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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647831/alterations-in-regional-homogeneity-of-resting-state-brain-activity-in-fatigue-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Junyi Li, Yongsheng Yuan, Min Wang, Jiejin Zhang, Li Zhang, Siming Jiang, Jian Ding, Kezhong Zhang
Fatigue is a common complaint in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the neural bases of fatigue in PD remain uncertain. In this cross-sectional study, our aim was to study the change of the local brain function in PD patients with fatigue. Among 49 patients with PD, 17 of them had fatigue and the remaining 32 patients without fatigue, and 25 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. All subjects were evaluated with Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and had a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scan...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647390/neural-synergies-for-controlling-reach-and-grasp-movement-in-macaques
#2
Yaoyao Hao, Shaomin Zhang, Qiaosheng Zhang, Guanglin Li, Weidong Chen, Xiaoxiang Zheng
It has been suggested that the brain adopts a simplified strategy to coordinate a large number of degrees of freedom in motor control. Synergies have been proposed as a strategy to produce movements by recruitment of a small number of fixed modular patterns. However, there is no direct support for a synergistic organization of that brain itself. In this study, we recorded neural activities from the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) of monkeys trained to reach and grasp differently shaped objects (grasping task) or the same object in different positions (reaching task)...
June 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647012/striatal-activation-predicts-differential-therapeutic-responses-to-methylphenidate-and-atomoxetine
#3
Kurt P Schulz, Anne-Claude V Bédard, Jin Fan, Thomas B Hildebrandt, Mark A Stein, Iliyan Ivanov, Jeffrey M Halperin, Jeffrey H Newcorn
OBJECTIVE: Methylphenidate has prominent effects in the dopamine-rich striatum that are absent for the selective norepinephrine transporter inhibitor atomoxetine. This study tested whether baseline striatal activation would predict differential response to the two medications in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: A total of 36 youth with ADHD performed a Go/No-Go test during functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and were treated with methylphenidate and atomoxetine using a randomized cross-over design...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643843/perisylvian-including-insular-childhood-epilepsy-presurgical-workup-and-surgical-outcome
#4
Elena Freri, Sara Matricardi, Francesca Gozzo, Massimo Cossu, Tiziana Granata, Laura Tassi
OBJECTIVE: To report the presurgical workup, surgical procedures, and outcomes in a series of pediatric patients with drug-resistant epilepsy involving the perisylvian/insular regions. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 16 pediatric patients affected by drug-resistant focal epilepsy involving perisylvian/insular regions, who consecutively underwent tailored resective surgery. All patients underwent a detailed presurgical workup, which included the analysis of the anatomoelectroclinical correlations with scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and/or with stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and comprehensive cognitive and neuropsychological evaluations...
June 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642285/state-dependent-tms-reveals-representation-of-affective-body-movements-in-the-anterior-intraparietal-cortex
#5
Noemi Mazzoni, Christianne Jacobs, Paola Venuti, Juha Silvanto, Luigi Cattaneo
In humans, recognition of others' actions involves a cortical network that comprises, among other cortical regions, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), where biological motion is coded and the anterior intraparietal suclus (aIPS), where movement information is elaborated in terms of meaningful goal-directed actions. This action observation system (AOS) is thought to encode neutral voluntary actions, and possibly some aspects of affective motor repertoire, but the role of the AOS' areas in processing affective kinematic information has never been examined...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642168/the-posterior-parietal-cortex-as-integrative-hub-for-whisker-sensorimotor-information
#6
REVIEW
Hemanth Mohan, Roel de Haan, Huibert D Mansvelder, Christiaan P J de Kock
Our daily life consists of a continuous interplay between incoming sensory information and outgoing motor plans. Particularly during goal-directed behavior and active exploration of the sensory environment, brain circuits are merging sensory and motor signals. This is referred to as sensorimotor integration and is relevant for locomotion, vision or tactile exploration. The somatosensory (tactile) system is an attractive modality to study sensorimotor integration in health and disease, motivated by the need for revolutionary technology that builds upon conceptual understanding of sensorimotor integration, such as brain-machine-interfaces and neuro-prosthetics...
June 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642024/rtms-with-a-two-coil-array-safety-and-efficacy-for-treatment-resistant-major-depressive-disorder
#7
Linda L Carpenter, Scott T Aaronson, Gregory N Clarke, Paul E Holtzheimer, Clark W Johnson, William M McDonald, Elizabeth L Stannard, M Bret Schneider
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a standard of care for individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) who do not benefit from, or are unable to tolerate, antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Depth of stimulation is limited with currently approved figure-eight coils and larger coils capable of deeper penetration may be associated with loss of stimulation focality and undesired recruitment of motor cortex. A second generation 2-coil array rTMS system was designed to target converging brain pathways for potentially deeper prefrontal cortex stimulation...
