leaders derived from the host cell, and uses them to initiate viral mRNA synthesis. To determine the size and nucleotide composition of the host-derived RNA leaders, and to elucidate the first steps of TOSV transcription initiation, we performed a high-throughput sequencing of the 5' end of TOSV mRNAs in infected cells at different times post-infection...
October 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
Hitonaru Nishie, Michio Nakamura
OBJECTIVES: This study reports on the first observed case of a wild chimpanzee infant being snatched immediately after delivery and consequently cannibalized by an adult male in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. We demonstrate "maternity leave" from long-term data from the Mahale M group and suggest that it functions as a possible counterstrategy of mother chimpanzees against the risk of infanticide soon after delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects of this study were the M group chimpanzees at Mahale Mountains, Tanzania...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Sangwoo Lee, Kyle D DeRosia, Landon M Lamie
This study evaluated the contribution of lower extremity (hip, knee and ankle) net joint torques (NJT) to whole body power (WBP) output during the power snatch (PS). Ten experienced weightlifters (five males and five females) performed five trials of the PS with 60% of one repetition maximum. Lower extremity NJT and WBP were extracted through a three-dimensional motion analyses and used for data analyses. Pearson correlation coefficients were obtained to observe the relationship between lower extremity NJT and WBP...
September 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Surender Kumar, B L Subbarao, Vipin Hallan
Sterility Mosaic Disease (SMD) of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh) is a complex disease due to various factors including the presence of a mixed infection. Comparison of dsRNA profile and small RNA (sRNA) deep sequencing analysis of samples from three locations revealed the presence of Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus-I and II (PPSMV-I and II) from Chevella and only PPSMV-II from Bengaluru and Coimbatore. PPSMV-I genome consisted of four while PPSMV-II encompassed six RNAs. The two viruses have modest sequence homology between their corresponding RNA 1-4 encoding RdRp, glycoprotein precursor, nucleocapsid and movement proteins and the corresponding orthologs of other emaraviruses...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Dorothy Brooten, JoAnne M Youngblut
This study described 6-year to 12-year-old children's responses 7 and 13 months after siblings' NICU/PICU/ED death. Using semi-structured interviews, at 7 months, children were asked about events around their sibling's death. At both 7 and 13 months, children were asked about their thoughts and feelings about the deceased, concerns or fears, and life changes since the death. Thirty one children (58% female), recruited from four South Florida hospitals and Florida obituaries, participated. Children's mean age was 8...
April 2017: Journal of Child and Family Studies
Xiaolei Ma, Lili Xie, Charles Wartchow, Robert Warne, Yongjin Xu, Alexey Rivkin, David Tully, Steven Shia, Kyoko Uehara, Dianna M Baldwin, Gladys Muiru, Weidong Zhong, Isabel Zaror, Dirksen E Bussiere, Vincent H J Leonard
Influenza virus uses a unique mechanism to initiate viral transcription named cap-snatching. The PB2 subunit of the viral heterotrimeric RNA polymerase binds the cap structure of cellular pre-mRNA to promote its cleavage by the PA subunit. The resulting 11-13 capped oligomer is used by the PB1 polymerase subunit to initiate transcription of viral proteins. VX-787 is an inhibitor of the influenza A virus pre-mRNA cap-binding protein PB2. This clinical stage compound was shown to bind the minimal cap-binding domain of PB2 to inhibit the cap-snatching machinery...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Penny Mannings
Jeremy Hunt should be put in a darkened room with a supply of Nursing Standard and - over a 12-hour shift with a snatched toilet break/cup of coffee - forced to read from cover to cover.
August 16, 2017: Nursing Standard
Claudio Terranova, Greta Bevilacqua, Margherita Zen, Massimo Montisci
Crimes against the elderly have physical, psychological, and economic consequences. Approaches for mitigating them must be based on comprehensive knowledge of the phenomenon. This study analyses crimes against the elderly in Italy during the period 2007-2014 from an epidemiological viewpoint. Data on violent and non-violent crimes derived from the Italian Institute of Statistics were analysed in relation to trends, gender and age by linear regression, T-test, and calculation of the odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval...
August 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Dorota Sikora, Lynda Rocheleau, Earl G Brown, Martin Pelchat
The influenza A virus RNA polymerase cleaves the 5' ends of host RNAs and uses these RNA fragments as primers for viral mRNA synthesis. We performed deep sequencing of the 5' host-derived ends of the eight viral mRNAs of influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) virus in infected A549 cells, and compared the population to those of A/Hong Kong/1/1968 (H3N2) and A/WSN/1933 (H1N1). In the three strains, the viral RNAs target different populations of host RNAs. Host RNAs are cap-snatched based on their abundance, and we found that RNAs encoding proteins involved in metabolism are overrepresented in the cap-snatched populations...
September 2017: Virology
C Ruth Archer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Torstein E Dæhlin, Tron Krosshaug, Loren Z F Chiu
Weightlifting technique can be objectively assessed from two-dimensional video recordings. Despite its importance, participants' bar trajectories in research involving the snatch or clean exercises are often not reported, potentially due to the time required to digitize video. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the use of a light-emitting diode (LED)-based marker, digital video, and open-source software to automatically track the bar end during weightlifting exercises. A former national-level weightlifter was recorded with a digital video camera performing the snatch, clean and jerk, and squat exercises...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jan Schimpchen, Maximilian Wagner, Alexander Ferrauti, Michael Kellmann, Mark Pfeiffer, Tim Meyer
We investigated whether cold water immersion (CWI) after intensive training sessions can enhance recovery in elite Olympic weightlifters, taking into account each athlete's individual response pattern. The entire German male Olympic weightlifting national team participated in the study (n = 7), ensuring collection of data from elite athletes only. Using a randomized cross-over design, the athletes went through 2 high-intensity training microcycles consisting of 5 training sessions that were either followed by a CWI or passive recovery...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Etienne Decroly, Bruno Canard
Messenger RNAs are decorated by a cap structure, which is essential for their translation into proteins. Many viruses have developed strategies in order to cap their mRNAs. The cap is either synthetized by a subset of viral or cellular enzymes, or stolen from capped cellular mRNAs by viral endonucleases ('cap-snatching'). Reverse genetic studies provide evidence that inhibition of viral enzymes belonging to the capping pathway leads to inhibition of virus replication. The replication defect results from reduced protein synthesis as well as from detection of incompletely capped RNAs by cellular innate immunity sensors...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
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