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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813943/conjunctive-rehabilitation-of-multiple-cognitive-domains-for-chronic-stroke-patients-in-virtual-reality
#1
Martina Maier, Nuria Leiva Banuelos, Belen Rubio Ballester, Esther Duarte, Paul F M J Verschure
Classically, cognitive deficits have been studied and treated in isolation from each other. A stroke patient is classified as being memory impaired, having executive dysfunction or showing attentional deficits after which a dedicated rehabilitation therapy is given. Studies seldom looked at the relationship between these different cognitive domains and syndromes, although, there is evidence that they might share common neuronal substrates and do not occur in isolation. Here, we propose a novel rehabilitation method in virtual reality to treat cognitive deficits in conjunction and report the preliminary results of an ongoing randomized controlled clinical trial...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813670/nkx2-1-is-required-in-the-embryonic-septum-for-cholinergic-system-development-learning-and-memory
#2
Lorenza Magno, Caswell Barry, Christoph Schmidt-Hieber, Polyvios Theodotou, Michael Häusser, Nicoletta Kessaris
The transcription factor NKX2-1 is best known for its role in the specification of subsets of cortical, striatal, and pallidal neurons. We demonstrate through genetic fate mapping and intersectional focal septal deletion that NKX2-1 is selectively required in the embryonic septal neuroepithelium for the development of cholinergic septohippocampal projection neurons and large subsets of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. In the absence of NKX2-1, these neurons fail to develop, causing alterations in hippocampal theta rhythms and severe deficiencies in learning and memory...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813568/visual-short-term-memory-for-oriented-colored-objects
#3
Hongsup Shin, Wei Ji Ma
A central question in the study of visual short-term memory (VSTM) has been whether its basic units are objects or features. Most studies addressing this question have used change detection tasks in which the feature value before the change is highly discriminable from the feature value after the change. This approach assumes that memory noise is negligible, which recent work has shown not to be the case. Here, we investigate VSTM for orientation and color within a noisy-memory framework, using change localization with a variable magnitude of change...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813355/the-generalizability-of-working-memory-capacity-in-the-sport-domain
#4
REVIEW
Tim Buszard, Rich Sw Masters, Damian Farrow
Working-memory capacity has been implicated as an influential variable when performing and learning sport-related skills. In this review, we critically evaluate evidence linking working-memory capacity with performing under pressure, tactical decision making, motor skill acquisition, and sport expertise. Laboratory experiments link low working-memory capacity with poorer performance under pressure and poorer decision making when required to inhibit distractions or resolve conflict. However, the generalizability of these findings remains unknown...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813214/cognitive-function-in-a-randomized-trial-of-evolocumab
#5
Robert P Giugliano, François Mach, Kenton Zavitz, Christopher Kurtz, Kyungah Im, Estella Kanevsky, Jingjing Schneider, Huei Wang, Anthony Keech, Terje R Pedersen, Marc S Sabatine, Peter S Sever, Jennifer G Robinson, Narimon Honarpour, Scott M Wasserman, Brian R Ott
Background Findings from clinical trials of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have led to concern that these drugs or the low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol that result from their use are associated with cognitive deficits. Methods In a subgroup of patients from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of evolocumab added to statin therapy, we prospectively assessed cognitive function using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. The primary end point was the score on the spatial working memory strategy index of executive function (scores range from 4 to 28, with lower scores indicating a more efficient use of strategy and planning)...
August 17, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813156/the-spatial-resolution-limit-for-individual-domain-wall-in-magnetic-nanowires
#6
Sumit Dutta, Saima Afroz Siddiqui, Jean Anne Currivan-Incorvia, Caroline A Ross, Marc A Baldo
Magnetic nanowires are the foundation of several promising nonvolatile computing devices, most notably magnetic racetrack memory and domain wall logic. Here, we determine the analog information capacity in these technologies, analyzing a magnetic nanowire containing a single domain wall. Although wires can be deliberately patterned with notches to define discrete positions for domain walls, the line edge roughness of the wire can also trap domain walls at dimensions below the resolution of the fabrication process, determining the fundamental resolution limit for the placement of a domain wall...
