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Synaptic plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355733/a-new-approach-to-detect-the-coding-rule-of-the-cortical-spiking-model-in-the-information-transmission
#1
Soheila Nazari, Karim Faez, Mahyar Janahmadi
Investigation of the role of the local field potential (LFP) fluctuations in encoding the received sensory information by the nervous system remains largely unknown. On the other hand, transmission of these translation rules in information transmission between the structure of sensory stimuli and the cortical oscillations to the bio-inspired artificial neural networks operating at the efficiency of the nervous system is still a vague puzzle. In order to move towards this important goal, computational neuroscience tools can be useful so, we simulated a large-scale network of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons with synaptic connections consisting of AMPA and GABA currents as a model of cortical populations...
January 3, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355673/a-role-for-ca3-in-social-recognition-memory
#2
Ming-Ching Chiang, Arthur J Y Huang, Marie E Wintzer, Toshio Ohshima, Thomas J McHugh
Social recognition memory is crucial for survival across species, underlying the need to correctly identify conspecifics, mates and potential enemies. In humans the hippocampus is engaged in social and episodic memory, however the circuit mechanisms of social memory in rodent models has only recently come under scrutiny. Work in mice has established that the dorsal CA2 and ventral CA1 regions play critical roles, however a more comprehensive comparative analyses of the circuits and mechanisms required has not been reported...
January 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353880/differential-effect-of-disease-associated-st8sia2-haplotype-on-cerebral-white-matter-diffusion-properties-in-schizophrenia-and-healthy-controls
#3
REVIEW
Janice M Fullerton, Paul Klauser, Rhoshel K Lenroot, Alex D Shaw, Bronwyn Overs, Anna Heath, Murray J Cairns, Joshua Atkins, Rodney Scott, Peter R Schofield, Cyndi Shannon Weickert, Christos Pantelis, Alex Fornito, Thomas J Whitford, Thomas W Weickert, Andrew Zalesky
Brain white matter abnormalities are evident in individuals with schizophrenia, and also their first-degree relatives, suggesting that some alterations may relate to underlying genetic risk. The ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 2 (ST8SIA2) gene, which encodes the alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 8B enzyme that aids neuronal migration and synaptic plasticity, was previously implicated as a schizophrenia susceptibility gene. This study examined the extent to which specific haplotypes in ST8SIA2 influence white matter microstructure using diffusion-weighted imaging of individuals with schizophrenia (n = 281) and healthy controls (n = 172), recruited across five Australian sites...
January 22, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353879/shifting-priorities-highly-conserved-behavioral-and-brain-network-adaptations-to-chronic-stress-across-species
#4
Yuliya S Nikolova, Keith A Misquitta, Brad R Rocco, Thomas D Prevot, Annchen R Knodt, Jacob Ellegood, Aristotle N Voineskos, Jason P Lerch, Ahmad R Hariri, Etienne Sibille, Mounira Banasr
Parallel clinical and preclinical research have begun to illuminate the biological basis of stress-related disorders, including major depression, but translational bridges informing discrete mechanistic targets for intervention are missing. To address this critical need, we used structural MRI in a mouse model and in a large human sample to examine stress effects on brain structure that may be conserved across species. Specifically, we focused on a previously unexplored approach, whole-brain structural covariance, as it reflects synchronized changes in neuroanatomy, potentially due to mutual trophic influences or shared plasticity across regions...
January 22, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353373/disturbance-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-mediated-long-term-depression-mglu-ltd-of-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-in-the-rat-hippocampus-after-prenatal-immune-challenge
#5
Mélanie Cavalier, Azza Ben Sedrine, Lea Thevenet, Nadine Crouzin, Janique Guiramand, Marie-Céleste de Jésus Ferreira, Catherine Cohen-Solal, Gérard Barbanel, Michel Vignes
Maternal immune challenge has proved to induce moderate to severe behavioral disabilities in the offspring. Cognitive/behavioral deficits are supported by changes in synaptic plasticity in different brain areas. We have reported previously that prenatal exposure to bacterial LPS could induce inhibition of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 area of the juvenile/adult male offspring associated with spatial learning inabilities. Nevertheless, deficits in plasticity could be observed at earlier stages as shown by the early loss of long-term depression (LTD) in immature animals...
January 20, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352507/nuclear-and-membrane-estrogen-receptor-antagonists-induce-similar-mtorc2-activation-reversible-changes-in-synaptic-protein-expression-and-actin-polymerization-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#6
Fang-Zhou Xing, Yan-Gang Zhao, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Li He, Ji-Kai Zhao, Meng-Ying Liu, Yan Liu, Ji-Qiang Zhang
AIMS: Estrogens play pivotal roles in hippocampal synaptic plasticity through nuclear receptors (nERs; including ERα and ERβ) and the membrane receptor (mER; also called GPR30), but the underlying mechanism and the contributions of nERs and mER remain unclear. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is involved in actin cytoskeleton polymerization and long-term memory, but whether mTORC2 is involved in the regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by ERs is unclear. METHODS: We treated animals with nER antagonists (MPP/PHTPP) or the mER antagonist (G15) alone or in combination with A-443654, an activator of mTORC2...
