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Synaptic plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738336/innate-immune-memory-implications-for-microglial-function-and-neuroprogression
#1
Alex P Salam, Carmine M Pariante, Patricia Zunszain
Immunostimulatory insults such as stress and infection are risk factors for the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by neuroprogression. Inflammatory and neurotoxic molecules in the brain can cause disruptions in neurogenesis, neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival - changes that characterize neuroprogression. We draw on recent findings in the immunology literature that peripheral innate immune cells are capable of retaining long-term memory of infectious insults and displaying long-lasting upregulated proinflammatory function in response to repeated infectious insults - a concept known as "innate immune memory...
July 24, 2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737723/role-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-the-regulation-of-structural-plasticity-and-cognitive-function
#2
REVIEW
Crystal C Y Leung, Yung H Wong
Cognition and other higher brain functions are known to be intricately associated with the capacity of neural circuits to undergo structural reorganization. Structural remodelling of neural circuits, or structural plasticity, in the hippocampus plays a major role in learning and memory. Dynamic modifications of neuronal connectivity in the form of dendritic spine morphology alteration, as well as synapse formation and elimination, often result in the strengthening or weakening of specific neural circuits that determine synaptic plasticity...
July 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737583/callosal-injury-induced-working-memory-impairment-a-computational-network-modeling-study
#3
Jianxia Cui, Laurel J Ng, Vladislav Volman
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) often results in working memory (WM) impairment, but the mechanistic relationship between the two remains elusive. We used a computational model of two cortical neuronal networks linked by myelinated callosal axons with distance-dependent conduction delays to simulate callosal dysfunction in mTBI and quantify its impact on WM. WM maintenance and termination in the model network depended on short-term synaptic plasticity. In injured networks, WM duration depended on the extent of callosal injury, consistent with clinical data...
July 21, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736134/stimulus-evoked-erk-dependent-phosphorylation-of-activity-regulated-cytoskeleton-associated-protein-arc-regulates-its-neuronal-subcellular-localization
#4
Oleksii Nikolaienko, Maria Steene Eriksen, Sudarshan Patil, Haruhiko Bito, Clive R Bramham
Activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) is implicated as a master regulator of long-term synaptic plasticity and memory formation in mammalian brain. Arc acts at synapses and within the nucleus, but the mechanisms controlling Arc localization and function are little known. As Arc transcription and translation are regulated by ERK signalling, we asked whether Arc protein itself is phosphorylated by ERK. GST-fused Arc of rat origin was able to pull down endogenous ERK2 from rat hippocampal lysates...
July 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735565/can-pharmacological-manipulation-of-ltp-favor-the-effects-of-motor-rehabilitation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Letizia Leocani, Giancarlo Comi, Ennio Iezzi, Diego Centonze
BACKGROUND: Synaptic plasticity, the basic mechanism of clinical recovery after brain lesion, can also remarkably influence the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Physical rehabilitation represents the main treatment option to promote synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and to enhance spontaneous recovery of neurological deficits. OBJECTIVES: To overview the role of pharmacological treatment and physical rehabilitation in modulating LTP and enhancing clinical recovery in MS...
July 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735418/gap-junction-communication-between-chromaffin-cells-the-hidden-face-of-adrenal-stimulus-secretion-coupling
#6
REVIEW
Nathalie C Guérineau
From birth to death, catecholamine secretion undergoes continuous adjustments, allowing the organism to adapt to homeostasis changes. To cope with these stressful conditions, the neuroendocrine cells of the adrenal medulla play an immediate and crucial role. Chromaffin cell-driven catecholamine release is chiefly controlled by a neurogenic command that arises from the sympathetic nervous system, which releases acetylcholine at the splanchnic nerve terminal-chromaffin cell synapses. In addition to receiving several synaptic inputs individually, chromaffin cells are coupled by gap junctions...
July 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735226/perinatal-fluoxetine-effects-on-social-play-the-hpa-system-and-hippocampal-plasticity-in-pre-adolescent-male-and-female-rats-interactions-with-pre-gestational-maternal-stress
#7
Mary Gemmel, Mariah Hazlett, Eszter Bögi, Sonsoles De Lacalle, Lesley A Hill, Nikolaos Kokras, Geoffrey L Hammond, Christina Dalla, Thierry D Charlier, Jodi L Pawluski
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) are the first lines of treatment for maternal affective disorders, and are prescribed to up to 10% of pregnant women. Concern has been raised about how perinatal exposure to these medications affect offspring neurobehavioral outcomes, particularly those related to social interactions, as recent research has reported conflicting results related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in children prenatally exposed to SSRIs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to the SSRI fluoxetine on social play behaviors and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal system, using a model of pre-gestational maternal stress...
