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Adaptive thermogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434028/effects-of-thyroid-hormones-on-thermogenesis-and-energy-partitioning
#1
Karl Alexander Iwen, Rebecca Ölkrug, Georg Brabant
Thyroid hormones (TH) are of central importance for thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. Here we will discuss these aspects by focussing on the physiological aspects of TH-dependent regulation in response to cold exposure and fasting which will be compared to alterations in primary hyper- and hypothyroidism. In particular, we will summarise current knowledge on regional thyroid hormone status in the central nervous system (CNS) and in peripheral cells. In contrast to hyper- and hypothyroidism, where parallel changes are observed, local alterations in the CNS differ to peripheral compartments when induced by cold exposure or fasting...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414316/ppar%C3%AE-agonist-rosiglitazone-switches-fuel-preference-to-lipids-in-promoting-thermogenesis-under-cold-exposure-in-c57bl-6-mice
#2
Rong Gao, Wei Chen, Huang Yan, Xinni Xie, Dongqi Liu, Chenxi Wu, Zhaohui Zhu, Haijing Li, Fangting Dong, Lili Wang
Brown and beige adipose tissues play key roles in adaptive thermogenesis, which is essential for homoiotherms to maintain core temperature under cold exposure. PPARγ is a transcriptional regulator critical for brown adipose tissue (BAT) recruitment and white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. Here we evaluated the impact of PPARγ activation on thermogenic activity in C57BL/6 mice under thermo-neutral and 4 °C cold environment, and revealed the regulating mechanism and metabolic basis. Rosiglitazone slowed body temperature loss in cold environment in C57BL/6 mice, suppressed cold-induced decreases in blood glucose, reversed cold-promoted 18F-FDG uptake, and increased lipid consumption in BAT...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365884/insulin-signaling-determines-anabolic-energy-uptake-processes-into-brown-fat-during-catabolic-conditions-of-adaptive-thermogenesis
#3
Markus Heine, Alexander Fischer, Renate Schreiber, Rudolf Zechner, Ludger Scheja, Jörg Heeren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358227/inflammatory-pathways-regulated-by-tumor-necrosis-receptor-associated-factor-1-protect-from-metabolic-consequences-in-diet-induced-obesity
#4
Nathaly Anto Michel, Christian Colberg, Konrad Buscher, Björn Sommer, Akula Bala Pramod, Erik Ehinger, Bianca Dufner, Natalie Hoppe, Katharina Pfeiffer, Timoteo Marchini, Florian Willecke, Peter Stachon, Ingo Hilgendorf, Timo Heidt, Constantin von Zur Mühlen, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Dietmar Pfeifer, Roland Schüle, Ulrich Kintscher, Sebastian Brachs, Klaus Ley, Christoph Bode, Andreas Zirlik, Dennis Wolf
Rationale: The co-incidence of inflammation and metabolic derangements in obese adipose tissue has sparked the concept of met-inflammation. Previous observations, however, suggest that inflammatory pathways may not ultimately cause dysmetabolism. Objective: We have revisited the relationship between inflammation and metabolism by testing the role of Tumor-Necrosis Receptor associated Factor (TRAF)-1, an inhibitory adapter of inflammatory signaling of TNFα, IL-1β, and TLRs. Methods and Results: Mice deficient for TRAF-1, which is expressed in obese adipocytes and adipose tissue lymphocytes, caused an expected hyper-inflammatory phenotype in adipose tissue with enhanced adipokine and chemokine expression, increased leukocyte accumulation, and potentiated pro-inflammatory signaling in macrophages and adipocytes in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO)...
January 22, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298809/sucrose-non-fermenting-related-kinase-regulates-both-adipose-inflammation-and-energy-homeostasis-in-mice-and-humans
#5
Jie Li, Bin Feng, Yaohui Nie, Ping Jiao, Xiaochen Lin, Mengna Huang, Ran An, Qin He, Huilin Emily Zhou, Arthur Salomon, Kirsten S Sigrist, Zhidan Wu, Simin Liu, Haiyan Xu
Sucrose non-fermenting related kinase (SNRK) is a member of AMPK-related kinase family and its physiological role in adipose energy homeostasis and inflammation remains unknown. We previously reported that SNRK is ubiquitously and abundantly expressed in both white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) but adipose SNRK expression level diminishes in obesity. In the current study, we report novel experimental findings from both animal models and human genetics. SNRK is essential for survival since SNRK global deficient pups die within 24 hours after birth...
January 3, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281847/geographical-variation-in-cone-volatiles-and-pollinators-in-the-thermogenic-african-cycad-encephalartos-ghellinckii-lem
#6
T N Suinyuy, S D Johnson
Heat and odour production can have profound effects on pollination in cycads. It is therefore expected that these traits would co-vary geographically with pollinator assemblages. Such intraspecific variation, may lead to the evolution of pollination ecotypes which can be an early stage of pollinator-mediated speciation. We measured cone temperatures using miniature temperature data loggers and examined the composition of cone volatile odours using headspace sampling and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in four populations spanning the range of the African cycad Encephalartos ghellinckii...
