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Medical Genetics, Human Genetics, Cancers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933213/molecular-pathology-of-cancer-how-to-communicate-with-disease
#1
REVIEW
Peter Birner, Gerald Prager, Berthold Streubel
: Recent technical advances have brought insights into the biology of cancer in human, establishing it as a disease driven by genetic mutations. Beside inherited family tumour syndromes caused by germline mutations, somatic genetic alterations occur early in tumourigenesis, which accumulate during the progression of the disease and its treatment. Based on these observations, medical oncology has started to enter an era of stratified medicine, where treatment selection is becoming tailored to drugable molecular pathways...
2016: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921323/the-application-of-strand-invasion-phenomenon-directed-by-peptide-nucleic-acid-pna-and-single-stranded-dna-binding-protein-ssb-for-the-recognition-of-specific-sequences-of-human-endogenous-retroviral-herv-w-family
#2
Grzegorz Machnik, Łukasz Bułdak, Jarosław Ruczyński, Tomasz Gąsior, Małgorzata Huzarska, Dariusz Belowski, Magdalena Alenowicz, Piotr Mucha, Piotr Rekowski, Bogusław Okopień
The HERV-W family of human endogenous retroviruses represents a group of numerous sequences that show close similarity in genetic composition. It has been documented that some members of HERV-W-derived expression products are supposed to play significant role in humans' pathology, such as multiple sclerosis or schizophrenia. Other members of the family are necessary to orchestrate physiological processes (eg, ERVWE1 coding syncytin-1 that is engaged in syncytiotrophoblast formation). Therefore, an assay that would allow the recognition of particular form of HERV-W members is highly desirable...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910033/cytogenetic-resources-and-information
#3
Etienne De Braekeleer, Jean-Loup Huret, Hossain Mossafa, Philippe Dessen
The main databases devoted stricto sensu to cancer cytogenetics are the "Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer" ( http://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Chromosomes/Mitelman ), the "Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology" ( http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org ), and COSMIC ( http://cancer.sanger.ac.uk/cosmic ).However, being a complex multistep process, cancer cytogenetics are broadened to "cytogenomics," with complementary resources on: general databases (nucleic acid and protein sequences databases; cartography browsers: GenBank, RefSeq, UCSC, Ensembl, UniProtKB, and Entrez Gene), cancer genomic portals associated with recent international integrated programs, such as TCGA or ICGC, other fusion genes databases, array CGH databases, copy number variation databases, and mutation databases...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894687/reprint-of-biomonitoring-of-genotoxic-effects-for-human-exposure-to-nanomaterials-the-challenge-ahead
#4
REVIEW
Laetitia Gonzalez, Micheline Kirsch-Volders
Exposures to nanomaterials (NMs), with their specific physico-chemical characteristics, are likely to increase over the next years, as their production for industrial, consumer and medical applications is steadily rising. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the implementation of human biomonitoring studies of genotoxic effects after NM exposures in order to monitor and assure safety for workers and the general population. In this review, most commonly used biomarkers of early genetic effects were analyzed for their adequacy after NM exposures...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843641/esmo-asco-recommendations-for-a-global-curriculum-in-medical-oncology-edition-2016
#5
REVIEW
Christian Dittrich, Michael Kosty, Svetlana Jezdic, Doug Pyle, Rossana Berardi, Jonas Bergh, Nagi El-Saghir, Jean-Pierre Lotz, Pia Österlund, Nicholas Pavlidis, Gunta Purkalne, Ahmad Awada, Susana Banerjee, Smita Bhatia, Jan Bogaerts, Jan Buckner, Fatima Cardoso, Paolo Casali, Edward Chu, Julia Lee Close, Bertrand Coiffier, Roisin Connolly, Sarah Coupland, Luigi De Petris, Maria De Santis, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Don S Dizon, Jennifer Duff, Linda R Duska, Alexandru Eniu, Marc Ernstoff, Enriqueta Felip, Martin F Fey, Jill Gilbert, Nicolas Girard, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Priya K Gopalan, Axel Grothey, Stephen M Hahn, Diana Hanna, Christian Herold, Jørn Herrstedt, Krisztian Homicsko, Dennie V Jones, Lorenz Jost, Ulrich Keilholz, Saad Khan, Alexander Kiss, Claus-Henning Köhne, Rainer Kunstfeld, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Stuart Lichtman, Lisa Licitra, Thomas