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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822742/strategy-set-shifting-and-response-inhibition-in-adult-rats-exposed-to-an-environmental-polychlorinated-biphenyl-mixture-during-adolescence
#1
Supida Monaikul, Paul Eubig, Stan Floresco, Susan Schantz
Converging evidence from studies with animal models and humans suggests that early developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) leads to deficits in cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control. These processes are mediated to a large extent by the prefrontal cortex, thus we examined the effects of PCB exposure during adolescence-a period of robust prefrontal cortical development-on both processes. Specifically, we used operant set-shifting and differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) tasks to assess cognitive flexibility and response inhibition, respectively...
August 16, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822477/spinal-manipulative-therapy-for-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-a-systematic-review
#2
Jean Théroux, Norman Stomski, Christine Dominique Losco, Christelle Khadra, Hubert Labelle, Sylvie Le May
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of clinical trials of spinal manipulative therapy for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. METHODS: Search strategies were developed for PubMed, CINHAL, and CENTRAL databases. Studies were included through June 2016 if they were prospective trials that evaluated spinal manipulative therapy (eg, chiropractic, osteopathic, physical therapy) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Data were extracted and assessed by 2 independent reviewers...
July 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822064/evolution-of-29-anthropometric-nutritional-and-cardiometabolic-parameters-among-morbidly-obese-adolescents-2-years-post-sleeve-gastrectomy
#3
Wahiba Elhag, Walid El Ansari, Sama Abdulrazzaq, Ali Abdullah, Mohamed Elsherif, Israa Elgenaied
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a popular treatment for adolescent morbid obesity. Research on LSG outcomes among adolescents assessed a narrow range of anthropometric, nutritional, or cardiometabolic parameters, leading to an incomplete picture of these changes. We examined a wide variety of anthropometric, nutritional, and cardiometabolic parameters among adolescents before and after LSG. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical charts of all obese adolescents who underwent LSG at Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar, between January 2011 and June 2015 (N = 102)...
August 18, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821442/time-in-brace-where-are-the-limits-and-how-can-we-improve-compliance-and-reduce-negative-psychosocial-impact-in-scoliosis-patients-a-retrospective-analysis
#4
Markus Rafael Konieczny, Paula Hieronymus, Rüdiger Krauspe
Background Brace treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is generally prescribed for 18 - 23 hours per day, but the minimal time of brace wear per day to stop progression of AIS is still unclear. Compliance of AIS patients with brace treatment is reported to be between 27% and 47% of the prescribed time, especially brace wear at school is often described as embarrassing by the adolescent patients. It has been reported that a higher rate of compliance leads to a significantly lower rate of curve progression...
August 15, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821006/adherence-to-antiepileptic-drugs-in-children-and-adolescents-a-retrospective-study-in-primary-care-settings-in-germany
#5
Louis Jacob, Hajo M Hamer, Karel Kostev
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to analyze adherence to antiepileptic drugs (AED) in children and adolescents treated in pediatric practices in Germany. METHODS: The present study included patients aged between 2 and 17years who were diagnosed with epilepsy (ICD-10: G40) and had received at least two prescriptions of AED between January 2006 and December 2015 in 243 pediatric practices in Germany. The medication possession ratio (MPR) was used to estimate adherence, and patients with a MPR greater than 80% were considered adherent...
August 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819829/surgical-treatment-for-symptomatic-non-ossifying-fibromas-of-the-lower-extremity-with-calcium-sulfate-grafts-in-skeletally-immature-patients
#6
Antonio Andreacchio, Flavia Alberghina, Gianluca Testa, Federico Canavese
BACKGROUND: Non-ossifying fibromas (NOFs) are common benign bone lesions found in children and adolescents. They usually involve metaphysis of long bones, tend to gradually disappear with age and usually do not require surgery, while they are not associated with pathological fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome and efficacy of a single-stage procedure, comprising curettage of the lesion and calcium sulfate pellet (CaSP) grafting, in skeletally immature patients with large, symptomatic NOF of the lower extremity, and the possible limitations of the procedure...
