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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160415/interregional-correlations-of-glucose-metabolism-between-the-basal-ganglia-and-different-cortical-areas-an-ultra-high-resolution-pet-mri-fusion-study-using-18f-fdg
#1
J H Kim, Y D Son, J M Kim, H K Kim, Y B Kim, C Lee, C H Oh
Basal ganglia have complex functional connections with the cerebral cortex and are involved in motor control, executive functions of the forebrain, such as the planning of movement, and cognitive behaviors based on their connections. The aim of this study was to provide detailed functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex by conducting an interregional correlation analysis of the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data based on precise structural information...
November 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160240/remapping-cortical-modulation-for-electrocorticographic-brain-computer-interfaces-a-somatotopy-based-approach-in-individuals-with-upper-limb-paralysis
#2
Alan D Degenhart, Shivayogi V Hiremath, Ying Yang, Stephen T Foldes, Jennifer L Collinger, Michael L Boninger, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Wei Wang
OBJECTIVE: Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology aims to provide individuals with paralysis a means to restore function. Electrocorticography (ECoG) uses disc electrodes placed on either the surface of the dura or the cortex to record field potential activity. ECoG has been proposed as a viable neural recording modality for BCI systems, potentially providing stable, long-term recordings of cortical activity with high spatial and temporal resolution. Previously we have demonstrated that a subject with spinal cord injury (SCI) could control an ECoG-based BCI system with up to three degrees of freedom [Wang et al...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159665/functional-rostro-caudal-gradient-in-the-human-posterior-lateral-frontal-cortex
#3
Céline Amiez, Michael Petrides
The present study examined the hypothesis that the posterior motor/premotor region of the lateral frontal cortex is functionally organized along a rostro-caudal axis. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, the subjects performed various tasks assessing basic saccadic eye or hand actions and also tasks requiring the cognitive selection between competing hand or eye movements based on previously learned conditional relations (if A, select movement X, but if B select movement Y). Subject-by-subject analysis demonstrated precise relationships between the foci of functional activity and specific sulci...
November 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159045/identifying-functional-network-changing-patterns-in-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-and-patients-with-early-illness-schizophrenia-a-group-ica-study
#4
Yuhui Du, Susanna L Fryer, Dongdong Lin, Jing Sui, Qingbao Yu, Jiayu Chen, Barbara Stuart, Rachel L Loewy, Vince D Calhoun, Daniel H Mathalon
Although individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis exhibit a psychosis-risk syndrome involving attenuated forms of the positive symptoms typical of schizophrenia (SZ), it remains unclear whether their resting-state brain intrinsic functional networks (INs) show attenuated or qualitatively distinct patterns of functional dysconnectivity relative to SZ patients. Based on resting-state functional magnetic imaging data from 70 healthy controls (HCs), 53 CHR individuals (among which 41 subjects were antipsychotic medication-naive), and 58 early illness SZ (ESZ) patients (among which 53 patients took antipsychotic medication) within five years of illness onset, we estimated subject-specific INs using a novel group information guided independent component analysis (GIG-ICA) and investigated group differences in INs...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158177/granger-causal-connectivity-dissociates-navigation-networks-that-subserve-allocentric-and-egocentric-path-integration
#5
Chin-Teng Lin, Te-Cheng Chiu, Yu-Kai Wang, Chun-Hsiang Chuang, Klaus Gramann
Studies on spatial navigation demonstrate a significant role of the retrosplenial complex (RSC) in the transformation of egocentric and allocentric information into complementary spatial reference frames (SRFs). The tight anatomical connections of the RSC with a wide range of other cortical regions processing spatial information support its vital role within the human navigation network. To better understand how different areas of the navigational network interact, we investigated the dynamic causal interactions of brain regions involved in solving a virtual navigation task...
November 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156906/the-development-of-neurology-palliative-care-service-for-motor-neuron-disease-mnd-patients-hong-kong-experience
#6
Hon Wai Benjamin Cheng, Wai Tsan Tracy Chen, Chun Kwok Angus Chu, Savio Lee, Joo Shium Lee, Yeuk Fai Hong, Yuen Kwan Judy Chung
BACKGROUND: Motor neuron disease (MND) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex. Clinically it is manifested as progressive decline in physical, respiratory, swallowing and communication function and ultimately death. Traditional model of care was fragmented and did not match with patients and carers multi-facet needs. METHODS: A special workgroup for MND patients that includes neurologist, respiratory physician, rehabilitation specialist and palliative care (PC) physician was formed in Hong Kong since year 2013...
