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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346627/severe-and-protracted-sleep-disruptions-in-mouse-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#1
Rishi Sharma, Pradeep Sahota, Mahesh M Thakkar
Increasing evidences suggest that the predator threat model is a valid animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, sleep has never been examined in this model. Since sleep disturbances, including insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, are severe and protracted symptoms of PTSD, we hypothesized that mice exposed to predator odor trauma (POT) will display contextual fear conditioning along with severe and protracted sleep disruptions.Adult male C57BL/6J mice, instrumented with wire electrodes [to record hippocampal field potentials (LFP) and nuchal muscle (EMG) activity], were exposed to contextual conditioning using soiled cat litter as unconditional stimulus (US)...
January 13, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346599/magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-hypothalamic-hamartomas-a-retrospective-review
#2
David S Xu, Tsinsue Chen, Randall J Hlubek, Ruth E Bristol, Kris A Smith, Francisco A Ponce, John F Kerrigan, Peter Nakaji
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic hamartomas (HH) are rare lesions associated with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Open surgery results in modest seizure control (about 50%) but has a significant associated morbidity. Radiosurgery is limited to a subset of patients due to latent therapeutic effects. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) offers a novel minimally invasive option. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a single center's outcomes for the LITT treatment of HH...
January 13, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346569/controlled-antenatal-thyroid-screening-ii-effect-of-treating-maternal-sub-optimal-thyroid-function-on-child-cognition
#3
Charlotte Hales, Peter N Taylor, Sue Channon, Ruth Paradice, Kirsten McEwan, Lei Zhang, Michael Gyedu, Ameen Bakhsh, Onyebuchi Okosieme, Ilaria Muller, Mohd S Draman, John W Gregory, Colin Dayan, John H Lazarus, D Aled Rees, Marian Ludgate
Context & Objective: The Controlled Antenatal Thyroid Screening (CATS) study investigated treatment for suboptimal gestational thyroid function (SGTF) on childhood cognition and found no difference in IQ at 3 years between children of treated and untreated SGTF mothers. We have measured IQ in the same children at age 9.5-years and included children from normal-GTF mothers. Design, Setting & Participants: One examiner, blinded to participant group, assessed children's IQ (WISC-IV), long-term memory and motor function (NEPSY-II) from children of 119 treated and 98 untreated SGTF mothers plus children of 232 mothers with normal-GTF...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346524/-effects-of-a-primary-care-based-multifactorial-intervention-on-physical-and-cognitive-function-in-frail-elderly-individuals-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Laura Romera-Liebana, Francesc Orfila, Josep Maria Segura, Jordi Real, Maria Lluïsa Fabra, Mercedes Möller, Santiago Lancho, Anna Ramirez, Nuria Marti, Montserrat Cullell, Nuria Bastida, Dolors Martinez, Maria Giné, Patricia Cendrós, Anna Bistuer, Elena Perez, Maria Assumpta Fabregat, Gonçal Foz
Background: Detecting and managing frailty at early stages can prevent disability and other adverse outcomes. The study aim was to evaluate whether a multifactorial intervention program could modify physical and cognitive frailty parameters in elderly individuals. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, single-blind, parallel-group trial in community-living pre-frail/frail elderly individuals in Barcelona. A total of 352 patients, aged ≥65 years old with positive frailty screening, was randomized into two groups to receive a 12-week multidisciplinary intervention or usual care, with concealed allocation...
January 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346425/hippocampal-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-support-recognition-memory-and-modulate-hippocampal-excitability
#5
Andrew Hooper, Patrick M Fuller, Jamie Maguire
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) signaling in the hippocampus has been established to be important for mediating the effects of stress on learning and memory. Given our laboratory's recent characterization of a subset of hippocampal CRH neurons as a novel class of GABAergic interneurons, we hypothesized that these local GABAergic hippocampal CRH neurons may influence hippocampal function. Here we applied an array of molecular tools to selectively label and manipulate hippocampal CRH neurons in mice, in order to assess this interneuron population's impact on hippocampus-dependent behaviors and hippocampal network excitability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346381/control-of-recollection-by-slow-gamma-dominating-mid-frequency-gamma-in-hippocampus-ca1
#6
Dino Dvorak, Basma Radwan, Fraser T Sparks, Zoe Nicole Talbot, André A Fenton
Behavior is used to assess memory and cognitive deficits in animals like Fmr1-null mice that model Fragile X Syndrome, but behavior is a proxy for unknown neural events that define cognitive variables like recollection. We identified an electrophysiological signature of recollection in mouse dorsal Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) hippocampus. During a shocked-place avoidance task, slow gamma (SG) (30-50 Hz) dominates mid-frequency gamma (MG) (70-90 Hz) oscillations 2-3 s before successful avoidance, but not failures...
