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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441758/acteoside-and-isoacteoside-protect-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-induced-cytotoxicity-cognitive-deficit-and-neurochemical-disturbances-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#1
Young-Ji Shiao, Muh-Hwan Su, Hang-Ching Lin, Chi-Rei Wu
Acteoside and isoacteoside, two phenylethanoid glycosides, coexist in some plants. This study investigates the memory-improving and cytoprotective effects of acteoside and isoacteoside in amyloid β peptide 1-42 (Aβ 1-42)-infused rats and Aβ 1-42-treated SH-SY5Y cells. It further elucidates the role of amyloid cascade and central neuronal function in these effects. Acteoside and isoacteoside ameliorated cognitive deficits, decreased amyloid deposition, and reversed central cholinergic dysfunction that were caused by Aβ 1-42 in rats...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441647/subjective-memory-in-a-national-sample-predicting-psychological-well-being
#2
Jacqueline A Mogle, Nikki Hill, Caroline McDermott
BACKGROUND: Individual perception of memory performance (i.e., subjective memory) is assessed using a variety of approaches. This article focuses on 2 such approaches: (1) self-comparison assessments that attempt to capture changes in memory ability over a period of time and (2) age-anchored comparisons that assess how an individual perceives their memory in relation to others their age. These different types of assessment may relate to psychological well-being differently due to the underlying mechanisms of assessment...
April 26, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441589/nutrient-stress-induced-chromatin-changes-in-plants
#3
REVIEW
David Secco, James Whelan, Hatem Rouached, Ryan Lister
The ability of plants to appropriately respond to the soil nutrient availability is of primary importance for their development and to complete their life cycle. Deciphering these multifaceted adaptive mechanisms remains a major challenge for scientists to date. Recent technological breakthroughs now enable to assess the dynamism and complexity of these processes at unprecedented resolution. In this review, we present some of the most recent findings on the involvement of histone modifications, histone variants and DNA methylation in response to nutrient stresses as well as discussing the potential roles these chromatin changes could serve as priming or as trans-generational stress memory mechanisms...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441521/lost-in-distractors-reduced-autobiographical-memory-specificity-and-dispersed-activation-spreading-over-distractors-in-working-memory
#4
Keisuke Takano, Jun Moriya, Filip Raes
Studies on autobiographical memory retrieval highlight the prominence of rapid and direct access to a specific event memory. Because it has been believed that autobiographical memory retrieval mostly relies on an effortful generative process, there is little empirical evidence on the early stage of information processing that contributes to autobiographical memory specificity (AMS). Therefore, we investigated the associations between AMS and automatic activation of information stimulated by rapid presentation of emotional words...
April 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441426/identification-of-genes-associated-with-dissociation-of-cognitive-performance-and-neuropathological-burden-multistep-analysis-of-genetic-epigenetic-and-transcriptional-data
#5
Charles C White, Hyun-Sik Yang, Lei Yu, Lori B Chibnik, Robert J Dawe, Jingyun Yang, Hans-Ulrich Klein, Daniel Felsky, Alfredo Ramos-Miguel, Konstantinos Arfanakis, William G Honer, Reisa A Sperling, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Philip L De Jager
INTRODUCTION: The molecular underpinnings of the dissociation of cognitive performance and neuropathological burden are poorly understood, and there are currently no known genetic or epigenetic determinants of the dissociation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: "Residual cognition" was quantified by regressing out the effects of cerebral pathologies and demographic characteristics on global cognitive performance proximate to death. To identify genes influencing residual cognition, we leveraged neuropathological, genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptional data available for deceased participants of the Religious Orders Study (n = 492) and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (n = 487)...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441128/early-career-work-location-of-memorial-university-medical-graduates-why-the-decline-in-rural-practice
#6
Maria Mathews, Dana Ryan, Asoka Samarasena
INTRODUCTION: In a previous study, we found a decline in the proportion of Memorial University of Newfoundland (MUN) medical alumni practising in rural areas, particularly in Newfoundland and Labrador. The current study focused on the work location of recent graduates and examined the predictors of working in rural Canada and in rural Newfoundland and Labrador within the first 15 years following graduation. METHODS: We linked data from graduating class lists and the alumni and postgraduate databases with Scott's Medical Database to create a record of all graduates from 1973 to 2008, including their work location...
