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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223787/a-novel-peptide-based-vaccine-candidate-with-protective-efficacy-against-influenza-a-in-a-mouse-model
#1
José Herrera-Rodriguez, Tjarko Meijerhof, Hubert G Niesters, Grete Stjernholm, Arnt-Ove Hovden, Birger Sørensen, Mats Ökvist, Maja A Sommerfelt, Anke Huckriede
Current influenza vaccines mainly induce antibody responses to the variable hemagglutinin proteins of the virus strains included in the vaccine. Instead, a broadly protective influenza vaccine should aim at inducing antibody- and/or cell-mediated immunity against conserved viral proteins. Vacc-FLU is a peptide based vaccine combining conserved B and T cell epitopes. Peptide selection was done using a proprietary peptide design platform technology focusing on responses to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted epitopes...
December 7, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223678/protein-sparing-therapies-in-acute-illness-and-obesity-a-review-of-george-blackburn-s-contributions-to-nutrition-science
#2
REVIEW
Dylan D Thomas, Nawfal W Istfan, Bruce R Bistrian, Caroline M Apovian
Protein sparing therapies were developed to mitigate the harms associated with protein-calorie malnutrition and nitrogen losses induced by either acute illness or hypocaloric diets in patients with obesity. We review the development of protein sparing therapies in illness and obesity with a focus on the pioneering contributions of George Blackburn, MD, PhD. He recognized that protein-calorie malnutrition is a common and serious clinical condition and developed new approaches to its treatment in hospitalized patients...
December 7, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223359/in-niemann-pick-c1-mouse-models-glial-only-expression-of-the-normal-gene-extends-survival-much-further-than-do-changes-in-genetic-background-or-treatment-with-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin
#3
Craig A Marshall, Dawn E Watkins-Chow, Giampiero Palladino, Gail Deutsch, Keshav Chandran, William J Pavan, Robert P Erickson
The Npc1nmf164 allele of Npc1 provides a mouse model for Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1), a genetic disease known to have a widely variable phenotype. The transfer of the Npc1nmf164 mutation from the C57BL/6J inbred strain to the BALB/cJ inbred strain increased the mean lifespan from 117.8days to 153.1days, confirming that the severity of the NPC1 phenotype is strongly influenced by genetic background. The transfer of another Npc1 allele, Npc1nih, to this background also extended survival of the homozygotes indicating that the modifying effect of BALB/cJ is not limited to a single allele of Npc1...
December 6, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222892/benefit-of-oral-nutritional-supplements-for-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-during-remission-induction-chemotherapy-a-quasi-experimental-study
#4
Rui Liang, Gai-Yun Chen, San-Xian Fu, Jie Zhong, Yan Ma
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) on children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia undergoing remission-induction chemotherapy. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We included 127 paediatric patients who were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and undergoing remission- induction chemotherapy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Children from two paediatric wards who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219305/brucellosis-improved-diagnostics-and-vaccine-insights-from-synthetic-glycans
#5
David R Bundle, John McGiven
Brucellosis is a serious zoonotic bacterial disease that is ranked by the World Health Organization among the top seven "neglected zoonoses" that threaten human health and cause poverty. It is a costly, highly contagious disease that affects ruminants, cattle, sheep, goats, and other productive animals such as pigs. Symptoms include abortions, infertility, decreased milk production, weight loss, and lameness. Brucellosis is also the most common bacterial disease that is transmitted from animals to humans, with approximately 500 000 new human cases each year...
December 8, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217129/long-alimentary-limb-duodenal-switch-lads-a-short-term-prospective-randomized-trial
#6
Anabelle Cloutier, Stéfane Lebel, Frédéric Hould, François Julien, Simon Marceau, Léonie Bouvet, Serge Simard, Laurent Biertho
BACKGROUND: Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) is one of the most effective bariatric surgeries, in terms of weight loss and remission of co-morbidities. It is however associated with a significant risk of protein and nutritional deficiency, as well as gastrointestinal side effects. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of increasing the strict alimentary limb on weight loss, nutritional deficiency and quality of life, compared with standard BPD-DS...
November 8, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215198/inflammatory-signalling-regulates-eccentric-contraction-induced-protein-synthesis-in-cachectic-skeletal-muscle
#7
Justin P Hardee, Brittany R Counts, Song Gao, Brandon N VanderVeen, Dennis K Fix, Ho-Jin Koh, James A Carson
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle responds to eccentric contractions (ECC) with an anabolic response that involves the induction of protein synthesis through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1. While we have reported that repeated ECC bouts after cachexia initiation attenuated muscle mass loss and inflammatory signalling, cachectic muscle's capacity to induce protein synthesis in response to ECC has not been determined. Therefore, we examined cachectic muscle's ability to induce mechano-sensitive pathways and protein synthesis in response to an anabolic stimulus involving ECC and determined the role of muscle signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) signalling on ECC-induced anabolic signalling...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212103/recurrent-diffuse-gastric-bleeding-as-a-leading-symptom-of%C3%A2-gastrointestinal-al-amyloidosis
#8
Caspar Franck, Marino Venerito, Jochen Weigt, Albert Roessner, Peter Malfertheiner
Amyloidosis is a rare disease (incidence about 0.8/100 000) characterized by extracellular tissue deposition of fibrils composed of low molecular weight subunits of a variety of serum proteins. Clinical manifestations are largely determined by the type of precursor protein, the tissue distribution and the amount of amyloid deposition. Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of amyloidosis are even more uncommon (3 % of all amyloidosis patients). Symptoms of GI amyloidosis are nonspecific, heterogeneous, and include weight loss, GI bleeding, heartburn, early satiety, diarrhea and abdominal pain...