September 15, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156684/a-prenatal-interruption-of-disc1-function-in-the-brain-exhibits-a-lasting-impact-on-adult-behaviors-brain-metabolism-and-interneuron-development
#7
Dazhi Deng, Chongdong Jian, Ling Lei, Yijing Zhou, Colleen McSweeney, Fengping Dong, Yilun Shen, Donghua Zou, Yonggang Wang, Yuan Wu, Limin Zhang, Yingwei Mao
Mental illnesses like schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depression disorder (MDD) are devastating brain disorders. The SCZ risk gene, disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), has been associated with neuropsychiatric conditions. However, little is known regarding the long-lasting impacts on brain metabolism and behavioral outcomes from genetic insults on fetal NPCs during early life. We have established a new mouse model that specifically interrupts DISC1 functions in NPCs in vivo by a dominant-negative DISC1 (DN-DISC1) with a precise temporal and spatial regulation...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155768/slice-patch-clamp-technique-for-analyzing-learning-induced-plasticity
#8
Hiroyuki Kida, Yuya Sakimoto, Dai Mitsushima
The slice patch clamp technique is a powerful tool for investigating learning-induced neural plasticity in specific brain regions. To analyze motor-learning induced plasticity, we trained rats using an accelerated rotor rod task. Rats performed the task 10 times at 30-s intervals for 1 or 2 days. Performance was significantly improved on the training days compared to the first trial. We then prepared acute brain slices of the primary motor cortex (M1) in untrained and trained rats. Current-clamp analysis showed dynamic changes in resting membrane potential, spike threshold, afterhyperpolarization, and membrane resistance in layer II/III pyramidal neurons...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155276/cortical-plasticity-as-a-basis-of-phantom-limb-pain-fact-or-fiction
#9
J Andoh, C Milde, J W Tsao, H Flor
Cortical reorganization has been proposed as a major factor involved in phantom pain with prior nociceptive input to the deafferented region and input from the non-deafferented cortex creating neuronal activity that is perceived as phantom pain. There is substantial evidence that these processes play a role in neuropathic pain, although causal evidence is lacking. Recently it has been suggested that a maintenance of the cortical representation of the former hand area is related to phantom pain. Although interesting, evidence for this process is so far scarce...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155209/altered-primary-motor-cortex-structure-organisation-and-function-in-chronic-pain-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Wei-Ju Chang, Neil E O'Connell, Paula R Beckenkamp, Ghufran Alhassani, Matthew B Liston, Siobhan M Schabrun
Chronic pain can be associated with movement abnormalities. The primary motor cortex (M1) has an essential role in the formulation and execution of movement. A number of changes in M1 function have been reported in studies of people with chronic pain. This review systematically evaluated the evidence for altered M1 structure, organisation and function in people with chronic pain of neuropathic and non-neuropathic origin. Database searches were conducted and a modified STROBE checklist was used to assess the methodological quality of included studies...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154805/the-effects-of-imaginary-voluntary-muscle-contraction-and-relaxation-on-cerebellar-brain-inhibition
#11
Hiroaki Tanaka, Akiyoshi Matsugi, Yohei Okada
The purpose of this study was to investigate cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) of the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) during imaginary muscle contraction (Contract-I) and relaxation (Relax-I) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Twenty-nine healthy adults completed two experiments. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle were induced by TMS over the left M1 and measured with or without TMS over the right cerebellum during Contract-I (first experiment) and Relax-I (second experiment) of the right FDI, and these were compared to the findings in a no-imagery (No-I) condition...
November 14, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154281/gradual-cerebral-hypoperfusion-impairs-fear-conditioning-and-object-recognition-learning-and-memory-in-mice-potential-roles-of-neurodegeneration-and-cholinergic-dysfunction
#12
Jogender Mehla, Sean Lacoursiere, Emily Stuart, Robert J McDonald, Majid H Mohajerani
In the present study, male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to gradual cerebral hypoperfusion by implanting an ameroid constrictor (AC) on the left common carotid artery (CCA) and a stenosis on the right CCA. In the sham group, all surgical procedures were kept the same except no AC was implanted and stenosis was not performed. One month following the surgical procedures, fear conditioning and object recognition tests were conducted to evaluate learning and memory functions and motor functions were assessed using a balance beam test...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152735/6%C3%A2-hz-corneal-kindling-in-mice-triggers-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-accompanied-by-relevant-changes-in-c-fos-immunoreactivity-throughout-the-brain
#13
Giulia Albertini, Laura Walrave, Thomas Demuyser, Ann Massie, Dimitri De Bundel, Ilse Smolders
OBJECTIVE: Besides seizures, patients with epilepsy are affected by a variety of cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities that further impair their quality of life. The present study provides an in-depth characterization of the behavioral alterations induced by 6 Hz corneal kindling. Furthermore, we correlate these behavioral changes to alterations in c-Fos protein expression throughout the brain following kindling. METHODS: Adolescent male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice were kindled via repetitive subconvulsive 6 Hz corneal stimulations until they reached the fully kindled state (defined as 10 consecutive generalized seizures)...