January 19, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352468/developmental-plasticity-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission-to-brainstem-motoneurons
#7
Lila Buls Wollman, Richard B Levine, Ralph F Fregosi
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) signalling regulates neuronal differentiation and synaptogenesis. Here we test the hypothesis that developmental nicotine exposure (DNE) disrupts the development of GABAergic synaptic transmission to hypoglossal motoneurons (XIIMNs). GABAergic spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSC/mIPSC) were recorded from XIIMNs in brainstem slices from control and DNE rat pups of either sex, 1-5 days old, at baseline and following acute stimulation of nAChRs with nicotine...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352274/compliance-free-digital-set-and-analog-reset-synaptic-characteristics-of-sub-tantalum-oxide-based-neuromorphic-device
#8
Yawar Abbas, Yu-Rim Jeon, Andrey Sergeevich Sokolov, Sohyeon Kim, Boncheol Ku, Changhwan Choi
A two terminal semiconducting device like a memristor is indispensable to emulate the function of synapse in the working memory. The analog switching characteristics of memristor play a vital role in the emulation of biological synapses. The application of consecutive voltage sweeps or pulses (action potentials) changes the conductivity of the memristor which is considered as the fundamental cause of the synaptic plasticity. In this study, a neuromorphic device using an in-situ growth of sub-tantalum oxide switching layer is fabricated, which exhibits the digital SET and analog RESET switching with an electroforming process without any compliance current (compliance free)...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351877/rest-a-master-transcriptional-regulator-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#9
REVIEW
Jee-Yeon Hwang, R Suzanne Zukin
The restrictive element-1 silencing transcription factor)/NRSF (neuron-restrictive silencing factor (NRSF) is a transcriptional repressor which acts via epigenetic remodeling to silence target genes. Emerging evidence indicates that REST is a master transcriptional regulator of neuron-specific genes not only in neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, but also in differentiated neurons during the critical period in postnatal brain development, where it plays a role in fine-tuning of genes involved in synaptic plasticity, and in normal aging, where it promotes neuroprotection by repressing genes involved in oxidative stress and β-amyloid toxicity...
January 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351860/microtubule-dynamics-moving-toward-a-multi-scale-approach
#10
REVIEW
Mahya Hemmat, Brian T Castle, David J Odde
Microtubule self-assembly dynamics serve to facilitate many vital cellular functions, such as chromosome segregation during mitosis and synaptic plasticity. However, the detailed atomistic basis of assembly dynamics has remained an unresolved puzzle. A key challenge is connecting together the vast range of relevant length-time scales, events happening at time scales ranging from nanoseconds, such as tubulin molecular interactions (Å-nm), to minutes-hours, such as the cellular response to microtubule dynamics during mitotic progression (μm)...
January 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351513/neuroimmune-interactions-from-the-brain-to-the-immune-system-and-vice-versa
#11
Robert Dantzer
Because of the compartmentalization of disciplines that shaped the academic landscape of biology and biomedical sciences in the past, physiological systems have long been studied in isolation from each other. This has particularly been the case for the immune system. As a consequence of its ties with pathology and microbiology, immunology as a discipline has largely grown independently of physiology. Accordingly, it has taken a long time for immunologists to accept the concept that the immune system is not self-regulated but functions in close association with the nervous system...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351390/vagally-mediated-gastric-effects-of-brainstem-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-activation-in-stressed-rats
#12
Yanyan Jiang, Kirsteen N Browning, Luca Toti, R Alberto Travagli
Chronic stress exerts vagally-dependent effects to disrupt gastric motility; previous studies have shown that, among other nuclei, A2 neurons are involved in mediating these effects. Several studies have also shown robust in vitro and in vivo effects of α2 adrenoceptor agonists on vagal motoneurons. We have demonstrated previously that brainstem vagal neurocircuits undergo remodeling following acute stress, however, the effects following brief periods of chronic stress have not been investigated. Our aim, therefore, was to test the hypothesis that different types of chronic stress influence gastric tone and motility by inducing plasticity in the response of vagal neurocircuits to α2 adrenoreceptor agonists...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351171/spinal-pkc-erk-signal-pathway-mediates-hyperalgesia-priming
#13
Wei-Hsin Chen, Ya-Ting Chang, Yong-Cyuan Chen, Sin-Jhong Cheng, Chien-Chang Chen
Chronic pain can be initiated by one or more acute stimulations to sensitize neurons into the primed state. In the primed state, the basal nociceptive thresholds of the animal are normal, but in response to another hyperalgesic stimulus, the animal develops enhanced and prolonged hyperalgesia. The exact mechanism of how primed state is formed is not completely understood. Here we showed that spinal PKC/ERK signal pathway is required for neuronal plasticity change, hyperalgesic priming formation and the development of chronic hyperalgesia using acid-induced muscle pain (AIMP) model in mice...
