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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237545/enhancement-of-brain-plasticity-and-recovery-of-locomotive-function-after-lumbar-spinal-cord-stimulation-in-combination-with-gait-training-with-partial-weight-support-in-rats-with-cerebral-ischemia
#1
Yoon-Hee Choi, Shi-Uk Lee
Lumbar spinal cord stimulation (LSCS) is reportedly effective for the recovery of locomotive intraspinal neural network, motor cortex and basal ganglia in animals with complete spinal cord injury and parkinsonism. We evaluated the effect of LSCS in combination with gait training on the recovery of locomotive function and brain plasticity using a rat model of brain ischemia. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats with ischemia were randomly assigned into one of four groups: sham treatment (group 1), LSCS only (group 2), LSCS with gait training and 50% (group 3) and 80% (group 4) of body weight support...
February 22, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237315/loss-of-spatacsin-function-alters-lysosomal-lipid-clearance-leading-to-upper-and-lower-motor-neuron-degeneration
#2
Julien Branchu, Maxime Boutry, Laura Sourd, Marine Depp, Céline Leone, Alexandrine Corriger, Maeva Vallucci, Typhaine Esteves, Raphaël Matusiak, Magali Dumont, Marie-Paule Muriel, Filippo M Santorelli, Alexis Brice, Khalid Hamid El Hachimi, Giovanni Stevanin, Frédéric Darios
Mutations in SPG11 account for the most common form of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), characterized by a gait disorder associated with various brain alterations. Mutations in the same gene are also responsible for rare forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease and progressive juvenile-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To elucidate the physiopathological mechanisms underlying these human pathologies, we disrupted the Spg11 gene in mice by inserting stop codons in exon 32, mimicking the most frequent mutations found in patients...
February 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237314/preventive-motor-training-but-not-progenitor-grafting-ameliorates-cerebellar-ataxia-and-deregulated-autophagy-in-tambaleante-mice
#3
Elisa Fucà, Michela Guglielmotto, Enrica Boda, Ferdinando Rossi, Ketty Leto, Annalisa Buffo
Treatment options for degenerative cerebellar ataxias are currently very limited. A large fraction of such disorders is represented by hereditary cerebellar ataxias, whose familiar transmission facilitates an early diagnosis and may possibly allow to start preventive treatments before the onset of the neurodegeneration and appearance of first symptoms. In spite of the heterogeneous aetiology, histological alterations of ataxias often include the primary degeneration of the cerebellar cortex caused by Purkinje cells (PCs) loss...
February 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236519/frequency-selective-alteration-in-the-resting-state-corticostriatal-thalamo-cortical-circuit-correlates-with-symptoms-severity-in-first-episode-drug-naive-patients-with-schizophrenia
#4
Shaoqiang Han, X Zong, M Hu, Yangyang Yu, Xiao Wang, Zhiliang Long, Yifeng Wang, Xiaogang Chen, Huafu Chen
Schizophrenia is a prototypical disorder of brain connectivity with altered neural activity in regions extending throughout the brain. Regions, including the subcortex and cortex, present activity mainly within a specific frequency band in resting-state. Whether these altered resting-state functional connections also present frequency specificity is unknown. In the present study, empirical mode decomposition, which is a pure data-driven method suitable for nonlinear and nonstationary signals, was used to decompose blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals into different intrinsic frequency bands...
February 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236105/selection-and-prioritization-of-candidate-drug-targets-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-through-a-meta-analysis-approach
#5
Giovanna Morello, Antonio Gianmaria Spampinato, Francesca Luisa Conforti, Velia D'Agata, Sebastiano Cavallaro
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and incurable neurodegenerative disease. Although several compounds have shown promising results in preclinical studies, their translation into clinical trials has failed. This clinical failure is likely due to the inadequacy of the animal models that do not sufficiently reflect the human disease. Therefore, it is important to optimize drug target selection by identifying those that overlap in human and mouse pathology. We have recently characterized the transcriptional profiles of motor cortex samples from sporadic ALS (SALS) patients and differentiated these into two subgroups based on differentially expressed genes, which encode 70 potential therapeutic targets...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236051/functional-connectivity-of-motor-cortical-network-in-patients-with-brachial-plexus-avulsion-injury-after-contralateral-cervical-nerve-transfer-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#6
Aihong Yu, Shufeng Wang, Xiaoguang Cheng, Wei Liang, Rongjie Bai, Yunhao Xue, Wenjun Li
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to assess the functional connectivity of the motor cortical network in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) after contralateral C7 nerve transfer, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). METHODS: Twelve patients with total brachial plexus root avulsion underwent RS-fMRI after contralateral C7 nerve transfer. Seventeen healthy volunteers were also included in this fMRI study as controls...
