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Adaptive thermogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901032/from-the-past-to-future-from-energy-expenditure-to-energy-intake-to-energy-expenditure
#1
REVIEW
M J Müller, C Geisler
Although most recent research on energy balance focusses on energy intake (EI) there is still need to think about both sides of the energy balance. Current research on energy expenditure (EE) relates to metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance, mitochondrial metabolism associated with aging, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the role of EE in hunger and appetite control, non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue activity, cellular bioenergetics as a target of obesity treatment and the evolutionary and ecological determinants of EE in humans and other primates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866221/inter-organ-regulation-of-adipose-tissue-browning
#2
REVIEW
Simeng Wang, Xiaoyong Yang
Adaptive thermogenesis is an important component of energy expenditure. Brown adipocytes are best known for their ability to convert chemical energy into heat. Beige cells are brown-like adipocytes that arise in white adipose tissue in response to certain environmental cues to dissipate heat and improve metabolic homeostasis. A large body of intrinsic factors and external signals are critical for the function of beige adipocytes. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of neuronal, hormonal, and metabolic regulation of the development and activation of beige adipocytes, with a focus on the regulation of beige adipocytes by other organs, tissues, and cells...
November 19, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834738/contribution-of-adaptive-thermogenesis-to-the-hypothalamic-regulation-of-energy-balance
#3
REVIEW
Ricardo Lage, Johan Fernø, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, Miguel López
Obesity and its related disorders are among the most pervasive diseases in contemporary societies, and there is an urgent need for new therapies and preventive approaches. Given (i) our poor social capacity to correct unhealthy habits, and (ii) our evolutionarily genetic predisposition to store excess energy as fat, the current environment of caloric surplus makes the treatment of obesity extremely difficult. During the last few decades, an increasing number of methodological approaches have increased our knowledge of the neuroanatomical basis of the control of energy balance...
November 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803297/defective-adaptive-thermogenesis-contributes-to-metabolic-syndrome-and-liver-steatosis-in-obese-mice
#4
Laurence Poekes, Vanessa Legry, Olivier Schakman, Christine Detrembleur, Anne Bol, Yves Horsmans, Geoffrey C Farrell, Isabelle A Leclercq
Fatty liver diseases are complications of the metabolic syndrome associated with obesity, insulin resistance and low grade inflammation. Our aim was to uncover mechanisms contributing to hepatic complications in this setting. We used foz/foz mice prone to obesity, insulin resistance and progressive fibrosing NASH. Foz/foz mice are hyperphagic but WT-matched calorie intake failed to protect against obesity, adipose inflammation and glucose intolerance. Obese foz/foz mice had similar physical activity level but reduced energy expenditure...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783937/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-hydrolase-domain-6-in-the-ventromedial-hypothalamus-controls-energy-metabolism-flexibility
#5
Alexandre Fisette, Stephanie Tobin, Léa Décarie-Spain, Khalil Bouyakdan, Marie-Line Peyot, S R Murthy Madiraju, Marc Prentki, Stephanie Fulton, Thierry Alquier
α/β-Hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) is a monoacylglycerol hydrolase that degrades the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Although complete or peripheral ABHD6 loss of function is protective against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, the role of ABHD6 in the central control of energy balance is unknown. Using a viral-mediated knockout approach, targeted endocannabinoid measures, and pharmacology, we discovered that mice lacking ABHD6 from neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH(KO)) have higher VMH 2-AG levels in conditions of endocannabinoid recruitment and fail to physiologically adapt to key metabolic challenges...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768821/neuronal-systems-and-circuits-involved-in-the-control-of-food-intake-and-adaptive-thermogenesis
#6
Alexandre Caron, Denis Richard
With the still-growing prevalence of obesity worldwide, major efforts are made to understand the various behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors that promote excess fat gain. Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, which emphasizes the importance of deciphering the mechanisms behind energy balance regulation to understand its physiopathology. The control of energy balance is assured by brain systems/circuits capable of generating adequate ingestive and thermogenic responses to maintain the stability of energy reserves, which implies a proper integration of the homeostatic signals that inform about the status of the energy stores...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750020/variable-cold-induced-brown-adipose-tissue-response-to-thyroid-hormone-status
#7
Alina Gavrila, Per-Olof Hasselgren, Allison Glasgow, Ashley N Doyle, Alice J Lee, Peter Fox, Shiva Gautam, James V Hennessey, Gerald M Kolodny, Aaron M Cypess
BACKGROUND: In addition to its role in adaptive thermogenesis, brown adipose tissue (BAT) may protect from weight gain, insulin resistance/diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Prior studies have shown contradictory results regarding the influence of thyroid hormone (TH) levels on BAT volume and activity. The aim of this pilot study was to gain further insights regarding the effect of TH treatment on BAT function in adult humans by evaluating the BAT mass and activity prospectively in six patients, first in the hypothyroid and then in the thyrotoxic phase...