2017: Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440880/-to-be-forgotten-statements-become-less-true-memory-processes-involved-in-selection-and-forgetting-lead-to-truthfulness-changes-of%C3%A2-ambiguous-sentences
#7
Ana Sofia Santos, Tânia Ramos, Leonel Garcia-Marques, Paula Carneiro
What happens when people try to forget something? What are the consequences of instructing people to intentionally forget a sentence? Recent studies employing the item-method directed forgetting paradigm have shown that to-be-forgotten (TBF) items are, in a subsequent task, emotionally devaluated relative to to-be-remembered (TBR) items, an aftereffect of memory selection (Vivas, Marful, Panagiotidou & Bajo, 2016). As such, distractor devaluation by attentional selection generalizes to memory selection. In this study, we use the item-method directed forgetting paradigm to test the effects of memory selection and inhibition on truth judgments of ambiguous sentences...
April 25, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440873/flashbulb-memories-of-the-paris-attacks
#8
Marie-Charlotte Gandolphe, Mohamad El Haj
Flashbulb memories are vivid autobiographical memories of the circumstances where an individual first learns about emotionally significant public events. Our paper assesses whether these memories were triggered by the attacks of Friday 13 November 2015 in Paris. Two hundred and ninety-one participants answered a web-based questionnaire that assessed their memory of the circumstances in which they first learned of the attacks. The questionnaire also assessed vividness, rehearsal, emotion, surprise and novelty...
April 25, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440817/effects-of-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-antagonism-on-human-planning-and-spatial-working-memory
#9
M Naef, U Müller, A Linssen, L Clark, T W Robbins, C Eisenegger
Psychopharmacological studies in humans suggest important roles for dopamine (DA) D2 receptors in human executive functions, such as cognitive planning and spatial working memory (SWM). However, studies that investigate an impairment of such functions using the selective DA D2/3 receptor antagonist sulpiride have yielded inconsistent results, perhaps because relatively low doses were used. We believe we report for the first time, the effects of a higher (800 mg p.o.) single dose of sulpiride as well as of genetic variation in the DA receptor D2 gene (DA receptor D2 Taq1A polymorphism), on planning and working memory...
April 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440769/advanced-glycation-end-products-in-morbid-obesity-and-after-bariatric-surgery-when-glycemic-memory-starts-to-fail
#10
Enric Sánchez, Juan Antonio Baena-Fustegueras, María Cruz de la Fuente, Liliana Gutiérrez, Marta Bueno, Susana Ros, Albert Lecube
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are a marker of metabolic memory. Their levels increases when oxidative stress, inflammation, or chronic hyperglycemia exists. The role of morbid obesity in AGE levels, and the impact of bariatric surgery on them are unknown. PATIENTS AND METHOD: An observational study with three sex- and age-matched cohorts: 52 patients with obesity, 46 patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the last 5 years, and 46 control subjects...
January 2017: Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440493/the-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-pathway-in-neurological-diseases-a-potential-therapeutic-target-review
#11
Jing Sun, Guangxian Nan
Signaling pathways are critical modulators of a variety of physiological and pathological processes, and the abnormal activation of some signaling pathways can contribute to disease progression in various conditions. As a result, signaling pathways have emerged as an important tool through which the occurrence and development of diseases can be studied, which may then lead to the development of novel drugs. Accumulating evidence supports a key role for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling in the embryonic development of the central nervous system (CNS) and in the regulation of adult brain function...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440273/active-matter-logic-for-autonomous-microfluidics
#12
Francis G Woodhouse, Jörn Dunkel
Chemically or optically powered active matter plays an increasingly important role in materials design, but its computational potential has yet to be explored systematically. The competition between energy consumption and dissipation imposes stringent physical constraints on the information transport in active flow networks, facilitating global optimization strategies that are not well understood. Here, we combine insights from recent microbial experiments with concepts from lattice-field theory and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to introduce a generic theoretical framework for active matter logic...
April 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440221/nptx2-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Mei-Fang Xiao, Desheng Xu, Michael T Craig, Kenneth A Pelkey, Chun-Che Chien, Yang Shi, Juhong Zhang, Susan Resnick, Olga Pletnikova, David Salmon, James Brewer, Steven Edland, Jerzy Wegiel, Benjamin Tycko, Alena Savonenko, Roger H Reeves, Juan C Troncoso, Chris J McBain, Douglas Galasko, Paul F Worley
Memory loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is attributed to pervasive weakening and loss of synapses. Here, we present findings supporting a special role for excitatory synapses connecting pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus and cortex with fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) interneurons that control network excitability and rhythmicity. Excitatory synapses on PV interneurons are dependent on the AMPA receptor subunit GluA4, which is regulated by presynaptic expression of the synaptogenic immediate early gene NPTX2 by pyramidal neurons...