August 16, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813108/consequences-of-gestational-diabetes-to-the-brain-and-behavior-of-the-offspring
#7
Ricardo A L DE Sousa, Yasmin S Torres, Claudia P Figueiredo, Giselle F Passos, Julia R Clarke
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GD) is a form of insulin resistance triggered during the second/third trimesters of pregnancy in previously normoglycemic women. It is currently estimated that 10% of all pregnancies in the United States show this condition. For many years, the transient nature of GD has led researchers and physicians to assume that long-term consequences were absent. However, GD diagnosis leads to a six-fold increase in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) in women and incidence of obesity and T2D is also higher among their infants...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813089/polyspecific-antibodies-without-persisting-antigen-in-multiple-sclerosis-neurolupus-and-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-immune-network-connectivity-in-chronic-diseases
#8
Hansotto Reiber
The polyspecific antibody synthesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) gained diagnostic relevance with the frequent combination of measles-, rubella- and varicella zoster antibodies (MRZ-antibody reaction) but their pathophysiological role remains unknown. This review connects the data for intrathecal polyspecific antibody synthesis in MS and neurolupus with observations in the blood of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Simultaneously increased antibody and autoantibody titers in GBS blood samples indicate that the polyspecific antibodies are based on a general property of an immune network, supported by the deterministic day-to-day concentration variation of antibodies in normal blood...
August 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813088/cognitive-dysfunction-in-corticobasal-degeneration
#9
Laís Machado de Oliveira, Igor Barcellos, Hélio A G Teive, Renato Puppi Munhoz
Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) was originally described as a distinct clinicopathological entity in 1967. Since then, different phenotypic presentations have emerged as possible manifestations of CBD histopathological findings. In addition, pathophysiological findings and the molecular basis have been delineated and several aspects of its cognitive manifestations have been clarified. Thus, not only the spectrum of what is currently designated as CBD has expanded, but overlap with other degenerative and even secondary disorders has made clinical diagnostic certainty even more challenging in the absence of specific and readily-available markers...
August 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813006/samarium-monosulfide-sms-reviewing-properties-and-applications
#10
REVIEW
Andreas Sousanis, Philippe F Smet, Dirk Poelman
In this review, we give an overview of the properties and applications of samarium monosulfide, SmS, which has gained considerable interest as a switchable material. It shows a pressure-induced phase transition from the semiconducting to the metallic state by polishing, and it switches back to the semiconducting state by heating. The material also shows a magnetic transition, from the paramagnetic state to an antiferromagnetically ordered state. The switching behavior between the semiconducting and metallic states could be exploited in several applications, such as high density optical storage and memory materials, thermovoltaic devices, infrared sensors and more...
August 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812903/synergic-on-off-photoswitching-spin-state-and-magnetic-coupling-between-spin-crossover-centers
#11
Jun-Li Wang, Qiang Liu, Yin-Shan Meng, Hui Zheng, Hai-Lang Zhu, Quan Shi, Tao Liu
The existence of a correlation between spin crossover and dielectric properties is a hot topic in the field of multiresponse materials, which has potential applications in the memory devices, switches, and sensors. One formidable challenge is the simultaneous and rapid on/off switching of spin states of the spin carriers and magnetic coupling between them, which is crucial for both reversible photomagnetic behavior and variations in dielectric properties. Here, we report a dinuclear Fe(II) spin crossover complex, wherein each Fe(II) center exhibits an interconversion between Fe(II)HS (HS = high-spin) and Fe(II)LS (LS = low-spin) achieved upon heating and cooling...
August 16, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812474/protective-effect-of-raisin-currant-against-spatial-memory-impairment-and-oxidative-stress-in-alzheimer-disease-model
#12
Mohammad Gol, Davoud Ghorbanian, Nabiollah Soltanpour, Jamshid Faraji, Mohsen Pourghasem
OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive pathological changes of the brain. A number of studies demonstrated compelling evidence of the importance of oxidative processes in AD pathogenesis. Raisin contains polyphenol, phenolic acid, and tannin compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of raisin on neurobehavioral and histological changes in rats with Alzheimer...
August 16, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812424/remember-some-or-remember-all-ageing-and-strategy-effects-in-visual-working-memory
#13
Amy L Atkinson, Alan D Baddeley, Richard J Allen
Recent research (Bengson & Luck, 2015) has indicated that visual working memory capacity for unidimensional items might be boosted by focusing on all presented items, as opposed to a subset of them. However, it is not clear whether the same outcomes would be observed if more complex items were used which require feature binding, a potentially more demanding task. The current experiments therefore examined the effects of encoding strategy using multidimensional items in tasks that required feature binding. Effects were explored across a range of different age groups (Experiment 1) and task conditions (Experiment 2)...