November 29, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739007/changes-in-energy-expenditure-with-weight-gain-and-weight-loss-in-humans
#8
REVIEW
Manfred J Müller, Janna Enderle, Anja Bosy-Westphal
Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance...
December 2016: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709018/development-of-a-mechanism-based-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-to-characterize-the-thermoregulatory-effects-of-serotonergic-drugs-in-mice
#9
Xi-Ling Jiang, Hong-Wu Shen, Donald E Mager, Stephan Schmidt, Ai-Ming Yu
We have shown recently that concurrent harmaline, a monoamine oxidase-A inhibitor (MAOI), potentiates serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonist 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT)-induced hyperthermia. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model to characterize and predict the thermoregulatory effects of such serotonergic drugs in mice. Physiological thermoregulation was described by a mechanism-based indirect-response model with adaptive feedback control...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692461/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-thermogenic-adipose-program
#10
Audrey Sambeat, Olga Gulyaeva, Jon Dempersmier, Hei Sook Sul
In contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy in the form of triglycerides, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy by producing heat to maintain body temperature by burning glucose and fatty acids in a process called adaptive thermogenesis. The presence of an inducible thermogenic adipose tissue, and its beneficial effects for maintaining body weight and glucose and lipid homeostasis, has raised intense interest in understanding the regulation of thermogenesis. Elucidating the regulatory mechanisms underlying the thermogenic adipose program may provide excellent targets for therapeutics against obesity and diabetes...
September 27, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686741/maternal-high-fat-diet-during-lactation-impairs-thermogenic-function-of-brown-adipose-tissue-in-offspring-mice
#11
Xingwei Liang, Qiyuan Yang, Lupei Zhang, Joseph W Maricelli, Buel D Rodgers, Mei-Jun Zhu, Min Du
Maternal obesity and high-fat diet (HFD) predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic diseases. Due to uncoupling, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy via heat generation, mitigating obesity and diabetes. The lactation stage is a manageable period for improving the health of offspring of obese mothers, but the impact of maternal HFD during lactation on offspring BAT function is unknown. To determine, female mice were fed either a control or HFD during lactation. At weaning, HFD offspring gained more body weight and had greater body fat mass compared to the control, and these differences maintained into adulthood, which correlated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in HFD offspring...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684068/deficiency-of-interleukin-15-confers-resistance-to-obesity-by-diminishing-inflammation-and-enhancing-the-thermogenic-function-of-adipose-tissues
#12
Gregory Lacraz, Volatiana Rakotoarivelo, Sebastien M Labbé, Mathieu Vernier, Christophe Noll, Marian Mayhue, Jana Stankova, Adel Schwertani, Guillaume Grenier, André Carpentier, Denis Richard, Gerardo Ferbeyre, Julie Fradette, Marek Rola-Pleszczynski, Alfredo Menendez, Marie-France Langlois, Subburaj Ilangumaran, Sheela Ramanathan
OBJECTIVE: IL-15 is an inflammatory cytokine secreted by many cell types. IL-15 is also produced during physical exercise by skeletal muscle and has been reported to reduce weight gain in mice. Contrarily, our findings on IL-15 knockout (KO) mice indicate that IL-15 promotes obesity. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the pro-obesity role of IL-15 in adipose tissues. METHODS: Control and IL-15 KO mice were maintained on high fat diet (HFD) or normal control diet...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678249/molecular-characterization-of-gpr50-gene-and-study-of-its-comparative-genetic-variability-in-sheep-breeds-adapted-to-different-thermo-contrasting-climatic-regimens
#13
Vijay Kumar Saxena, Davendra Kumar, S M K Naqvi
GPR50, formerly known as a melatonin-related receptor, is one of the three subtypes of melatonin receptor subfamily, together with MTNR1A and MTNR1B. GPR50, despite its high identity with the melatonin receptor family, does not bind melatonin and is considered to be an ortholog of MTNR1C in mammals. GPR50-expressing cells have been found in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, the periventricular nucleus, and the median eminence. Genetic and functional evidence have been recently investigated linking GPR50 to adaptive thermogenesis and torpor, but still, it is an orphan receptor and is yet to be studied conclusively...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672060/disruption-of-beta3-adrenergic-receptor-increases-susceptibility-to-dio-in-mouse
#14
Nailliw Z Preite, Bruna P P Nascimento, Cynthia R Muller, Anna Laura V Americo, Talita S Higa, Fabiana S Evangelista, Carmen L Lancellotti, Felipe Dos Santos Henriques, Miguel Luiz Batista Júnior, Antonio C Bianco, Miriam Oliveira Ribeiro
The brown adipose tissue (BAT) mediates adaptive changes in metabolic rate by responding to the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) through β-adrenergic receptors (AR). Here we wished to define the role played by the ARβ3 isoform in this process. This study focused on the ARβ3 knockout mice (ARβ3KO), including responsiveness to cold exposure, diet-induced obesity, intolerance to glucose, dyslipidemia and lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT). ARβ3KO mice defend core temperature during cold exposure (4ºC for 5h), with faster BAT thermal response to Norepinephrine (NE) infusion when compared to wild-type (WT) mice...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636730/ppars-in-obesity-induced-t2dm-dyslipidaemia-and-nafld
#15
REVIEW
Barbara Gross, Michal Pawlak, Philippe Lefebvre, Bart Staels
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that predisposes individuals to cardiometabolic complications, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which are all related to inappropriate ectopic lipid deposition. Identification of the pathogenic molecular mechanisms and effective therapeutic approaches are highly needed. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) modulate several biological processes that are perturbed in obesity, including inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism and overall energy homeostasis...
