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J L Ayers, M DeBeliso, T G Sevene, K J Adams
Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program...
September 2016: Biology of Sport
Torstein E Dæhlin, Tron Krosshaug, Loren Z F Chiu
Weightlifting technique can be objectively assessed from two-dimensional video recordings. Despite its importance, participants' bar trajectories in research involving the snatch or clean exercises are often not reported, potentially due to the time required to digitize video. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the use of an LED-based marker, digital video and open source software to automatically track the bar end during weightlifting exercises. A former national-level weightlifter was recorded with a digital video camera performing the snatch, clean and jerk, and squat exercises...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jan Schimpchen, Maximilian Wagner, Alexander Ferrauti, Michael Kellmann, Mark Pfeiffer, Tim Meyer
We investigated whether cold water immersion following intensive training sessions can enhance recovery in elite Olympic weightlifters, taking into account each athlete's individual response pattern. The entire German male Olympic weightlifting national team participated in the study (n=7), ensuring collection of data from elite athletes only. Using a randomized cross-over design, the athletes went through two high intensity training microcycles consisting of five training sessions that were either followed by a cold water immersion or passive recovery...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Boris Ullrich, Thiemo Pelzer, Sergio Oliveira, Mark Pfeiffer
Ullrich, B, Pelzer, T, Oliveira, S, and Pfeiffer, M. Neuromuscular responses to short-term resistance training with traditional and daily undulating periodization in adolescent elite judoka. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2083-2099, 2016-The influence of different periodization models on neuromuscular outcomes after short-term strength training periods has not been examined in adolescent athletes. Eleven elite judoka (age: 14.8 ± 0.6 years, height: 163.2 ± 7.5 cm, body mass: 57.3 ± 11.1 kg, 5 boys/6 girls, and strength training experience: 2...
August 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Yu Fu, Lana Gaelings, Sandra Söderholm, Sergei Belanov, Jatin Nandania, Tuula A Nyman, Sampsa Matikainen, Simon Anders, Vidya Velagapudi, Denis E Kainov
JNJ-63623872 (formally known as VX-787; referred to here as JNJ872) is an orally bioavailable compound, which is in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of influenza A virus (IAV) infections. Here we show that JNJ872 inhibits at nanomolar concentrations the transcription of viral RNA in IAV-infected human macrophages by targeting a highly conserved site on the cap-snatching domain of influenza polymerase basic 2 protein (PB2). Furthermore, even lower concentrations of JNJ872 protected macrophages from IAV-mediated death when given in combination with 100 nM gemcitabine, which also attenuated transcription and replication of viral RNA...
September 2016: Antiviral Research
Ramires A Tibana, Leonardo M de Almeida, Nuno M Frade de Sousa, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento, Ivo V de Sousa Neto, Jeeser A de Almeida, Vinicius C de Souza, Maria de Fátima T P L Lopes, Otávio de Tolêdo Nobrega, Denis C L Vieira, James W Navalta, Jonato Prestes
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two consecutive Crossfit® training sessions (24 h apart) designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular exercises on cytokines, muscle power, blood lactate and glucose. Nine male members of the CrossFit® community (age 26.7 ± 6.6 years; body mass 78.8 ± 13.2 kg; body fat 13.5 ± 6.2%; training experience 2.5 ± 1.2 years) completed two experimental protocols (24 h apart): (1) strength and power exercises, (2) gymnastic movements, and (3) metabolic conditioning as follows: 10 min of as many rounds as possible (AMRAP) of 30 double-unders and 15 power snatches (34 kg)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Moataz Eltoukhy, Francesco Travascio, Shihab Asfour, Shady Elmasry, Hector Heredia-Vargas, Joseph Signorile
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Loading during concurrent bending and compression associated with deadlift, hang clean and hang snatch lifts carries the potential for injury to the intervertebral discs, muscles and ligaments. This study examined the capacity of a newly developed spinal model to compute shear and compressive forces, and bending moments in lumbar spine for each lift. METHODS: Five male subjects participated in the study. The spine was modeled as a chain of rigid bodies (vertebrae) connected via the intervertebral discs...