Lion, Saskia Litière, Lifang Liu, Patrick J Loehrer, Merry Jennifer Markham, Ben Markman, Marius Mayerhoefer, Johannes G Meran, Olivier Michielin, Elizabeth Charlotte Moser, Giannis Mountzios, Timothy Moynihan, Torsten Nielsen, Yuichiro Ohe, Kjell Öberg, Antonio Palumbo, Fedro Alessandro Peccatori, Michael Pfeilstöcker, Chandrajit Raut, Scot C Remick, Mark Robson, Piotr Rutkowski, Roberto Salgado, Lidia Schapira, Eva Schernhammer, Martin Schlumberger, Hans-Joachim Schmoll, Lowell Schnipper, Cristiana Sessa, Charles L Shapiro, Julie Steele, Cora N Sternberg, Friedrich Stiefel, Florian Strasser, Roger Stupp, Richard Sullivan, Josep Tabernero, Luzia Travado, Marcel Verheij, Emile Voest, Everett Vokes, Jamie Von Roenn, Jeffrey S Weber, Hans Wildiers, Yosef Yarden
The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) are publishing a new edition of the ESMO/ASCO Global Curriculum (GC) thanks to contribution of 64 ESMO-appointed and 32 ASCO-appointed authors. First published in 2004 and updated in 2010, the GC edition 2016 answers to the need for updated recommendations for the training of physicians in medical oncology by defining the standard to be fulfilled to qualify as medical oncologists. At times of internationalisation of healthcare and increased mobility of patients and physicians, the GC aims to provide state-of-the-art cancer care to all patients wherever they live...
2016: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770808/p14-expression-differences-in-ovarian-benign-borderline-and-malignant-epithelial-tumors
#6
Vinicius Duarte Cabral, Marcelle Reesink Cerski, Ivana Trindade Sa Brito, Lucia Maria Kliemann
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in tumor suppressors p14, p16 and p53 are reported in several human cancers. In ovarian epithelial carcinogenesis, p16 and p53 show higher immunohistochemical staining frequencies in malignant tumors and are associated with poor prognoses. p14 was only analyzed in carcinomas, with conflicting results. There are no reports on its expression in benign and borderline tumors. This study aims to determine p14, p16 and p53 expression frequencies in ovarian benign, borderline and malignant tumors and their associations with clinical parameters...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742414/family-specific-variants-and-the-limits-of-human-genetics
#7
Brian H Shirts, Colin C Pritchard, Tom Walsh
Every single-nucleotide change compatible with life is present in the human population today. Understanding these rare human variants defines an extraordinary challenge for genetics and medicine. The new clinical practice of sequencing many genes for hereditary cancer risk has illustrated the utility of clinical next-generation sequencing in adults, identifying more medically actionable variants than single-gene testing. However, it has also revealed a linear relationship between the length of DNA evaluated and the number of rare 'variants of uncertain significance' reported...
October 11, 2016: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663983/the-inherited-p53-mutation-in-the-brazilian-population
#8
Maria Isabel Achatz, Gerard P Zambetti
A common criticism of studying rare diseases is the often-limited relevance of the findings to human health. Here, we review ∼15 years of research into an unusual germline TP53 mutation (p.R337H) that began with its detection in children with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), a remarkably rare childhood cancer that is associated with poor prognosis. We have come to learn that the p.R337H mutation exists at a very high frequency in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, occurring in one of 375 individuals within a total population of ∼100 million...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642271/metabolomics-enables-precision-medicine-a-white-paper-community-perspective
#9
Richard D Beger, Warwick Dunn, Michael A Schmidt, Steven S Gross, Jennifer A Kirwan, Marta Cascante, Lorraine Brennan, David S Wishart, Matej Oresic, Thomas Hankemeier, David I Broadhurst, Andrew N Lane, Karsten Suhre, Gabi Kastenmüller, Susan J Sumner, Ines Thiele, Oliver Fiehn, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk
INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND TO METABOLOMICS: Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of the metabolome, the repertoire of biochemicals (or small molecules) present in cells, tissues, and body fluids. The study of metabolism at the global or "-omics" level is a rapidly growing field that has the potential to have a profound impact upon medical practice. At the center of metabolomics, is the concept that a person's metabolic state provides a close representation of that individual's overall health status...