June 9, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641533/role-and-therapeutic-potential-of-astrocytes-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#8
Mariana Pehar, Benjamin A Harlan, Kelby M Killoy, Marcelo R Vargas
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. The molecular mechanism underlying the progressive degeneration of motor neuron remains uncertain but involves a non-cell autonomous process. In acute injury or degenerative diseases astrocytes adopt a reactive phenotype known as astrogliosis. Astrogliosis is a complex remodeling of astrocyte biology and most likely represents a continuum of potential phenotypes that affect neuronal function and survival in an injury-specific manner...
June 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641235/computer-aided-training-sensorimotor-cortex-functions-in-humans-before-the-upper-limb-transplantation-using-virtual-reality-and-sensory-feedback
#9
Marek Kurzynski, Anna Jaskolska, Jaroslaw Marusiak, Andrzej Wolczowski, Przemyslaw Bierut, Lukasz Szumowski, Jerzy Witkowski, Katarzyna Kisiel-Sajewicz
One of the biggest problems of upper limb transplantation is lack of certainty as to whether a patient will be able to control voluntary movements of transplanted hands. Based on findings of the recent research on brain cortex plasticity, a premise can be drawn that mental training supported with visual and sensory feedback can cause structural and functional reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex, which leads to recovery of function associated with the control of movements performed by the upper limbs. In this study, authors - based on the above observations - propose the computer-aided training (CAT) system, which generating visual and sensory stimuli, should enhance the effectiveness of mental training applied to humans before upper limb transplantation...
June 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641214/motor-system-dysfunction-in-the-schizophrenia-diathesis-neural-systems-to-neurotransmitters
#10
R Abboud, C Noronha, V A Diwadkar
Motor control is a ubiquitous aspect of human function, and from its earliest origins, abnormal motor control has been proposed as being central to schizophrenia. The neurobiological architecture of the motor system is well understood in primates and involves cortical and sub-cortical components including the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Notably all of these regions are associated in some manner to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
April 25, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640989/stimulant-treatment-trajectories-are-associated-with-neural-reward-processing-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
Lizanne J S Schweren, Annabeth Groenman, Daniel von Rhein, Wouter Weeda, Stephen F Faraone, Marjolein Luman, Hanneke van Ewijk, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Jaap Oosterlaan, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman
OBJECTIVE: The past decades have seen a surge in stimulant prescriptions for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stimulants acutely alleviate symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with ADHD by modulating striatal dopamine neurotransmission and induce therapeutic changes in brain activation patterns. Long-term functional changes after treatment are unknown, as long-term studies are scarce and have focused on brain structure. In this observational study (2009-2012), we investigated associations between lifetime stimulant treatment history and neural activity during reward processing...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640923/how-much-detail-is-needed-in-modeling-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-figure-8-coil-measurements-and-brain-simulations
#12
Petar I Petrov, Stefano Mandija, Iris E C Sommer, Cornelis A T van den Berg, Sebastiaan F W Neggers
BACKGROUND: Despite TMS wide adoption, its spatial and temporal patterns of neuronal effects are not well understood. Although progress has been made in predicting induced currents in the brain using realistic finite element models (FEM), there is little consensus on how a magnetic field of a typical TMS coil should be modeled. Empirical validation of such models is limited and subject to several limitations. METHODS: We evaluate and empirically validate models of a figure-of-eight TMS coil that are commonly used in published modeling studies, of increasing complexity: simple circular coil model; coil with in-plane spiral winding turns; and finally one with stacked spiral winding turns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640849/motility-in-blastogregarines-apicomplexa-native-and-drug-induced-organisation-of-siedleckia-nematoides-cytoskeletal-elements
#13
Andrea Valigurová, Naděžda Vaškovicová, Andrei Diakin, Gita G Paskerova, Timur G Simdyanov, Magdaléna Kováčiková
Recent studies on motility of Apicomplexa concur with the so-called glideosome concept applied for apicomplexan zoites, describing a unique mechanism of substrate-dependent gliding motility facilitated by a conserved form of actomyosin motor and subpellicular microtubules. In contrast, the gregarines and blastogregarines exhibit different modes and mechanisms of motility, correlating with diverse modifications of their cortex. This study focuses on the motility and cytoskeleton of the blastogregarine Siedleckia nematoides Caullery et Mesnil, 1898 parasitising the polychaete Scoloplos cf...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640159/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-effects-on-menopausal-vasomotor-symptoms
#14
Mônia Steigleder Bianchi, Charles Francisco Ferreira, Felipe Fregni, Pedro Schestatsky, Wolnei Caumo, Maria Celeste Osório Wender
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) compared with tDCS-sham on vasomotor symptoms of postmenopausal women. METHODS: Postmenopausal women (N = 30), aged between 45 and 68 years, with at least four episodes of vasomotor symptoms per day, were recruited from a specialized outpatient clinic at a tertiary hospital in the south of Brazil and through a media call after inclusion and exclusion criteria were ensured. Active and tDCS-sham were administered over the motor cortex position (anode electrode) and contralateral supraorbital region (cathode electrode) for 10 consecutive days, except weekends...