July 15, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734961/radix-puerariae-modulates-glutamatergic-synaptic-architecture-and-potentiates-functional-synaptic-plasticity-in-primary-hippocampal-neurons
#8
Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque Bhuiyan, Md Nazmul Haque, Md Mohibbullah, Yung Kyu Kim, Il Soo Moon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Neurologic disorders are frequently characterized by synaptic pathology, including abnormal density and morphology of dendritic spines, synapse loss, and aberrant synaptic signaling and plasticity. Therefore, to promote and/or protect synapses by the use of natural molecules capable of modulating neurodevelopmental events, such as, spinogenesis and synaptic plasticity, could offer a preventive and curative strategy for nervous disorders associated with synaptic pathology...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734834/dynein-binds-and-stimulates-axonal-motility-of-the-endosome-adaptor-and-neep21-family-member-calcyon
#9
Liang Shi, Nagendran Muthusamy, Deanna Smith, Clare Bergson
The neuron-enriched, endosomal protein Calcyon (Caly) regulates endocytosis and vesicle sorting, and is important for synaptic plasticity and brain development. In the current investigation of Caly interacting proteins in brain, the microtubule retrograde motor subunit, cytoplasmic dynein 1 heavy chain (DYNC1H), and microtubule structural proteins, α and β tubulin, were identified as Caly associated proteins by MALDI-ToF/ToF. Direct interaction of the Caly-C terminus with dynein and tubulin was further confirmed in in vitro studies...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734458/rett-like-severe-encephalopathy-caused-by-a-de%C3%A2-novo-grin2b-mutation-is-attenuated-by-d-serine-dietary-supplement
#10
David Soto, Mireia Olivella, Cristina Grau, Judith Armstrong, Clara Alcon, Xavier Gasull, Macarena Gómez de Salazar, Esther Gratacòs-Batlle, David Ramos-Vicente, Víctor Fernández-Dueñas, Francisco Ciruela, Àlex Bayés, Carlos Sindreu, Anna López-Sala, Àngels García-Cazorla, Xavier Altafaj
BACKGROUND: N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play pivotal roles in synaptic development, plasticity, neural survival, and cognition. Despite recent reports describing the genetic association between de novo mutations of NMDAR subunits and severe psychiatric diseases, little is known about their pathogenic mechanisms and potential therapeutic interventions. Here we report a case study of a 4-year-old Rett-like patient with severe encephalopathy carrying a missense de novo mutation in GRIN2B(p...
June 16, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733355/erk-mapk-signaling-is-required-for-pathway-specific-striatal-motor-functions
#11
Scott R Hutton, James M Otis, Erin M Kim, Yashna Lamsal, Garret D Stuber, William D Snider
The ERK/MAPK intracellular signaling pathway is hypothesized to be a key regulator of striatal activity via modulation of synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. However, prior investigations into striatal ERK/MAPK functions have yielded conflicting results. Further, these studies have not delineated the cell type-specific roles of ERK/MAPK signaling due to the reliance on globally-administered pharmacological ERK/MAPK inhibitors and the use of genetic models that only partially reduce total ERK/MAPK activity...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732667/contribution-of-bdnf-trkb-signalling-in-the-racc-to-the-development-of-pain-related-aversion-via-activation-of-erk-in-rats-with-spared-nerve-injury
#12
Xu Wang, Le Zhang, Yufeng Zhan, Dengping Li, Yuangui Zhang, Gongming Wang, Mengyuan Zhang
The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is a key structure in mediating the negative affective component of chronic pain. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to play a critical role in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. It has been shown that BDNF signalling in the rACC might be involved in spontaneous pain-related aversion, but its underlying mechanism is still largely unknown. To address this question, we measured the mRNA and protein levels of BDNF in the rACC after nerve injury and found that BDNF expression was markedly higher in nerve-injured rats than in controls...