2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614400/the-interactome-of-cct-complex-a-computational-analysis
#10
Aswathy N, Dileep Pullepu, M Anaul Kabir
The eukaryotic chaperonin, CCT (Chaperonin Containing TCP1 or TriC-TCP-1 Ring Complex) has been subjected to physical and genetic analyses in S. cerevisiae which can be extrapolated to human CCT (hCCT), owing to its structural and functional similarities with yeast CCT (yCCT). Studies on hCCT and its interactome acquire an additional dimension, as it has been implicated in several disease conditions like neurodegeneration and cancer. We attempt to study its stress response role in general, which will be reflected in the aspects of human diseases and yeast physiology, through computational analysis of the interactome...
September 6, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612677/implementing-genomics-and-pharmacogenomics-in-the-clinic-the-national-human-genome-research-institute-s-genomic-medicine-portfolio
#11
REVIEW
Teri A Manolio
Increasing knowledge about the influence of genetic variation on human health and growing availability of reliable, cost-effective genetic testing have spurred the implementation of genomic medicine in the clinic. As defined by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), genomic medicine uses an individual's genetic information in his or her clinical care, and has begun to be applied effectively in areas such as cancer genomics, pharmacogenomics, and rare and undiagnosed diseases. In 2011 NHGRI published its strategic vision for the future of genomic research, including an ambitious research agenda to facilitate and promote the implementation of genomic medicine...
October 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606136/kras-mutation-in-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-and-extrapulmonary-small-cell-cancer
#12
Hilmi Kodaz, Ebru Taştekin, Bülent Erdoğan, İlhan Hacıbekiroğlu, Hilmi Tozkır, Hakan Gürkan, Esma Türkmen, Bora Demirkan, Sernaz Uzunoğlu, İrfan Çiçin
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers. It is mainly classified into 2 groups: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas (EPSCC) are very rare. The Ras oncogene controls most of the cellular functions in the cell. Overall, 21.6% of human cancers contain a Kirsten Ras (KRAS) mutation. SCLC and EPSCC have several similar features but their clinical course is different. AIMS: We investigated the KRAS mutation status in SCLC and EPSCC...
July 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584945/genetic-ancestry-using-mitochondrial-dna-in-patients-with-triple-negative-breast-cancer-gamit-study
#13
Roshni Rao, Aeisha Rivers, Asal Rahimi, Rachel Wooldridge, Madhu Rao, Marilyn Leitch, David Euhus, Barbara B Haley
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/neu receptors, and is aggressive and therapeutically challenging. Genetic ancestry testing is an emerging medical field. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is distinct from nuclear DNA, is maternally inherited and allows for origin determination. Patients with TNBC tend to be younger and are more likely to be African American, making this an ideal disease for mtDNA exploration...
September 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539576/refining-human-t-cell-immunotherapy-of-cytomegalovirus-disease-a-mouse-model-with-humanized-antigen-presentation-as-a-new-preclinical-study-tool
#14
Niels A W Lemmermann, Matthias J Reddehase
With the cover headline 'T cells on the attack,' the journal Science celebrated individualized cancer immunotherapy by adoptive transfer of T cells as the 'Breakthrough of the Year' 2013 (J. Couzin-Frankel in Science 342:1432-1433, 2013). It is less well recognized and appreciated that individualized T cell immunotherapy of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is approaching clinical application for preventing CMV organ manifestations, interstitial CMV pneumonia in particular. This coincident medical development is particularly interesting as reactivated CMV infection is a major viral complication in the state of transient immunodeficiency after the therapy of hematopoietic malignancies by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)...