February 24, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235422/crying-spells-triggered-by-thumb-index-rubbing-after-thalamic-stroke-a-case-report
#7
R Bassani, C Rosazza, L Ghirardin, V Caldiera, E Banco, C Casati, L Tesio
BACKGROUND: Pathologic crying, devoid of any emotional counterpart, is known to occur as a consequence of various brain stem, cortical hemispheric and cerebellar lesions or, quite exceptionally, of "dacrystic" epilepsy. The case reported here suggests that thalamic lesions may also cause crying spells, under the special circumstances described below. CASE PRESENTATION: After a mild left thalamic stroke a caucasian 77 years old man presented with crying spells with no emotional counterpart, triggered by thumb-index rubbing of his right hand...
February 24, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231470/rapid-integration-of-artificial-sensory-feedback-during-operant-conditioning-of-motor-cortex-neurons
#8
Mario Prsa, Gregorio L Galiñanes, Daniel Huber
Neuronal motor commands, whether generating real or neuroprosthetic movements, are shaped by ongoing sensory feedback from the displacement being produced. Here we asked if cortical stimulation could provide artificial feedback during operant conditioning of cortical neurons. Simultaneous two-photon imaging and real-time optogenetic stimulation were used to train mice to activate a single neuron in motor cortex (M1), while continuous feedback of its activity level was provided by proportionally stimulating somatosensory cortex...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231250/corticospinal-excitability-measurements-using-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-are-valid-with-intramuscular-electromyography
#9
Rebekah L S Summers, Mo Chen, Teresa J Kimberley
OBJECTIVES: Muscular targets that are deep or inaccessible to surface electromyography (sEMG) require intrinsic recording using fine-wire electromyography (fEMG). It is unknown if fEMG validly record cortically evoked muscle responses compared to sEMG. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the validity and agreement of fEMG compared to sEMG to quantify typical transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures pre and post repetitive TMS (rTMS). The hypotheses were that fEMG would demonstrate excellent validity and agreement compared with sEMG...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229125/the-clinical-neuroanatomical-and-neuropathologic-phenotype-of-tbk1-associated-frontotemporal-dementia-a-longitudinal-case-report
#10
Carolin A M Koriath, Martina Bocchetta, Emilie Brotherhood, Ione O C Woollacott, Penny Norsworthy, Javier Simón-Sánchez, Cornelis Blauwendraat, Katrina M Dick, Elizabeth Gordon, Sophie R Harding, Nick C Fox, Sebastian Crutch, Jason D Warren, Tamas Revesz, Tammaryn Lashley, Simon Mead, Jonathan D Rohrer
INTRODUCTION: Mutations in the TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) gene have recently been shown to cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, the phenotype of TBK1-associated FTD is currently unclear. METHODS: We performed a single case longitudinal study of a patient who was subsequently found to have a novel A705fs mutation in the TBK1 gene. He was assessed annually over a 7-year period with a series of clinical, cognitive, and magnetic resonance imaging assessments...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228580/probing-phase-and-frequency-dependent-characteristics-of-cortical-neurons-using-combined-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-and-transcranial-magnetic
#11
Sara Jeanne Hussain, Nivethida Thirugnanasambandam
Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral stimulation combined with TMS can be used to study cortical interneuronal circuitry. By combining these procedures with concurrent transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), Guerra and colleagues recently showed that different cortical interneuronal populations are differentially modulated by the phase and frequency of tACS-imposed oscillations (Guerra et al. 2016, Phase dependency of the human primary motor cortex and cholinergic inhibition cancellation during beta tACS, Cerebral Cortex 26:3977-2990)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228579/network-wide-oscillations-in-the-parkinsonian-state-alterations-in-neuronal-activities-occur-in-the-premotor-cortex-in-parkinsonian-non-human-primates