August 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812353/dopamine-incorporated-dual-bioactive-electroactive-shape-memory-polyurethane-elastomers-with-physiological-shape-recovery-temperature-high-stretchability-and-enhanced-c2c12-myogenic-differentiation
#14
Xin Zhao, Ruonan Dong, Baolin Guo, Peter X Ma
Soft tissue engineering needs elastic biomaterials not only mimicking the elasticity of soft tissue but also possessing multiple bioactivity to promote cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, which still remains ongoing challenges. Herein, we synthesized a series of dopamine-incorporated dual bioactive electroactive shape memory polyurethane elastomers by combining the properties of elastomeric poly(citric acid-co-polycaprolactone) (CA-PCL) polyurethane elastomer, bioactive dopamine (DA) and electroactive aniline hexamer (AH)...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812245/association-of-elements-with-schizophrenia-and-intervention-of-selenium-supplements
#15
Zhe Li, Yumei Liu, Xia Li, Wen Ju, Guanrui Wu, Xiaomei Yang, Xiaofeng Fu, Xibao Gao
The purpose of this study is to explore more trace elements (zinc, potassium, copper, iron, boron, manganese, selenium, chromium and cadmium elements) in addition to calcium, magnesium, lead and arsenic in the sera of patients with schizophrenia and the general population in China and to determine the effect of selenium on schizophrenia patients. Participants were collected from the Pingyin County Mental Health Hospital and Pingyin County. A t test was used to analyse the differences between schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects, and element content differences in gender...
August 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811938/neuropsychological-characteristics-of-children-with-mixed-autism-and-adhd
#16
Costanza Colombi, Mohammad Ghaziuddin
Clinical heterogeneity is a well-established characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While the comorbidity of ASD and ADHD is well known in clinical practice, relatively little research has examined the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD + ADHD. Our study showed significant differences in the neuropsychological characteristics of children with ASD + ADHD compared to those with ASD only. Children with ASD + ADHD showed higher symptoms of anxiety, worse working memory, and less empathy, as measured by the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes...
2017: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811739/a-fem-experimental-approach-for-the-development-of-a-conceptual-linear-actuator-based-on-tendril-s-free-coiling
#17
Luca Cortese, Selena Milanovic, Renato Vidoni
Within the vastness of the plant species, certain living systems show tendril structures whose motion is of particular interest for biomimetic engineers. Tendrils sense and coil around suitable grips, and by shortening in length, they erect the remaining plant body. To achieve contraction, tendrils rotate along their main axis and shift from a linear to a double-spring geometry. This phenomenon is denoted as the free-coiling phase. In this work, with the aim of understanding the fundamentals of the mechanics behind the free coiling, a reverse-engineering approach based on the finite element method was firstly applied...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811646/pafah1b1-haploinsufficiency-disrupts-gaba-neurons-and-synaptic-e-i-balance-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#18
Matthew T Dinday, Kelly M Girskis, Sunyoung Lee, Scott C Baraban, Robert F Hunt
Hemizygous mutations in the human gene encoding platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit alpha (Pafah1b1), also called Lissencephaly-1, can cause classical lissencephaly, a severe malformation of cortical development. Children with this disorder suffer from deficits in neuronal migration, severe intellectual disability, intractable epilepsy and early death. While many of these features can be reproduced in Pafah1b1(+/-) mice, the impact of Pafah1b1(+/-) on the function of individual subpopulations of neurons and ultimately brain circuits is largely unknown...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811624/pupil-size-tracks-attentional-performance-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
G Wainstein, D Rojas-Líbano, N A Crossley, X Carrasco, F Aboitiz, T Ossandón
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis is based on reported symptoms, which carries the potential risk of over- or under-diagnosis. A biological marker that helps to objectively define the disorder, providing information about its pathophysiology, is needed. A promising marker of cognitive states in humans is pupil size, which reflects the activity of an 'arousal' network, related to the norepinephrine system. We monitored pupil size from ADHD and control subjects, during a visuo-spatial working memory task...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811623/immune-dysregulation-in-patients-with-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#20
Gila Moalem-Taylor, Benny Baharuddin, Barbara Bennett, Arun V Krishnan, William Huynh, Matthew C Kiernan, Cindy Shin-Yi Lin, Boaz Shulruf, Elizabeth Keoshkerian, Barbara Cameron, Andrew Lloyd
Peripheral immunity plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis and conferring crucial neuroprotective effects on the injured nervous system, while at the same time may contribute to increased vulnerability to neuropathic pain. Little is known about the reciprocal relationship between entrapment neuropathy and peripheral immunity. This study investigated immune profile in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), the most prevalent entrapment neuropathy. All patients exhibited neurophysiological abnormalities in the median nerve, with the majority reporting neuropathic pain symptoms...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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