March 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440093/turmeric-curcuma-longa-l-extract-may-prevent-the-deterioration-of-spatial-memory-and-the-deficit-of-estimated-total-number-of-hippocampal-pyramidal-cells-of-trimethyltin-exposed-rats
#14
Sapto Yuliani, Mustofa, Ginus Partadiredja
CONTEXT: Protection of neurons from degeneration is an important preventive strategy for dementia. Much of the dementia pathology implicates oxidative stress pathways. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) contains curcuminoids which has anti-oxidative and neuro-protective effects. These effects are considered to be similar to those of citicoline which has been regularly used as one of standard medications for dementia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating the effects of turmeric rhizome extract on the hippocampus of trimethyltin (TMT)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 25, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439926/multi-nonvolatile-state-resistive-switching-arising-from-ferroelectricity-and-oxygen-vacancy-migration
#15
Weiming Lü, Changjian Li, Limei Zheng, Juanxiu Xiao, Weinan Lin, Qiang Li, Xiao Renshaw Wang, Zhen Huang, Shengwei Zeng, Kun Han, Wenxiong Zhou, Kaiyang Zeng, Jingsheng Chen, Ariando, Wenwu Cao, Thirumalai Venkatesan
Resistive switching phenomena form the basis of competing memory technologies. Among them, resistive switching, originating from oxygen vacancy migration (OVM), and ferroelectric switching offer two promising approaches. OVM in oxide films/heterostructures can exhibit high/low resistive state via conducting filament forming/deforming, while the resistive switching of ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) arises from barrier height or width variation while ferroelectric polarization reverses between asymmetric electrodes...
April 25, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439808/timing-a-week-later-the-role-of-long-term-memory-in-temporal-preparation
#16
Rozemarijn M Mattiesing, Wouter Kruijne, Martijn Meeter, Sander A Los
Temporal preparation has been investigated extensively by manipulating the foreperiod, the interval between a warning stimulus and target stimulus requiring a speeded response. Although such research has revealed many effects of both the duration and distribution of foreperiods on reaction times, the underlying cognitive mechanism is still largely unknown. Here, we test a recent proposal that temporal preparation is driven by the retrieval of memory traces of past experiences from long-term memory rather than by knowledge about upcoming events...
April 24, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439791/task-irrelevant-distractors-in-the-delay-period-interfere-selectively-with-visual-short-term-memory-for-spatial-locations
#17
Francesco Marini, Jerry Scott, Adam R Aron, Edward F Ester
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables the representation of information in a readily accessible state. VSTM is typically conceptualized as a form of "active" storage that is resistant to interference or disruption, yet several recent studies have shown that under some circumstances task-irrelevant distractors may indeed disrupt performance. Here, we investigated how task-irrelevant visual distractors affected VSTM by asking whether distractors induce a general loss of remembered information or selectively interfere with memory representations...
April 24, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439570/epigenomics-of-human-cd8-t-cell-differentiation-and-aging
#18
David M Moskowitz, David W Zhang, Bin Hu, Sabine Le Saux, Rolando E Yanes, Zhongde Ye, Jason D Buenrostro, Cornelia M Weyand, William J Greenleaf, Jörg J Goronzy
The efficacy of the adaptive immune response declines dramatically with age, but the cell-intrinsic mechanisms driving immune aging in humans remain poorly understood. Immune aging is characterized by a loss of self-renewing naïve cells and the accumulation of differentiated but dysfunctional cells within the CD8 T cell compartment. Using ATAC-seq, we inferred the transcription factor binding activities correlated with naive and central and effector memory CD8 T cell states in young adults. Integrating our results with RNA-seq, we identified transcription networks associated with CD8 T cell differentiation, with prominent roles implicated for BATF, ETS1, Eomes, and Sp1...
February 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439560/direct-4d-printing-via-active-composite-materials
#19
Zhen Ding, Chao Yuan, Xirui Peng, Tiejun Wang, H Jerry Qi, Martin L Dunn
We describe an approach to print composite polymers in high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) architectures that can be rapidly transformed to a new permanent configuration directly by heating. The permanent shape of a component results from the programmed time evolution of the printed shape upon heating via the design of the architecture and process parameters of a composite consisting of a glassy shape memory polymer and an elastomer that is programmed with a built-in compressive strain during photopolymerization...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439549/observation-of-current-induced-long-lived-persistent-spin-polarization-in-a-topological-insulator-a-rechargeable-spin-battery
#20
Jifa Tian, Seokmin Hong, Ireneusz Miotkowski, Supriyo Datta, Yong P Chen
Topological insulators (TIs), with their helically spin-momentum-locked topological surface states (TSSs), are considered promising for spintronics applications. Several recent experiments in TIs have demonstrated a current-induced electronic spin polarization that may be used for all-electrical spin generation and injection. We report spin potentiometric measurements in TIs that have revealed a long-lived persistent electron spin polarization even at zero current. Unaffected by a small bias current and persisting for several days at low temperature, the spin polarization can be induced and reversed by a large "writing" current applied for an extended time...
April 2017: Science Advances
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