#12
Jing Wang, Luke A Johnson, Alicia L Jensen, Kenneth B Baker, Jerrold L Vitek
A number of studies suggest that Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with alterations of neuronal activity patterns in the basal-ganglia-thalamocortical circuit. There are limited electrophysiological data, however, describing how premotor cortex, which is involved in movement and decision making, is likely impacted in PD. In this study, spontaneous local field potential (LFP) and single unit neuronal activity were recorded in the dorsal premotor area of non-human primates in both the naïve and parkinsonian state using the MPTP model of parkinsonism...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228422/elevated-reward-response-to-receipt-of-palatable-food-predicts-future-weight-variability-in-healthy-weight-adolescents
#13
Samantha R Winter, Sonja Yokum, Eric Stice, Karol Osipowicz, Michael R Lowe
Background: Both an elevated brain-reward-region response to palatable food and elevated weight variability have been shown to predict future weight gain.Objective: We examined whether the brain-reward response to food is related to future weight variability.Design: A total of 162 healthy-weight adolescents, who were aged 14-18 y at baseline, were enrolled in the study and were assessed annually over a 3-y follow-up period with 127 participants completing the final 3-y follow-up assessment. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested whether the neural responses to a cue that signaled an impending milkshake receipt and the receipt of the milkshake predicted weight variability over the follow-up period...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227978/modulation-of-motor-cortex-excitability-by-peripheral-magnetic-stimulation-of-different-stimulus-sites-and-frequencies
#14
A Sato, X Liu, T Torii, M Iwahashi, K Iramina, A Sato, X Liu, T Torii, M Iwahashi, K Iramina, M Iwahashi, X Liu, A Sato, K Iramina, T Torii
Peripheral stimulation is known to influence the state of cortical excitability. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether peripheral magnetic stimulation has similar effects on cortical excitability to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). A magnetic stimulator with a flat figure-of-eight coil was used for both TMS, and peripheral magnetic stimulation applied to the bilateral forearms. TMS was performed on the left primary motor cortex to evaluate influence of the peripheral magnetic stimulation, and motor evoked potential (MEP) was measured from the right first dorsal interosseous...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227810/noninvasive-eeg-correlates-of-overground-and-stair-walking
#15
Justin A Brantley, Trieu Phat Luu, Recep Ozdemir, Fangshi Zhu, Anna T Winslow, Helen Huang, Jose L Contreras-Vidal, Justin A Brantley, Trieu Phat Luu, Recep Ozdemir, Fangshi Zhu, Anna T Winslow, Helen Huang, Jose L Contreras-Vidal, Fangshi Zhu, Recep Ozdemir, Justin A Brantley, Helen Huang, Anna T Winslow, Jose L Contreras-Vidal, Trieu Phat Luu
Automated walking intention detection remains a challenge in lower-limb neuroprosthetic systems. Here, we assess the feasibility of extracting motor intent from scalp electroencephalography (EEG). First, we evaluated the corticomuscular coherence between central EEG electrodes (C1, Cz, C2) and muscles of the shank and thigh during walking on level ground and stairs. Second, we trained decoders to predict the linear envelope of the surface electromyogram (EMG). We observed significant EEG-led corticomuscular coupling between electrodes and sEMG (tibialis anterior) in the high delta (3-4 Hz) and low theta (4-5 Hz) frequency bands during level walking, indicating efferent signaling from the cortex to peripheral motor neurons...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227807/ecog-data-analyses-to-inform-closed-loop-bci-experiments-for-speech-based-prosthetic-applications
#16
Tejaswy Pailla, Werner Jiang, Benjamin Dichter, Edward F Chang, Vikash Gilja, Tejaswy Pailla, Werner Jiang, Benjamin Dichter, Edward F Chang, Vikash Gilja, Vikash Gilja, Werner Jiang, Tejaswy Pailla, Benjamin Dichter, Edward F Chang
Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) assist individuals with motor disabilities by enabling them to control prosthetic devices with their neural activity. Performance of closed-loop BCI systems can be improved by using design strategies that leverage structured and task-relevant neural activity. We use data from high density electrocorticography (ECoG) grids implanted in three subjects to study sensory-motor activity during an instructed speech task in which the subjects vocalized three cardinal vowel phonemes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227763/network-effects-and-pathways-in-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
N Koirala, V Fleischer, O Granert, G Deuschl, M Muthuraman, S Groppa, N Koirala, V Fleischer, O Granert, G Deuschl, M Muthuraman, S Groppa
Deep brain stimulation of subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) became a standard therapeutic option in Parkinson's disease (PD), even though the underlying modulated network of STN-DBS is still poorly described. Probabilistic tractography and connectivity analysis as derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed together with modelling of implanted electrode positions and linked postoperative clinical outcome. Fifteen patients with idiopathic PD without dementia were selected for DBS treatment. After pre-processing, probabilistic tractography was run from cortical and subcortical seeds of the hypothesized network to targets represented by the positions of the active DBS contacts...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227555/eeg-patterns-of-subacute-stroke-patients-performing-motor-tasks-correlate-with-motor-functional-outcome-preliminary-results
#18
Wanjoo Park, Yun-Hee Kim, Sung-Phil Kim, Laehyun Kim, Wanjoo Park, Yun-Hee Kim, Sung-Phil Kim, Laehyun Kim, Yun-Hee Kim, Sung-Phil Kim, Wanjoo Park, Laehyun Kim
If an early predictor of motor functional outcome after stroke were available, stroke patients would receive more appropriate treatments for motor recovery. We performed a correlation analysis of the electroencephalography (EEG) signal patterns of nine subacute stroke patients (recorded 22.9 ± 7.1 days after onset) and their motor recovery rates (measured 100.2 ± 8.9 days after onset). The beta band spectral power in the bilateral motor cortex after physical upper limb movement correlated significantly with the motor recovery rates [Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) scores; Pearson's linear correlation, p <; 0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227554/cortical-excitability-effects-of-stimulation-intensity-change-speed-during-nmes
#19
Shenglong Jiang, Zhongpeng Wang, Weibo Yi, Feng He, Shuang Liu, Hongzhi Qi, Dong Ming, Shenglong Jiang, Zhongpeng Wang, Weibo Yi, Feng He, Shuang Liu, Hongzhi Qi, Dong Ming, Shuang Liu, Shenglong Jiang, Zhonapeng Wang, Dong Ming, Feng He, Qi Hongzhi, Weibo Yi
Rehabilitation method of motor dysfunction is a challenging issue of neural rehabilitation. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been frequently used in rehabilitation therapy to improve neural recovery such as stroke and spinal cord injury. Stimulus, acting on sensorimotor neural system components, resulted in the increased cortical excitability which accompanied with motor performance improvement. Stimulus information conveyed by sensory system included below four elementary attributes: modality, location, intensity, and timing...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227545/corticomuscular-coherence-variation-throughout-the-gait-cycle-during-overground-walking-and-ramp-ascent-a-preliminary-investigation
#20
Anna T Winslow, Justin Brantley, Fangshi Zhu, Jose L Contreras Vidal, He Huang, Anna T Winslow, Justin Brantley, Fangshi Zhu, Jose L Contreras Vidal, He Huang, Fangshi Zhu, Justin Brantley, Jose L Contreras Vidal, He Huang, Anna T Winslow
Recent designs of neural-machine interfaces (NMIs) incorporating electroencephalography (EEG) or electromyography (EMG) have been used in lower limb assistive devices. While the results of previous studies have shown promise, a NMI which takes advantage of early movement-related EEG activity preceding movement onset, as well as the improved signal-to-noise ratio of EMG, could prove to be more accurate and responsive than current NMI designs based solely on EEG or EMG. Previous studies have demonstrated that the activity of the sensorimotor cortex is coupled to the firing rate of motor units in lower limb muscles during voluntary contraction...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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