January 18, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346276/comparison-of-the-response-of-male-balb-c-and-c57bl-6-mice-in-behavioral-tasks-to-evaluate-cognitive-function
#7
Yenela Garcia, Nashelly Esquivel
To evaluate several cognitive parameters during the execution of behavioral tasks assessing cognitive function in laboratory animals, the parameters are reported within a range. This situation entails that each laboratory must establish the conditions under which the behavioral task to evaluate the cognitive function can be carried out. C57BL/6 and BALB/c inbred strains are used more often in behavioral studies relating to anxiety, stress, fear and cognitive function. The aim of this work was to compare the behavioral response of mice of the strains BALB/c and C57BL/6 to evaluate memory and learning as cognitive functions...
January 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346236/a-teenager-with-acute-anterograde-amnesia
#8
Jennifer A Hoffmann, Michael P Goldman, Richard G Bachur
Isolated amnesia is an uncommon presenting complaint in the pediatric age group. We report the case of an 18-year-old woman who presented with the acute onset of memory difficulty and an otherwise normal neurologic examination. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated inflammation in the bilateral temporal lobes. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid testing ultimately revealed a diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis. Although rare, the acute onset of isolated amnesia deserves a prompt, comprehensive evaluation...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346175/long-term-impacts-faced-by-patients-and-families-after-harmful-healthcare-events
#9
Madelene J Ottosen, Emily W Sedlock, Aitebureme O Aigbe, Sigall K Bell, Thomas H Gallagher, Eric J Thomas
BACKGROUND: Patients and families report experiencing a multitude of harms from medical errors resulting in physical, emotional, and financial hardships. Little is known about the duration and nature of these harms and the type of support needed to promote patient and family healing after such events. We sought to describe the long-term impacts (LTIs) reported by patients and family members who experienced harmful medical events 5 or more years ago. METHODS: We performed a content analysis on 32 interviews originally conducted with 72 patients or family members about their views of the factors contributing to their self-reported harmful event...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346107/brain-mr-image-restoration-using-an-automatic-trilateral-filter-with-gpu-based-acceleration
#10
Herng-Hua Chang, Cheng-Yuan Li, Audrey Haihong Gallogly
OBJECTIVE: Noise reduction in brain magnetic resonance (MR) images has been a challenging and demanding task. This study develops a new trilateral filter that aims to achieve robust and efficient image restoration. METHODS: Extended from the bilateral filter, the proposed algorithm contains one additional intensity similarity funct-ion, which compensates for the unique characteristics of noise in brain MR images. An entropy function adaptive to intensity variations is introduced to regulate the contributions of the weighting components...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346019/independent-attention-mechanisms-control-the-activation-of-tactile-and-visual-working-memory-representations
#11
Tobias Katus, Martin Eimer
Working memory (WM) is limited in capacity, but it is controversial whether these capacity limitations are domain-general or are generated independently within separate modality-specific memory systems. These alternative accounts were tested in bimodal visual/tactile WM tasks. In Experiment 1, participants memorized the locations of simultaneously presented task-relevant visual and tactile stimuli. Visual and tactile WM load was manipulated independently (one, two, or three items per modality), and one modality was unpredictably tested after each trial...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346018/the-tortoise-and-the-hare-interactions-between-reinforcement-learning-and-working-memory
#12
Anne G E Collins
Learning to make rewarding choices in response to stimuli depends on a slow but steady process, reinforcement learning, and a fast and flexible, but capacity-limited process, working memory. Using both systems in parallel, with their contributions weighted based on performance, should allow us to leverage the best of each system: rapid early learning, supplemented by long-term robust acquisition. However, this assumes that using one process does not interfere with the other. We use computational modeling to investigate the interactions between the two processes in a behavioral experiment and show that working memory interferes with reinforcement learning...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345724/effects-of-cognitive-training-on-cognition-and-quality-of-life-of-older-persons-with-dementia
#13
Eeva-Liisa Kallio, Hannareeta Öhman, Marja Hietanen, Helena Soini, Timo E Strandberg, Hannu Kautiainen, Kaisu H Pitkälä
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of cognitive training on cognition and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in community-dwelling persons with dementia. DESIGN: Single-blind randomized controlled trial with 3- and 9-month follow-up. SETTING: Adult day care centers in Helsinki, Finland. PARTICIPANTS: Older individuals with mild to moderate dementia living at home and attending adult day care twice a week (N = 147; mean age 83, 72% female, 63% at mild stage of dementia)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345539/working-memory-updating-load-and-binding
#14
Paola Palladino, Caterina Artuso
In the present study, we aimed to examine how specific objects are updated in working memory. We compared conditions in which contents or content-context bindings from working memory were both encoded and updated (Experiment 1). In addition, for bindings, we manipulated the memory load (i.e., number of contents) to maintain during updating. Results indicated that memory load did not specifically affect the process; rather, the content-context binding (vs. single contents) was critical in determining the increase in response latencies...