August 17, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819639/antioxidant-treatment-in-male-mice-prevents-mitochondrial-and-synaptic-changes-in-an-nmda-receptor-dysfunction-model-of-schizophrenia
#7
Aarron Phensy, Christopher Driskill, Karen Lindquist, Lan Guo, Vivek Jeevakumar, Bryan Fowler, Heng Du, Sven Kroener
Glutamate theories of schizophrenia suggest that the disease is associated with a loss of NMDA receptors, specifically on GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PVIs), leading to changes in the excitation-inhibition balance in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Oxidative stress contributes to the loss of PVI and the development of schizophrenia. Here, we investigated whether the glutathione precursor N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) can prevent changes in synaptic transmission at pyramidal cells and PVIs that result from developmental NMDAR blockade and how these changes are related to mitochondrial dysfunction in the PFCs of mice...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819372/survival-changes-in-patients-with-synovial-sarcoma-1983-2012
#8
Shuncong Wang, Rongfeng Song, Tiantian Sun, Bingzong Hou, Guobin Hong, Saradhi Mallampati, Hongliu Sun, Xiuling Zhou, Cuiling Zhou, Hongyu Zhang, Zhibin Cheng, Jie Li, Haiqing Ma, Huanhuan Sun
Background: Synovial sarcoma (SyS) is a rare malignancy that typically invades the extremities and occurs predominantly in adolescents. Studies on incidence and survival in SyS that were based on a large population had not been reported yet. Methods: To evaluate changes in incidence and survival in SyS over three decades, we accessed data on SyS cases in each decade between 1983 and 2012 (1983-1992, 1993-2002, and 2003-2012) from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The survival difference between decades, age groups, sexes, race, pathologic types, sites, stages and socioeconomic status (SES) over three decades were accessed by comparing Kaplan-Meier curves...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819238/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-upon-ethanol-induced-conditioned-place-preference-and-pre-frontal-bdnf-levels-in-adolescent-and-adult-mice
#9
Ricardo Marcos Pautassi, Andrea B Suárez, Lucas Barbosa Hoffmann, André Veloso Rueda, Mariana Rae, Priscila Marianno, Rosana Camarini
Environmental enrichment (EE) provides a non-pharmacological tool to alter drug-induced reward, yet its effects on ethanol-induced reward remain controversial. We analyzed adolescent vs. adult (mice) differences in the influence of EE on ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). The effects of these treatments on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the prefrontal cortex were examined in a separate group of animals. Ethanol-induced CPP was found in adults, and it was similar in EE and in animals reared under standard housing conditions (SC)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818059/influence-of-sense-of-coherence-on-adolescents-self-perceived-dental-aesthetics-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Aline Cavalcanti da Costa, Fabrícia Soares Rodrigues, Priscila Prosini da Fonte, Aronita Rosenblatt, Nicola Patricia Thérèse Innes, Mônica Vilela Heimer
BACKGROUND: Sense of coherence (SOC) is a psychosocial factor capable of influencing perception of health, improving one's ability to manage life. It is the central construct of salutogenesis. SOC allows for identification and mobilization of resources to effectively manage or solve problems, promoting health and quality of life. Using Wilson-Cleary's conceptual model we hypothesized that SOC might contribute to self-perception of dental aesthetics. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SOC levels were related to self-perception of dental aesthetics against assessed normative orthodontic treatment need among adolescents...
August 17, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817407/nonoperative-management-of-labral-tears-of-the-hip-in-adolescent-athletes-description-of-sports-participation-interventions-comorbidity-and-outcomes
#11
Andrea Cianci, Dai Sugimoto, Andrea Stracciolini, Yi-Meng Yen, Mininder S Kocher, Pierre A dʼHemecourt
CONTEXT: Hip injury among young athletes is increasing, especially hip labral tears. Some tears may require surgical intervention, especially if they are associated with boney pathology such as femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). A protocol for nonoperative treatment of the hip labral tears is not well established. OBJECTIVE: To identify current nonoperative treatment options, comorbidities, sports participation, and outcomes of adolescent athletes who were diagnosed with hip labral tears...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817309/weight-height-and-body-mass-index-in-patients-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-treated-with-methylphenidate
#12
Azucena Díez-Suárez, María Vallejo-Valdivielso, Juan J Marín-Méndez, Pilar de Castro-Manglano, César A Soutullo
OBJECTIVE: To describe the methylphenidate (MPH) effects on weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) in a Spanish sample diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Patients (6-18 years) diagnosed with ADHD treated at our Unit with MPH in the last 10 years were included in an observational longitudinal study. Weight, height, and BMI Z scores were measured at baseline and at last follow-up. RESULTS: Three hundred forty-two patients (mean [standard deviation] age: 10...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817303/chrna7-deletions-are-enriched-in-risperidone-treated-children-and-adolescents
#13
Madelyn A Gillentine, Janson J White, Christopher M Grochowski, James R Lupski, Christian P Schaaf, Chadi A Calarge
OBJECTIVE: Aggression is among the most common indications for referral to child and adolescent mental health services and is often challenging to treat. Understanding the biological underpinnings of aggression could help optimize treatment efficacy. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), specifically the α7 nAChR, encoded by the gene CHRNA7, have been implicated in aggressive behaviors in animal models as well as humans. Copy number variants (CNVs) of CHRNA7 are found in individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders, often with comorbid aggression...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816962/relationships-of-capsule-endoscopy-lewis-score-with-clinical-disease-activity-indices-c-reactive-protein-and-small-bowel-transit-time-in-pediatric-and-adult-patients-with-small-bowel-crohn-s-disease