September 2016: Journal of Orthopaedics
Shridhar Sharma, Gautam Sharma, Bristi Barkataki
BACKGROUND: There is an intimate relationship between drugs and criminal behavior. The drug-violence relationship is further complicated by intoxicating doses and/or withdrawal effects of specific drugs. Understanding this relationship is important for both healthcare workers and policy makers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in Prayas observation home for boys, a short stay home for juveniles-under-enquiry in New Delhi. The present study aims to correlate substance use and criminal behavior by investigating the sociodemographic characteristics and the current trend of substance use among juveniles in New Delhi...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Falguni Chandra, Kaushik Pal, Sushil Lathwal, Apurba L Koner
Small drug molecules and other important metabolites are delivered via a suitable carrier protein-mediated transport through a specific receptor. The process is highly coordinated and associated with complexation induced properties of deliverable molecules. To get a molecular insight, in this report, we tried to mimic the delivery process to know how the carrier protein relocates the drug molecule from the macrocyclic host cavity to its binding pocket and how the electronic and the chemical properties of the guest get altered...
August 16, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Jenna M Dittmar, Piers D Mitchell
The preponderance of men in the narrative of anatomical education during the 1800s has skewed the historical perception of medical cadavers in favour of adult men, and stifled the conversation about the less portrayed individuals, especially children. Although underrepresented in both the historical literature and skeletal remains from archaeological contexts dated to the 1800s, these sources nevertheless illustrate that foetal and infant cadavers were a prized source of knowledge. In the late 1700s and 1800s foetal and infant cadavers were acquired by anatomists following body snatching from graveyards, from the child's death in a charitable hospital, death from infectious disease in large poor families, or following infanticide by desperate unwed mothers...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Tsutomu Fujimura, Rosa Esteban
The 5'end of RNA conveys important information on self-identity. In mammalian cells, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) with 5'di- or triphosphates generated during virus infection is recognized as foreign and elicits the host innate immune response. Here, we analyze the 5' ends of the dsRNA genome of the yeast L-A virus. The positive strand has largely diphosphates with a minor amount of triphosphates, while the negative strand has only diphosphates. Although the virus can produce capped transcripts by cap snatching, neither strand carried a cap structure, suggesting that only non-capped transcripts serve as genomic RNA for encapsidation...
October 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Juan Reguera, Piotr Gerlach, Maria Rosenthal, Stephanie Gaudon, Francesca Coscia, Stephan Günther, Stephen Cusack
Segmented negative strand RNA viruses of the arena-, bunya- and orthomyxovirus families uniquely carry out viral mRNA transcription by the cap-snatching mechanism. This involves cleavage of host mRNAs close to their capped 5' end by an endonuclease (EN) domain located in the N-terminal region of the viral polymerase. We present the structure of the cap-snatching EN of Hantaan virus, a bunyavirus belonging to hantavirus genus. Hantaan EN has an active site configuration, including a metal co-ordinating histidine, and nuclease activity similar to the previously reported La Crosse virus and Influenza virus ENs (orthobunyavirus and orthomyxovirus respectively), but is more active in cleaving a double stranded RNA substrate...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Yaiza Fernández-García, Juan Reguera, Carola Busch, Gregor Witte, Oliberto Sánchez-Ramos, Christian Betzel, Stephen Cusack, Stephan Günther, Sophia Reindl
Andes virus (ANDV) is a human-pathogenic hantavirus. Hantaviruses presumably initiate their mRNA synthesis by using cap structures derived from host cell mRNAs, a mechanism called cap-snatching. A signature for a cap-snatching endonuclease is present in the N terminus of hantavirus L proteins. In this study, we aimed to solve the atomic structure of the ANDV endonuclease and characterize its biochemical features. However, the wild-type protein was refractory to expression in Escherichia coli, presumably due to toxic enzyme activity...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Andy Cowper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Dipali Bhoye, Abhisek Kumar Behera, Sarah S Cherian
The cap binding domain of the polymerase basic 2 (PB2) subunit of influenza polymerases plays a critical role in mediating the 'cap-snatching' mechanism by binding the 5' cap of host pre-mRNAs during viral mRNA transcription. Monitoring variations in the PB2 protein is thus vital for evaluating the pathogenic potential of the virus. Based on selection pressure analysis of PB2 gene sequences of the pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses of the period 2009-2014, we identified a site, 344V/M, in the vicinity of the cap binding pocket showing evidence of adaptive evolution and another co-evolving residue, 354I/L, in close vicinity...