December 27, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237539/cdkn2a-deficiency-promotes-adipose-tissue-browning
#7
Nabil Rabhi, Sarah Anissa Hannou, Xavier Gromada, Elisabet Salas, Xi Yao, Frédérik Oger, Charlène Carney, Isabel C Lopez-Mejia, Emmanuelle Durand, Iandry Rabearivelo, Amélie Bonnefond, Emilie Caron, Lluis Fajas, Christian Dani, Philippe Froguel, Jean-Sébastien Annicotte
OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide association studies have reported that DNA polymorphisms at the CDKN2A locus modulate fasting glucose in human and contribute to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Yet the causal relationship between this gene and defective energy homeostasis remains elusive. Here we sought to understand the contribution of Cdkn2a to metabolic homeostasis. METHODS: We first analyzed glucose and energy homeostasis from Cdkn2a-deficient mice subjected to normal or high fat diets...
December 1, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216033/fattening-the-role-of-ca2-cycling-in-adaptive-thermogenesis
#8
Daniel Gamu, A Russell Tupling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212043/inhibition-of-mitochondrial-ucp1-and-ucp3-by-purine-nucleotides-and-phosphate
#9
Gabriel Macher, Melanie Koehler, Anne Rupprecht, Jürgen Kreiter, Peter Hinterdorfer, Elena E Pohl
Mitochondrial membrane uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is not only expressed in skeletal muscle and heart, but also in brown adipose tissue (BAT) alongside UCP1, which facilitates a proton leak to support non-shivering thermogenesis. In contrast to UCP1, the transport function and molecular mechanism of UCP3 regulation are poorly investigated, although it is generally agreed upon that UCP3, analogous to UCP1, transports protons, is activated by free fatty acids (FFAs) and is inhibited by purine nucleotides (PN)...
December 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199788/adaptive-thermogenesis-and-changes-in-body-composition-and-physical-fitness-in-army-cadets
#10
Juliano H Borges, Gary R Hunter, Analiza M Silva, Vagner X Cirolini, Raquel D Langer, Mauro A Páscoa, Gil Guerra, Ezequiel M Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: To analyze the association between a 34-week military training on body composition, physical fitness and compensatory changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) recognized as adaptive thermogenesis (AT). We also explored if regional body composition changes were related to AT. METHODS: Twenty-nine male army cadets, aged 17 to 22 years were tested at baseline (T0) and after 34-weeks military training (T1). Physical training was performed 5 days/week during 90 minutes/day...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153407/brown-fat-akt2-is-a-cold-induced-kinase-that-stimulates-chrebp-mediated-de-novo-lipogenesis-to-optimize-fuel-storage-and-thermogenesis
#11
Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Yuefeng Tang, Naja Zenius Jespersen, Martina Wallace, Camila Martinez Calejman, Sharvari Gujja, Huawei Li, Yvonne J K Edwards, Christian Wolfrum, Christian M Metallo, Søren Nielsen, Camilla Scheele, David A Guertin
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a therapeutic target for metabolic diseases; thus, understanding its metabolic circuitry is clinically important. Many studies of BAT compare rodents mildly cold to those severely cold. Here, we compared BAT remodeling between thermoneutral and mild-cold-adapted mice, conditions more relevant to humans. Although BAT is renowned for catabolic β-oxidative capacity, we find paradoxically that the anabolic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) genes encoding ACLY, ACSS2, ACC, and FASN were among the most upregulated by mild cold and that, in humans, DNL correlates with Ucp1 expression...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138228/low-protein-diet-induced-hyperphagia-and-adiposity-are-modulated-through-interactions-involving-thermoregulation-motor-activity-and-protein-quality-in-mice
#12
Anne Blais, Catherine Chaumontet, Dalila Azzout-Marniche, Julien Piedcoq, Gilles Fromentin, Claire Gaudichon, Daniel Tomé, Patrick C Even
Low-protein (LP) containing diets can induce overeating in rodents and possibly in humans in an effort to meet protein requirement but the consequences on energy expenditure (EE) are unclear. The present study evaluated the changes induced by reducing dietary protein from 20% to 6%, using either soy protein or casein, on energy intake, body composition and EE in mice housed at 22°C or at 30°C (thermal-neutrality). LP feeding increased energy intake and adiposity, more in soy fed than in casein fed mice, but also increased EE thus limiting fat accumulation...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113988/seasonal-variation-in-the-thermal-responses-to-changing-environmental-temperature-in-the-world-s-northernmost-landbird
#13
Andreas Nord, Lars P Folkow
Arctic homeotherms counter challenges at high latitudes using a combination of seasonal adjustments in pelage/plumage, fat deposition, and intricate thermoregulatory adaptations. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of their thermal responses to cold, particularly in Arctic birds. Here, we have studied the potential use of local heterothermy (i.e., tissue cooling that can contribute to significantly lower heat loss rate) in Svalbard ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea) - the world's northernmost landbird...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113711/the-lives-and-times-of-brown-adipokines
#14
REVIEW
Francesc Villarroya, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Marion Peyrou, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis. Moreover, brown fat secretes regulatory factors, so-called brown adipokines, that have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine actions. Brown adipokines are either polypeptides or nonpeptidic molecules including lipid molecules and microRNAs. The secretory properties of brown fat are essential for tissue remodeling adaptations to thermogenic necessities. The endocrine properties of brown adipokines are thought to contribute to the association between BAT activity and a healthy metabolic profile in relation to glucose and lipid homeostasis...