January 18, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346771/rapid-turnover-of-cortical-ncam1-regulates-synaptic-reorganization-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#14
Hyoung-Gon Ko, Jun-Hyeok Choi, Dong Ik Park, SukJae Joshua Kang, Chae-Seok Lim, Su-Eon Sim, Jaehoon Shim, Ji-Il Kim, Siyong Kim, Tae-Hyeok Choi, Sanghyun Ye, Jaehyun Lee, Pojeong Park, Somi Kim, Jeehaeh Do, Jihye Park, Md Ariful Islam, Hyun Jeong Kim, Christoph W Turck, Graham L Collingridge, Min Zhuo, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Peripheral nerve injury can induce pathological conditions that lead to persistent sensitized nociception. Although there is evidence that plastic changes in the cortex contribute to this process, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Here, we find that activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) induced by peripheral nerve injury increases the turnover of specific synaptic proteins in a persistent manner. We demonstrate that neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) is one of the molecules involved and show that it mediates spine reorganization and contributes to the behavioral sensitization...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346769/switching-on-depression-and-potentiation-in-the-cerebellum
#15
Andrew R Gallimore, Taegon Kim, Keiko Tanaka-Yamamoto, Erik De Schutter
Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the cerebellum are important for motor learning. However, the signaling mechanisms controlling whether LTD or LTP is induced in response to synaptic stimulation remain obscure. Using a unified model of LTD and LTP at the cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapse, we delineate the coordinated pre- and postsynaptic signaling that determines the direction of plasticity. We show that LTP is the default response to PF stimulation above a well-defined frequency threshold...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346754/input-specific-nmdar-dependent-potentiation-of-dendritic-gabaergic-inhibition
#16
Chiayu Q Chiu, James S Martenson, Maya Yamazaki, Rie Natsume, Kenji Sakimura, Susumu Tomita, Steven J Tavalin, Michael J Higley
Preservation of a balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition is critical for normal brain function. A number of homeostatic cellular mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in maintaining this balance, including long-term plasticity of GABAergic inhibitory synapses. Many previous studies have demonstrated a coupling of postsynaptic spiking with modification of perisomatic inhibition. Here, we demonstrate that activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors leads to input-specific long-term potentiation of dendritic inhibition mediated by somatostatin-expressing interneurons...
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342400/a-unifying-framework-of-synaptic-and-intrinsic-plasticity-in-neural-populations
#17
Johannes Leugering, Gordon Pipa
A neuronal population is a computational unit that receives a multivariate, time-varying input signal and creates a related multivariate output. These neural signals are modeled as stochastic processes that transmit information in real time, subject to stochastic noise. In a stationary environment, where the input signals can be characterized by constant statistical properties, the systematic relationship between its input and output processes determines the computation carried out by a population. When these statistical characteristics unexpectedly change, the population needs to adapt to its new environment if it is to maintain stable operation...
January 17, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339293/methylphenidate-significantly-alters-the-functional-coupling-between-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-dopamine-neurons-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#18
Ike C Dela Peña, Guofang Shen, Wei-Xing Shi
Amphetamine-like psychostimulants, including methylphenidate, have been shown to produce two opposing effects on dopamine (DA) neurons: a DA receptor-mediated feedback inhibition and a non-DA receptor-mediated excitation. To test whether the latter effect is mediated through the prefrontal cortex (PFC), we made dual-site recordings from the PFC and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Consistent with previous reports, methylphenidate inhibited VTA DA neurons. The D2 receptor antagonist raclopride completely reversed the inhibition and further increased the activity, particularly bursting, to above pre-drug baseline...
January 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339150/altered-function-of-neuronal-l-type-calcium-channels-in-ageing-and-neuroinflammation-implications-in-age-related-synaptic-dysfunction-and-cognitive-decline
#19
REVIEW
Sheeja Navakkode, Chao Liu, Tuck Wah Soong
The rapid developments in science have led to an increase in human life expectancy and thus, ageing and age-related disorders/diseases have become one of the greatest concerns in the 21st century. Cognitive abilities tend to decline as we get older. This age-related cognitive decline is mainly attributed to aberrant changes in synaptic plasticity and neuronal connections. Recent studies show that alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis underlie the increased vulnerability of neurons to age-related processes like cognitive decline and synaptic dysfunctions...
January 12, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339105/effects-of-thymol-on-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-impairments-in-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#20
Masoumeh Asadbegi, Alireza Komaki, Iraj Salehi, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Azadeh Ebrahim-Habibi, Siamak Shahidi, Abdolrahman Sarihi, Sara Soleimani Asl, Zoleikha Golipoor
Obesity and a high-fat diet (HFD) are known to increase the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Oxidative stress, a major risk factor for AD, is increased with HFD consumption. Thymol (Thy) has antioxidant properties. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the protective and therapeutic effects of Thy on amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced impairments in the hippocampal synaptic plasticity of HFD-fed rats. In this study, 72 adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 9 groups (n = 8 rats/group): Group 1 (control; standard diet); Group 2: Control + phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) + Oil (Thy vehicle); Group 3 (HFD + PBS); Group 4: (HFD + Aβ); Group 5: Control + PBS + Thy; Group 6: (HFD + Aβ + Oil); Group 7: Control + Aβ + Thy; Group 8: HFD + PBS + Thy; Group 9: (HFD + Aβ + Thy)...
January 12, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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