November 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150977/the-cellular-composition-and-glia-neuron-ratio-in-the-spinal-cord-of-a-human-and-a-non-human-primate-comparison-with-other-species-and-brain-regions
#14
Jami Bahney, Christopher S von Bartheld
The cellular composition of brains shows largely conserved, gradual evolutionary trends between species. In the primate spinal cord, however, the glia-neuron ratio was reported to be greatly increased over that in the rodent spinal cord. Here, we re-examined the cellular composition of the spinal cord of one human and one non-human primate species by employing two different counting methods, the isotropic fractionator and stereology. We also determined whether segmental differences in cellular composition, possibly reflecting increased fine motor control of the upper extremities, may explain a sharply increased glia-neuron ratio in primates...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150620/the-role-of-forelimb-motor-cortex-areas-in-goal-directed-action-in-mice
#15
Karin Morandell, Daniel Huber
Mammalian motor cortex consists of several interconnected subregions thought to play distinct roles in voluntary movements, yet their specific role in decision making and execution is not completely elucidated. Here we used transient optogenetic inactivation of the caudal forelimb area (CFA) and rostral forelimb area (RFA) in mice as they performed a directional joystick task. Based on a vibrotactile cue applied to their forepaw, mice were trained to push or pull a joystick after a delay period. We found that choice and execution are temporally segregated processes...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149290/discovering-the-3-utr-mediated-regulation-of-alpha-synuclein
#16
Domenica Marchese, Teresa Botta-Orfila, Davide Cirillo, Juan Antonio Rodriguez, Carmen Maria Livi, Rubén Fernández-Santiago, Mario Ezquerra, Maria J Martí, Elias Bechara, Gian Gaetano Tartaglia
Recent evidence indicates a link between Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the expression of a-synuclein (SNCA) isoforms with different 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs). Yet, the post-transcriptional mechanisms regulating SNCA expression are unknown. Using a large-scale in vitro/in silico screening we identified RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that interact with SNCA 3' UTRs. We identified two RBPs, ELAVL1 and TIAR, that bind with high affinity to the most abundant and translationally active 3' UTR isoform (575 nt)...
November 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148909/inhibition-of-gaba-transporters-fails-to-afford-significant-protection-following-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#17
Maria Ek Lie, Emma K Gowing, Rasmus P Clausen, Petrine Wellendorph, Andrew N Clarkson
Brain ischemia triggers excitotoxicity and cell death, yet no neuroprotective drugs have made it to the clinic. While enhancing GABAergic signaling to counterbalance excitotoxicity has shown promise in animal models, clinical studies have failed. Blockade of GABA transporters (GATs) offers an indirect approach to increase GABA inhibition to lower the excitation threshold of neurons. Among the GATs, GAT1 is known to promote neuroprotection, while the protective role of the extrasynaptic transporters GAT3 and BGT1 is elusive...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147586/corticospinal-plasticity-in-bilateral-primary-motor-cortices-induced-by-paired-associative-stimulation-to-the-dominant-hemisphere-does-not-differ-between-young-and-older-adults
#18
Daina S E Dickins, Marc R Kamke, Martin V Sale
Older adults have been shown to exhibit a reduction in the lateralization of neural activity. Although neuroplasticity induced by noninvasive brain stimulation has been reported to be attenuated in the targeted motor cortex of older adults, it remains possible that the plasticity effects may instead manifest in a more distributed (bilateral) network. Furthermore, attention, which modulates neuroplasticity in young adults, may influence these effects. To address these questions, plasticity was induced in young (19-32 years) and older (65-78 years) adults using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paired with peripheral nerve stimulation...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146468/tdcs-changes-in-motor-excitability-are-specific-to-orientation-of-current-flow
#19
Vishal Rawiji, Matteo Ciocca, André Zacharia, David Soares, Dennis Truong, Marom Bikson, John Rothwell, Sven Bestmann
BACKGROUND: Measurements and models of current flow in the brain during transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) indicate stimulation of regions in-between electrodes. Moreover, the folded cortex results in local fluctuations in current flow intensity and direction, and animal studies suggest current flow direction relative to cortical columns determines response to tDCS. METHODS: Here we test this idea by using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Motor Evoked Potentials (TMS-MEP) to measure changes in corticospinal excitability following tDCS applied with electrodes aligned orthogonal (across) or parallel to M1 in the central sulcus...
November 7, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146111/microrna-expression-patterns-in-human-anterior-cingulate-and-motor-cortex-a-study-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-cases-and-controls
#20
Peter T Nelson, Wang-Xia Wang, Sarah A Janse, Katherine L Thompson
OVERVIEW: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we evaluated the expression of miRNAs in anterior cingulate (AC; Brodmann area [BA] 24) and primary motor (MO; BA 4) cortical tissue from aged human brains in the University of Kentucky AD Center autopsy cohort, with a focus on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: RNA was isolated from gray matter of brain samples with pathology-defined DLB, AD, AD+DLB, and low-pathology controls, with n=52 cases initially included (n=23 with DLB), all with low (<4hrs) postmortem intervals...
November 13, 2017: Brain Research
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