September 16, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616452/brown-adipose-tissue-as-a-secretory-organ
#16
REVIEW
Francesc Villarroya, Rubén Cereijo, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the main site of adaptive thermogenesis and experimental studies have associated BAT activity with protection against obesity and metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. Active BAT is present in adult humans and its activity is impaired in patients with obesity. The ability of BAT to protect against chronic metabolic disease has traditionally been attributed to its capacity to utilize glucose and lipids for thermogenesis. However, BAT might also have a secretory role, which could contribute to the systemic consequences of BAT activity...
September 12, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574977/low-protein-diet-induces-whereas-high-protein-diet-reduces-hepatic-fgf21-production-in-mice-but-glucose-and-not-amino-acids-up-regulate-fgf21-in-cultured-hepatocytes
#17
Tristan Chalvon-Demersay, Patrick C Even, Daniel Tomé, Catherine Chaumontet, Julien Piedcoq, Claire Gaudichon, Dalila Azzout-Marniche
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a polypeptide secreted by the liver and involved in several metabolic processes such as thermogenesis and lipid oxidation. The nutritional mechanisms controlling FGF21 production are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate how dietary carbohydrates and proteins impact FGF21 production and how in turn, FGF21 is involved in the metabolic adaptation to changes in the carbohydrate and protein contents of the diet. For that purpose, we fed 25 male C57BL/6 mice diets composed of different protein and carbohydrate contents (normal-protein and carbohydrate diet (N=9, NPNC), low-protein high-carbohydrate diet (N=8, LPHC), high-protein low-carbohydrate diet (N=8, HPLC) for 3 weeks...
October 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570829/photoperiodic-regulation-of-cerebral-blood-flow-in-white-footed-mice-peromyscus-leucopus
#18
Jeremy C Borniger, Seth Teplitsky, Surya Gnyawali, Randy J Nelson, Cameron Rink
Individuals living outside the tropics need to adjust their behavioral and physiological repertoires throughout the year to adapt to the changing seasons. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) reduce hippocampal volumes, hippocampal-dependent memory function, long-term potentiation, and alter neurogenesis in response to short (winter-like) day lengths (photoperiods). During winter, these mice putatively shunt energy away from the brain to maximize peripheral thermogenesis, immune function, and survival. We hypothesized that these changes in brain function are accompanied by alterations in brain vasculature...
July 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560796/continuous-cold-exposure-induces-an-anti-inflammatory-response-in-mesenteric-adipose-tissue-associated-with-catecholamine-production-and-thermogenin-expression-in-rats
#19
P Vargovic, G Manz, R Kvetnansky
OBJECTIVE: Continuous exposure to cold leads to an activation of adaptive thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue and induction of brown/beige cell phenotype in the white adipose tissue. Thermogenic response is associated with alternatively activated macrophages producing catecholamines, which subsequently activate the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). The aim of this work was to elucidate the effect of cold exposure on catecholamine and immune responses associated with adipocyte browning in the mesenteric adipose tissue (mWAT) of rat...
July 2016: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518556/il-33-imprimatur-of-adipocyte-thermogenesis
#20
COMMENT
Diane Mathis
Chawla and colleagues find that interleukin-33 is a critical controller of brown and beige adipocyte thermogenesis. Its primary impact is on the splicing of transcripts encoding uncoupling protein-1, resulting in uncoupled respiration and effective heat generation. Interleukin-33 acts perinatally to ensure adaptive thermogenesis lifelong.
August 11, 2016: Cell
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