November 4, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078316/reconstitution-of-ucp1-using-crispr-cas9-in-the-white-adipose-tissue-of-pigs-decreases-fat-deposition-and-improves-thermogenic-capacity
#15
Qiantao Zheng, Jun Lin, Jiaojiao Huang, Hongyong Zhang, Rui Zhang, Xueying Zhang, Chunwei Cao, Catherine Hambly, Guosong Qin, Jing Yao, Ruigao Song, Qitao Jia, Xiao Wang, Yongshun Li, Nan Zhang, Zhengyu Piao, Rongcai Ye, John R Speakman, Hongmei Wang, Qi Zhou, Yanfang Wang, Wanzhu Jin, Jianguo Zhao
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is localized on the inner mitochondrial membrane and generates heat by uncoupling ATP synthesis from proton transit across the inner membrane. UCP1 is a key element of nonshivering thermogenesis and is most likely important in the regulation of body adiposity. Pigs (Artiodactyl family Suidae) lack a functional UCP1 gene, resulting in poor thermoregulation and susceptibility to cold, which is an economic and pig welfare issue owing to neonatal mortality. Pigs also have a tendency toward fat accumulation, which may be linked to their lack of UCP1, and thus influences the efficiency of pig production...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046921/pioglitazone-reduces-cold-induced-brown-fat-glucose-uptake-despite-induction-of-browning-in-cultured-human-adipocytes-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-humans
#16
Rebecca K C Loh, Melissa F Formosa, Nina Eikelis, David A Bertovic, Mitchell J Anderson, Shane A Barwood, Shane Nanayakkara, Neale D Cohen, Andre La Gerche, Anne T Reutens, Kenneth S Yap, Thomas W Barber, Gavin W Lambert, Martin H Cherk, Stephen J Duffy, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Andrew L Carey
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Increasing brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is a possible therapeutic strategy to increase energy expenditure and glucose and lipid clearance to ameliorate obesity and associated comorbidities. The thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of glucose-lowering drugs increase BAT browning in preclinical experimental models but whether these actions extend to humans in vivo is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pioglitazone treatment on adipocyte browning and adaptive thermogenesis in humans...
October 18, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988768/crosstalk-between-kcnk3-mediated-ion-current-and-adrenergic-signaling-regulates-adipose-thermogenesis-and-obesity
#17
Yi Chen, Xing Zeng, Xuan Huang, Sara Serag, Clifford J Woolf, Bruce M Spiegelman
Adrenergic stimulation promotes lipid mobilization and oxidation in brown and beige adipocytes, where the harnessed energy is dissipated as heat in a process known as adaptive thermogenesis. The signaling cascades and energy-dissipating pathways that facilitate thermogenesis have been extensively described, yet little is known about the counterbalancing negative regulatory mechanisms. Here, we identify a two-pore-domain potassium channel, KCNK3, as a built-in rheostat negatively regulating thermogenesis. Kcnk3 is transcriptionally wired into the thermogenic program by PRDM16, a master regulator of thermogenesis...
November 2, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980233/molecular-and-neuroendocrine-mechanisms-of-avian-seasonal-reproduction
#18
T Katherine Tamai, Takashi Yoshimura
Animals living outside tropical zones experience seasonal changes in the environment and accordingly, adapt their physiology and behavior in reproduction, molting, and migration. Subtropical birds are excellent models for the study of seasonal reproduction because of their rapid and dramatic response to changes in photoperiod. For example, testicular weight typically changes by more than a 100-fold. In birds, the eyes are not necessary for seasonal reproduction, and light is instead perceived by deep brain photoreceptors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978546/subcutaneous-inguinal-white-adipose-tissue-is-responsive-to-but-dispensable-for-the-metabolic-health-benefits-of-exercise
#19
Willem T Peppler, Logan K Townsend, Carly M Knuth, Michelle T Foster, David C Wright
Exercise training has robust effects on subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), characterized by a shift to a brown adipose tissue (BAT) like phenotype. Consistent with this, transplantation of exercise-trained iWAT into sedentary rodents activates thermogenesis and improves glucose homeostasis, suggesting that iWAT metabolism may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise. However, it is yet to be determined if adaptations in iWAT are necessary for the beneficial systemic effects of exercise...
October 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977817/global-warming-and-obesity-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
R An, M Ji, S Zhang
Global warming and the obesity epidemic are two unprecedented challenges mankind faces today. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO and Scopus for articles published until July 2017 that reported findings on the relationship between global warming and the obesity epidemic. Fifty studies were identified. Topic-wise, articles were classified into four relationships - global warming and the obesity epidemic are correlated because of common drivers (n = 21); global warming influences the obesity epidemic (n = 13); the obesity epidemic influences global warming (n = 13); and global warming and the obesity epidemic influence each other (n = 3)...
October 4, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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