December 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211883/carcass-characteristics-meat-quality-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-wild-living-mallards-anas-platyrhynchos-l
#9
P Janiszewski, D Murawska, V Hanzal, M Gesek, D Michalik, M Zawacka
The aim of this study was to determine the carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid composition of wild-living mallards. The experimental materials comprised 30 mallards (1:1 sex ratio) harvested during the hunting season in northeastern Poland. The carcasses were transported to the laboratory where they were weighed individually, plucked, dressed, and dissected. The proximate chemical composition and physicochemical properties of meat and the fatty acid profile of breast muscle lipids were determined, and a histological analysis was performed...
December 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211027/dietary-intake-of-protein-from-different-sources-and-weight-regain-changes-in-body-composition-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-after-weight-loss-the-diogenes-study
#10
Marleen A van Baak, Thomas M Larsen, Susan A Jebb, Alfredo Martinez, Wim H M Saris, Teodora Handjieva-Darlenska, Anthony Kafatos, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Marie Kunešová, Arne Astrup
An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. They successfully lost >8% of body weight and subsequently completed a six month weight maintenance period, in which they consumed an ad libitum diet varying in protein content and glycemic index...
December 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208421/is-testing-for-postprandial-hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemia-after-gastric-bypass-necessary
#11
Michèle Gasser, Claudia Meier, Sylvia Herren, Emilie Aubry, Rudolf Steffen, Zeno Stanga
INTRODUCTION: Postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (pHH) is an increasingly reported complication after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). As pHH can cause life-threatening emergencies if occurring without warning symptoms, challenge testing may detect patients at risk. The study objective was to determine the frequency of occurrence of pHH with or without symptoms of hypoglycemia after RYGB. METHODS: We undertook an observational cohort study of consecutive, unselected patients approximately one year after uncomplicated RYGB...
November 23, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207625/stanniocalcin2-acts-as-an-anorectic-factor-through-activation-of-stat3-pathway
#12
Yang Jiao, Jiejie Zhao, Guojun Shi, Xing Liu, Xuelian Xiong, Xiaoying Li, Huijie Zhang, Qinyun Ma, Yan Lu
The regulation of food intake and body weight has been hotly investigated. In the present study, we show that stanniocalcin2 (STC2), a cytokine ubiquitously expressed and especially upregulated in many types of human cancers, has a regulatory role in food intake and weight loss. Systemic treatment of C57BL/6 mice with recombinant STC2 protein resulted in decreased food intake and body weight, whereas energy expenditure was not affected. Similarly, STC2 treatment also induced anorexia in hyperphagic leptin-deficient mice, leading to a significant reduction in body weight and improvement of blood glucose levels...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204277/cytomegalovirus-mononucleosis-induced-thyroiditis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#13
V Larouche, M Tamilia
Enteroviruses, including coxsackieviruses and Echovirus, are well known pathogens responsible for the development of thyroiditis. We describe the case of a 49-year-old woman with no personal or family history of thyroid disease who presented to the emergency room with a two-week history of daily fevers up to 39°C, a sore throat, occasional palpitations and diaphoresis, decreased appetite and an unintentional 10 kg weight loss over the same time course Physical examination revealed mild tachycardia, an intention tremor and a normal-sized, nontender thyroid gland without palpable nodules...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204255/bariatric-surgery-and-long-term-nutritional-issues
#14
REVIEW
Roberta Lupoli, Erminia Lembo, Gennaro Saldalamacchia, Claudia Kesia Avola, Luigi Angrisani, Brunella Capaldo
Bariatric surgery is recognized as a highly effective therapy for obesity since it accomplishes sustained weight loss, reduction of obesity-related comorbidities and mortality, and improvement of quality of life. Overall, bariatric surgery is associated with a 42% reduction of the cardiovascular risk and 30% reduction of all-cause mortality. This review focuses on some nutritional consequences that can occur in bariatric patients that could potentially hinder the clinical benefits of this therapeutic option...