July 18, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731445/colivelin-ameliorates-impairments-in%C3%A2-cognitive-behaviors-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#13
Meina Wu, Hui Shi, Yexin He, Li Yuan, Xuesong Qu, Jun Zhang, Zhaojun Wang, Hongyan Cai, Jinshun Qi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, and effective therapeutics are lacking. Colivelin (CLN), a novel, strong humanin derivative, is effective in vitro in preventing cell death induced by AD-causative genes and amyloid-β protein (Aβ) even at a low concentration. We recently demonstrated that intrahippocampal injection of CLN prevents Aβ25-35-induced deficits in spatial memory and synaptic plasticity in normal rats. Here, we further observed the effects of chronically intranasally (i...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730825/the-implication-of-ampa-receptor-in-synaptic-plasticity-impairment-and-intellectual-disability-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#14
G-R Cheng, X-Y Li, Y-D Xiang, D Liu, S M McClintock, Y Zeng
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequently inherited form of intellectual disability and prevalent single-gene cause of autism. A priority of FXS research is to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the cognitive and social functioning impairments in humans and the FXS mouse model. Glutamate ionotropic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPARs) mediate a majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system and are critically important for nearly all aspects of brain function, including neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730313/derivatization-free-lc-ms-ms-method-for-estrogen-quantification-in-mouse-brain-highlights-a-local-metabolic-regulation-after-oral-versus-subcutaneous-administration
#15
Ecaterina Lozan, Svitlana Shinkaruk, Shaam Alice Al Abed, Valérie Lamothe, Mylène Potier, Aline Marighetto, Jean-Marie Schmitter, Catherine Bennetau-Pelissero, Corinne Buré
17β-Estradiol (17β-E2) is a steroid with pleiotropic actions. In addition to being a sexual hormone, it is also produced in the brain where it modulates the reproductive axis. It has been shown that 17β-E2 also acts on synaptic plasticity and plays a role in neurological pathways and in neurodegenerative diseases. Assaying this steroid in the brain is thus interesting to improve our knowledge of 17β-E2 effects in the brain. However, 17β-E2 concentration in the central nervous system has been reported to be of a few nanograms per gram wet weight (nanomolar range concentration); therefore, its quantification requires both an efficient extraction process and a sensitive detection method...
July 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729735/the-wnt-receptor-ryk-is-a-negative-regulator-of-mammalian-dendrite-morphogenesis
#16
Vanessa Lanoue, Michael Langford, Amanda White, Kai Sempert, Lily Fogg, Helen M Cooper
The unique dendritic architecture of a given neuronal subtype determines its synaptic connectivity and ability to integrate into functional neuronal networks. It is now clear that abnormal dendritic structure is associated with neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Currently, however, the nature of the extrinsic factors that limit dendritic growth and branching within predetermined boundaries in the mammalian brain is poorly understood. Here we identify the Wnt receptor Ryk as a novel negative regulator of dendritic arborisation...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729191/hypothermia-pretreatment-improves-cognitive-impairment-via-enhancing-synaptic-plasticity-in-a-traumatic-brain-injury-model
#17
Bingjin Liu, Lin Wang, Yun Cao, Weiqi Xu, Fangxiao Shi, Qing Tian, Xinwen Zhou
PosttraumatichypothermiaattenuatescognitivedeficitscausedbyTBIwhen it is administered at an early stage. However, little is known regarding the effect of hypothermia pretreatment on cognitive deficits one month after TBI. In the current study, the behavior test revealed that hypothermia pretreatment mitigates the learning and memory impairment induced by TBI in mice. Hypothermia treatment significantly increased the expression of PSD93, PSD95 and NR2B one month after TBI in the cortex and hippocampus compared with the normothermia group...
July 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729064/effects-of-cannabinoid-drugs-on-aversive-and-rewarding-drug-associated-memory-extinction-and-reconsolidation
#18
REVIEW
Cristina A J Stern, Cristiane R de Carvalho, Leandro J Bertoglio, Reinaldo N Takahashi
Posttraumatic stress and drug use disorders may stem from aberrant memory formation. As the endocannabinoid (eCB) system has a pivotal role in emotional memory processing and related synaptic plasticity, here we seek to review and discuss accumulating evidence on how and where in the brain interventions targeting the eCB system would attenuate outcomes associated with traumatic events and/or drug addiction through memory extinction facilitation or memory reconsolidation disruption. Currently available data from mouse, rat, monkey and healthy human studies investigating the effects of cannabinoid drugs on the extinction and reconsolidation of aversive memories are more consistent than those related to rewarding drug-associated memories...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728834/calcium-signaling-and-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Ekaterina Pchitskaya, Elena Popugaeva, Ilya Bezprozvanny
Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates various activities in eukaryotic cells. Especially important role calcium plays in excitable cells. Neurons require extremely precise spatial-temporal control of calcium-dependent processes because they regulate such vital functions as synaptic plasticity. Recent evidence indicates that neuronal calcium signaling is abnormal in many of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD)...
June 30, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726541/characterization-of-postsynaptic-calcium-signals-in-the-pyramidal-neurons-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#20
Xu-Hui Li, Qian Song, Tao Chen, Min Zhuo
Calcium signaling is critical for synaptic transmission and plasticity. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors play a key role in synaptic potentiation in the anterior cingulate cortex. Most previous studies of calcium signaling focus on hippocampal neurons, little is known about the activity-induced calcium signals in the anterior cingulate cortex. In the present study, we show that NMDA receptor-mediated postsynaptic calcium signals induced by different synaptic stimulation in anterior cingulate cortex pyramidal neurons...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
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