January 18, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345369/memory-b-cell-heterogeneity-remembrance-of-things-past
#15
REVIEW
Gretchen Harms Pritchard, Marion Pepper
B cells that persist for long periods of time after antigen encounter exist as either antibody-producing plasma cells (long-lived plasma cells, LLPCs) that reside primarily in the bone marrow or rapidly responsive memory B cells (MBCs) that reside in the spleen and circulation. Although LLPCs are thought to be non-responsive to a secondary infection, MBCs respond to subsequent infection through the production of antibody-secreting cells, formation of new germinal centers (GCs), and repopulation of the memory pool...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345248/photo-assisted-hysteresis-of-electronic-transport-for-zno-nanowire-transistors
#16
Qianqian Du, Jiandong Ye, Zhonghua Xu, Shunming Zhu, Kun Tang, Shulin Gu, Youdou Zheng
Recently, ZnO nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) have received renewed interest due to their extraordinary low dimensionality and high sensitivity to external chemical environment and illumination conditions. These prominent properties have the promising potential in the nanoscale chemical and photo-sensors. In this article, we have fabricated ZnO nanowire FETs and have found hysteresis behaviors in their transfer characteristics. The mechanism and dynamics of the hysteresis phenomena have been investigated in detail by varying the sweeping rate and range of the gate bias with and without light irradiation...
January 18, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345054/isoflurane-anesthesia-in-aged-mice-and-effects-of-a1-adenosine-receptors-on-cognitive-impairment
#17
Chun-Long Zuo, Chun-Man Wang, Jin Liu, Ting Shen, Jiang-Ping Zhou, Xin-Rui Hao, Yi-Zhao Pan, Hua-Cheng Liu, Qing-Quan Lian, Han Lin
AIMS: Isoflurane may not only accelerate the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but increase the risk of incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate whether isoflurane contributed to the POCD occurrence through A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) in aged mice. METHODS: We assessed cognitive function of mice with Morris water maze (MWM) and then measured expression level of two AD biomarkers (P-tau and Aβ) and a subtype of the NMDA receptor (NR2B) in aged wild-type (WT) and homozygous A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) knockout (KO) mice at baseline and after they were exposed to isoflurane (1...
January 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344908/encoding-differences-affect-the-number-and-precision-of-own-race-versus-other-race-faces-stored-in-visual-working-memory
#18
Xiaomei Zhou, Catherine J Mondloch, Stephen M Emrich
Other-race faces are discriminated and recognized less accurately than own-race faces. Despite a wealth of research characterizing this other-race effect (ORE), little is known about the nature of the representations of own-race versus other-race faces. This is because traditional measures of this ORE provide a binary measure of discrimination or recognition (correct/incorrect), failing to capture potential variation in the quality of face representations. We applied a novel continuous-response paradigm to independently measure the number of own-race and other-race face representations stored in visual working memory (VWM) and the precision with which they are stored...
January 17, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344671/role-of-mir-34c-in-the-cognitive-function-of-epileptic-rats-induced-by-pentylenetetrazol
#19
Yiqing Huang, Xixia Liu, Yuhan Liao, Yayun Liao, Donghua Zou, Xing Wei, Qi Huang, Yuan Wu
Studies suggest that microRNA (miR)‑34c may serve a role in cognitive function in rodent and primate groups. A previous study demonstrated an increase in miR‑34c expression in chronic epileptic rats with memory disorders, induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). However, the mechanism underlying the effects of miR‑34c on cognitive function in epileptic rats remains unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated alterations in cognitive function in temporal lobe epileptic rats, induced by repeated injections of PTZ, following treatment with an miR‑34c agomir compared with a scramble group...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344660/purple-sweet-potato-color-attenuates-high-fat-induced-neuroinflammation-in-mouse-brain-by-inhibiting-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#20
Jian Li, Zhao Shi, Yongjie Mi
Purple sweet potato color (PSPC) is a natural anthocyanin pigment that is derived from purple sweet potato storage roots. PSPC possesses a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory and neuroprotective effects; however, the detailed effects of PSPC on high‑fat diet (HFD)‑induced neuroinflammation remain to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PSPC has a protective role in HFD‑associated neuroinflammation in the mouse brain and to provide novel insight into the mechanisms of the action...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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