June 19, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638334/frontal-theta-dynamics-during-response-conflict-in-long-term-mindfulness-meditators
#15
Han-Gue Jo, Peter Malinowski, Stefan Schmidt
Mindfulness meditators often show greater efficiency in resolving response conflicts than non-meditators. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the improved behavioral efficiency are unclear. Here, we investigated frontal theta dynamics-a neural mechanism involved in cognitive control processes-in long-term mindfulness meditators. The dynamics of EEG theta oscillations (4-8 Hz) recorded over the medial frontal cortex (MFC) were examined in terms of their power (MFC theta power) and their functional connectivity with other brain areas (the MFC-centered theta network)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638332/commentary-skilled-bimanual-training-drives-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy
#16
COMMENT
Deborah J Serrien
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638117/disrupted-functional-connectivity-between-the-periaqueductal-gray-and-other-brain-regions-in-a-rat-model-of-recurrent-headache
#17
Zhihua Jia, Wenjing Tang, Dengfa Zhao, Shengyuan Yu
Functional connectivity (FC) has been used to investigate the pathophysiology of migraine. We aimed to identify atypical FC between the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and other brain areas in rats induced by repeated meningeal nociception. The rat model was established by infusing an inflammatory soup (IS) through supradural catheters in conscious rats. Quiescent and face-grooming behaviors were observed to assess nociceptive behavior. FC analysis seeded on the PAG was performed on rats 21 days after IS infusion...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634107/chronic-pramipexole-treatment-induces-compulsive-behavior-in-rats-with-6-ohda-lesions-of-the-substantia-nigra-and-ventral-tegmental-area
#18
D Dardou, L Reyrolle, C Chassain, F Durif
Dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) reduces motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), but also induces impulsive-compulsive behavior (ICB) in up to 25% of PD patients. These non-motor side effects of DRT generally follow a gradual transition from impulsive to compulsive-like-i.e. repetitive, compelled, and non-pleasurable-behavior. Here, we investigated the effect of chronic pramipexole (PPX) treatment on the onset of compulsive-like behavior, measured via the post-training signal attenuation (PTSA) procedure, in rats with dopaminergic lesions...
June 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634048/activation-volume-vs-bold-signal-change-as-measures-of-fmri-activation-its-impact-on-gaba-fmri-activation-correlation
#19
Pallab K Bhattacharyya, Micheal D Phillips, Lael A Stone, Mark J Lowe
PURPOSE: To explore the relative robustness of functional MRI (fMRI) activation volume and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change as fMRI metric, and to study the effect of relative robustness on the correlation between fMRI activation and cortical gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) in healthy controls and patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: fMRI data were acquired from healthy controls and patients with MS, with the subjects peforming self paced bilateral finger tapping in block design...
June 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633996/effects-of-monoaminergic-drugs-on-training-induced-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-older-adults
#20
Trisha M Kesar, Samir R Belagaje, Paola Pergami, Marc W Haut, Gerald Hobbs, Cathrin M Buetefisch
Primary motor cortex (M1) plasticity is involved in motor learning and stroke motor recovery, and enhanced by increasing monoaminergic transmission. Age impacts these processes but there is a paucity of systematic studies on the effects of monoaminergic drugs in older adults. Here, in ten older adults (age 61+ 4 years, 4 males), we determine the effects of a single oral dose of carbidopa/levodopa (DOPA), d-amphetamine (AMPH), methylphenidate (MEPH) and placebo (PLAC) on M1 excitability and motor training-induced M1 plasticity...
June 17, 2017: Brain Research
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