#14
Chengcheng He, Jie Zhang, Zhenyu Chen, Xicheng Feng, Zibin Luo, Tianmo Wan, Aimin Li, Side Liu, Yuexin Ren
Relationships between the capsule endoscopy Lewis score (LS) and clinical disease activity indices and C-reactive protein (CRP) are controversial in adult patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Also, data on pediatric patients are relatively less. However, correlation between LS and small bowel transit time (SBTT) remains investigational. The aim of the present study was to explore the correlations between LS and clinical disease activity indices, CRP, SBTT in pediatric, and adult patients with small bowel CD...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816913/influence-of-written-informed-consent-for-methylphenidate-on-medicine-persistence-rates-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
Kristian Naenen-Hernani, Antonio Palazón-Bru, Francisco Colomina-Climent, Vicente F Gil-Guillén
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of written informed consent on nonpersistence with methylphenidate treatment in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We undertook a cohort study including 141 children with ADHD who started treatment with methylphenidate, with a follow-up of 6 months. The main outcome variable was nonpersistence, defined as discontinuation of treatment by the patient. Two groups were analyzed with and without written informed consent...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816835/acute-worsening-of-tics-on-varenicline
#16
Shivam Om Mittal, Bryan T Klassen, Anhar Hassan, James H Bower, Elizabeth A Coon
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report worsening of Tourette syndrome (TS) in 2 patients treated with varenicline. BACKGROUND: Abnormal dopaminergic signaling is likely involved in the pathophysiology of TS. Varenicline is a partial α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine agonist that enhances dopamine release. Therefore, the use of varenicline may influence tics in patients with TS. METHOD: We analyzed and described 2 case studies on patients with significant worsening of tics after treatment with varenicline...
August 14, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816822/selecting-the-lstv-as-the-lower-instrumented-vertebra-in-the-treatment-of-lenke-types-1a-and-2a-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-a-minimal-3-year-follow-up
#17
Jinyi Bai, Kai Chen, Qiang Wei, Ziqiang Chen, Yu Chen, Haijian Ni, Yingchuan Zhao, Ming Li
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to verify the last substantially touched vertebra (LSTV) as the ideal lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) and to identify predictive factors of adding-on in patients with Lenke type 1A and 2A curve patterns when LSTV was chosed as the LIV. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although several studies have indicated that the use of the LSTV as the LIV can obtain favorable outcomes in Lenke 1A and 2A curves, the factors identifying patients with Lenke 1A and 2A curve patterns who should undergo a fusion extending beyond the LSTV have not been identified...
August 14, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816509/shp465-mixed-amphetamine-salts-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-results-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#18
Matthew Brams, Ann C Childress, Michael Greenbaum, Ming Yu, Brian Yan, Margo Jaffee, Brigitte Robertson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of SHP465 mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: This randomized, double-blind dose-optimization study enrolled children and adolescents (6-17 years) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision ADHD criteria and having baseline ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total scores ≥28...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816242/effect-of-the-mglur5-nam-basimglurant-on-behavior-in-adolescents-and-adults-with-fragile-x-syndrome-in-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-fragxis-phase-2-results
#19
Eriene A Youssef, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis, Christian Czech, Randi J Hagerman, David Hessl, Chin Y Wong, Michael Rabbia, Dennis Deptula, Amy John, Russell Kinch, Philip Drewitt, Lothar Lindemann, Moritz Marcinowski, Rachel Langland, Carsten Horn, Paulo Fontoura, Luca Santarelli, Jorge A Quiroz
Preclinical data suggests that inhibition of the mGluR5 receptor might hold therapeutic benefits in Fragile X syndrome (FXS). Treatment of Fmr1 knockout mice with mGluR5-negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) has been reported to correct a broad range of phenotypes related to FXS. The early short-term clinical trials with mGluR5 NAMs, including basimglurant, assessing the effects in individuals with FXS, were supportive of further exploration in larger, well-controlled trials. We evaluated basimglurant, a potent and selective mGluR5 NAM, in a 12-week, double-blind, parallel-group study of 183 adults and adolescents (aged 14-50, mean 23...
August 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816151/quantification-of-pediatric-abdominal-organ-motion-with-a-4-dimensional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-method
#20
Jinsoo Uh, Matthew J Krasin, Yimei Li, Xingyu Li, Christopher Tinkle, John T Lucas, Thomas E Merchant, Chiaho Hua
PURPOSE: To characterize respiration-induced abdominal organ motion in children receiving radiation treatment with a 4-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We analyzed free-breathing coronal 4D MRI datasets acquired from 35 patients (aged 1-20 years) with abdominal tumors. A deformable image registration of the 4D MRI datasets was performed to derive motion trajectories of selected anatomic landmarks, from which organ motions were quantified...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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