August 18, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510612/pediatrics-in-21-st-century-and-beyond
#15
Meharban Singh
Pediatrics is a dynamic discipline and there is awareness and hope for actualizing outstanding achievements in the field of child health in 21(st) century and beyond. Improved lifestyle and quality of children's health is likely to reduce the burden of adult diseases and enhance longevity because seeds of most adult diseases are sown in childhood. Identification and decoding of human genome is expected to revolutionize the practice of pediatrics. The day is not far off when a patient will walk into doctor's chamber with an electronic or digital health history on a CD or palmtop and a decoded genomic constitution...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503625/severe-somatoform-and-dysautonomic-syndromes-after-hpv-vaccination-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#16
Beniamino Palmieri, Dimitri Poddighe, Maria Vadalà, Carmen Laurino, Carla Carnovale, Emilio Clementi
Human papilloma virus (HPV) is recognized as a major cause for cervical cancer among women worldwide. Two HPV vaccines are currently available: Gardasil(®) and Cervarix(®). Both vaccines enclose viral antigenic proteins, but differ as to the biological systems of culture and the adjuvant components. Recently, a collection of symptoms, indicating nervous system dysfunction, has been described after HPV vaccination. We retrospectively described a case series including 18 girls (aged 12-24 years) referred to our "Second Opinion Medical Network" for the evaluation of "neuropathy with autonomic dysfunction" after HPV vaccination...
August 9, 2016: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500823/nephrotoxin-microinjection-in-zebrafish-to-model-acute-kidney-injury
#17
Robert A McKee, Rebecca A Wingert
The kidneys are susceptible to harm from exposure to chemicals they filter from the bloodstream. This can lead to organ injury associated with a rapid decline in renal function and development of the clinical syndrome known as acute kidney injury (AKI). Pharmacological agents used to treat medical circumstances ranging from bacterial infection to cancer, when administered individually or in combination with other drugs, can initiate AKI. Zebrafish are a useful animal model to study the chemical effects on renal function in vivo, as they form an embryonic kidney comprised of nephron functional units that are conserved with higher vertebrates, including humans...
July 17, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499593/type-ii-endometrial-cancers-a-case-series
#18
Flora D Lobo, Eliz Thomas
INTRODUCTION: Endometrial carcinoma ranks 3(rd) in India among gynecological malignancies. Endometrial cancer (EC) can be classified into two distinct groups - type I and type II, based on histology, which differs in molecular, clinical and histopathological profiles. Type II is nonestrogen dependent, nonendometrioid, more aggressive and carries poor prognosis. Although type II cancers contribute only about 10% of EC incidence, they present at advanced age and cause approximately 50% recurrence and deaths with a low 5-year, overall survival rate...
April 2016: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489354/association-of-the-glb1-rs4678680-genetic-variant-with-risk-of-hbv-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
Wen-Tao Wang, Ziqiang Li, Meng Shi, Hui Zhu, Xiangyu Xiong, Jinhua Shang, Jibing Liu, Mujian Teng, Ming Yang
Accumulated evidences demonstrated that GLB1 is involved in cell senescence and cancer development. The GLB1 rs4678680 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been identified as a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) susceptibility polymorphism by a genome-wide association study in Korean population previously. However, little or nothing was known about its involvement and functional significance in hepatitis B viruses (HBV)-related HCC in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the association between the GLB1 rs4678680 SNP and HBV-related HCC risk as well as its biological function in vivo...
July 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457213/vitamins-b1-b2-b3-and-b9-occurrence-biosynthesis-pathways-and-functions-in-human-nutrition
#20
Natalia Wolak, Marcin Zawrotniak, Mariusz Gogol, Andrzej Kozik, Maria Rapala-Kozik
Vitamins are chemical compounds whose derivatives are involved in vital metabolic pathways of all living organisms. The complete endogenous biosynthesis of vitamins can be performed by many bacteria, yeast and plants, but humans need to acquire most of these essential nutrients with food. In recent years, new types of action of the well-recognized vitamins or their more sophisticated relationships have been reported. In this review we present the current knowledge of factors that can influence the yield and regulation of vitamin B1, B2, B3 and B9 biosynthesis in plants which can be important for human nutrition...
July 24, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
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