August 2016: Journal of General Virology
Sylvia Rothenberger, Giulia Torriani, Maria U Johansson, Stefan Kunz, Olivier Engler
Hantaviruses are important emerging pathogens belonging to the Bunyaviridae family. Like other segmented negative strand RNA viruses, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) also known as L protein of hantaviruses lacks an intrinsic "capping activity". Hantaviruses therefore employ a "cap snatching" strategy acquiring short 5' RNA sequences bearing 5'cap structures by endonucleolytic cleavage from host cell transcripts. The viral endonuclease activity implicated in cap snatching of hantaviruses has been mapped to the N-terminal domain of the L protein...
2016: Viruses
Mónica Martínez-Alonso, Narin Hengrung, Ervin Fodor
UNLABELLED: Influenza viruses subvert the transcriptional machinery of their hosts to synthesize their own viral mRNA. Ongoing transcription by cellular RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is required for viral mRNA synthesis. By a process known as cap snatching, the virus steals short 5' capped RNA fragments from host capped RNAs and uses them to prime viral transcription. An interaction between the influenza A virus RNA polymerase and the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of Pol II has been established, but the molecular details of this interaction remain unknown...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Chiara Milanese, Valentina Cavedon, Stefano Corte, Tiziano Agostini
Improving motor skills represents one of the major issues in motor control and motor learning literature. The aim of this study was to investigate which of two strategies, method of amplification of error (MAE) or direct instruction (DI), would be more beneficial for error correction of the snatch technique. Thirty well-trained male weightlifters were randomly assigned to one of three training conditions (MAE, DI and Control). The experiment took place in only one practice session in which each lifter performed 3 pretraining trials, 8 training intervention trials, and 3 post-training trials, and a retention test session after 1 week...
April 12, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
John McKillen, Irene McNair, Paula Lagan, Karen McKay, Julie McClintock, Veronica Casement, Catherine Charreyre, Gordon Allan
Snatch farrowed, colostrum deprived piglets were inoculated with different combinations of porcine circovirus 2, porcine parvovirus and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae candidate vaccines. 10 piglets were mock-vaccinated. Following virus challenge with a combined porcine circovirus 2/porcine parvovirus inoculum, all animals were monitored and samples taken for serology, immunohistochemistry and qPCR. At 24 dpc all non-vaccinated animals remaining were exhibiting signs of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome which was confirmed by laboratory analysis...
April 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Chelsea Severin, Tales Rocha de Moura, Yong Liu, Keqin Li, Xiaofeng Zheng, Ming Luo
The RNA polymerase of influenza virus consists of three subunits: PA, PB1 and PB2. It uses a unique `cap-snatching' mechanism for the transcription of viral mRNAs. The cap-binding domain of the PB2 subunit (PB2cap) in the viral polymerase binds the cap of a host pre-mRNA molecule, while the endonuclease of the PA subunit cleaves the RNA 10-13 nucleotides downstream from the cap. The capped RNA fragment is then used as the primer for viral mRNA transcription. The structure of PB2cap from influenza virus H1N1 A/California/07/2009 and of its complex with the cap analog m(7)GTP were solved at high resolution...
February 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
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