November 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204150/rhizobium-impacts-on-seed-productivity-quality-and-protection-of-pisum-sativum-upon-disease-stress-caused-by-didymella-pinodes-phenotypic-proteomic-and-metabolomic-traits
#15
Nima Ranjbar Sistani, Hans-Peter Kaul, Getinet Desalegn, Stefanie Wienkoop
In field peas, ascochyta blight is one of the most common fungal diseases caused by Didymella pinodes. Despite the high diversity of pea cultivars, only little resistance has been developed until to date, still leading to significant losses in grain yield. Rhizobia as plant growth promoting endosymbionts are the main partners for establishment of symbiosis with pea plants. The key role of Rhizobium as an effective nitrogen source for legumes seed quality and quantity improvement is in line with sustainable agriculture and food security programs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203893/phase-ii-prospective-randomized-trial-of-weight-loss-prior-to-radical-prostatectomy
#16
Susanne M Henning, Colette Galet, Kiran Gollapudi, Joshua B Byrd, Pei Liang, Zhaoping Li, Tristan Grogan, David Elashoff, Clara E Magyar, Jonathan Said, Pinchas Cohen, William J Aronson
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with poorly differentiated and advanced prostate cancer and increased mortality. In preclinical models, caloric restriction delays prostate cancer progression and prolongs survival. We sought to determine if weight loss (WL) in men with prostate cancer prior to radical prostatectomy affects tumor apoptosis and proliferation, and if WL effects other metabolic biomarkers. METHODS: In this Phase II prospective trial, overweight and obese men scheduled for radical prostatectomy were randomized to a 5-8 week WL program consisting of standard structured energy-restricted meal plans (1200-1500 Kcal/day) and physical activity or to a control group...
December 4, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203860/adipose-tissue-mitochondrial-capacity-associates-with-long-term-weight-loss-success
#17
R Jokinen, R Rinnankoski-Tuikka, S Kaye, L Saarinen, S Heinonen, M Myöhänen, E Rappou, S Jukarainen, A Rissanen, A Pessia, V Velagapudi, K A Virtanen, E Pirinen, K H Pietiläinen
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether (1) subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) mitochondrial capacity predicts weight loss success and (2) weight loss ameliorates obesity-related SAT mitochondrial abnormalities. METHODS: SAT biopsies were obtained from 19 clinically healthy obese subjects (BMI 34.6±2.7 kg/m2) during a weight-loss intervention (0, 5, and 12 months) and from 19 lean reference subjects (BMI 22.7±1.1 kg/m2) at baseline. Based on one-year weight loss outcome, the subjects were divided into two groups: continuous weight losers (WL, n=6) and weight regainers (WR, n=13)...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203585/safety-and-efficacy-of-selinexor-in-relapsed-or-refractory-multiple-myeloma-and-waldenstrom-s-macroglobulinemia
#18
Christine Chen, David Siegel, Martin Gutierrez, Meagan Jacoby, Craig C Hofmeister, Nashat Gabrail, Rachid Baz, Morten Mau-Sorensen, Jesus G Berdeja, Michael Savona, Lynn Savoie, Suzanne Trudel, Nuchanan Areethamsirikul, T J Unger, Tami Rashal, Tim Hanke, Michael Kauffman, Sharon Shacham, Donna Reece
Novel therapies are needed for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM). We conducted a multicenter, phase 1 study in advanced hematological malignancies to assess the safety, efficacy and recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of oral selinexor, a selective inhibitor of the nuclear export protein XPO1. In the dose-escalation phase, 25 patients with heavily pretreated MM (22) or Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (3) were administered selinexor (3-60 mg/m2) in 8 or 10 doses per 28-day cycle. In the dose-expansion phase, 59 patients with MM received selinexor at 45 or 60 mg/m2 with 20 mg dexamethasone, twice-weekly in 28-day cycles, or selinexor (40 or 60mg flat dose) without corticosteroids in 21 day cycles...
December 4, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198435/modifications-of-serum-levels-of-omentin-1-and-other-cardiovascular-risk-factors-following-weight-loss-secondary-to-a-mediterranean-hypocaloric-diet
#19
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, David Primo, R Aller
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Omentin-1 might play a role on insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of weight loss on omentin-1 concentrations after a hypocaloric diet with Mediterranean pattern. METHODS: A Caucasian sample of 67 obese patients was analyzed before and after 3 months on a hypocaloric diet. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), fasting insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid concentrations and omentin-1 were measured...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193847/genetic-loss-of-diazepam-binding-inhibitor-in-mice-impairs-social-interest
#20
A L Ujjainwala, C D Courtney, S G Rhoads, J S Rhodes, C A Christian
Neuropsychiatric disorders in which reduced social interest is a common symptom, such as autism, depression, and anxiety, are frequently associated with genetic mutations affecting GABAergic transmission. Benzodiazepine treatment, acting via GABAA receptors, improves social interaction in male mouse models with autism-like features. The protein diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) can act as an endogenous benzodiazepine, but a role for DBI in social behavior has not been described. Here we investigated the role of DBI in the social interest and recognition behavior of mice...
November 28, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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