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Ondansetron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924743/a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-pregnant-women-to-predict-the-pharmacokinetics-of-drugs-metabolized-via-several-enzymatic-pathways
#1
André Dallmann, Ibrahim Ince, Katrin Coboeken, Thomas Eissing, Georg Hempel
BACKGROUND: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling is considered a valuable tool for predicting pharmacokinetic changes in pregnancy to subsequently guide in-vivo pharmacokinetic trials in pregnant women. The objective of this study was to extend and verify a previously developed physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for pregnant women for the prediction of pharmacokinetics of drugs metabolized via several cytochrome P450 enzymes. METHODS: Quantitative information on gestation-specific changes in enzyme activity available in the literature was incorporated in a pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and the pharmacokinetics of eight drugs metabolized via one or multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes was predicted...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887737/child-with-vomiting
#2
REVIEW
Madhusudan Samprathi, Muralidharan Jayashree
Vomiting is a common problem in children for which parents seek health care consultation. It has a varied etiology encompassing many organ systems, ranging from a benign physiological behavior to a life-threatening systemic disease. Most often, it is benign and self-limiting. Infections within and outside the gastrointestinal tract are the commonest causes. A good history and meticulous physical examination can discern the cause and help in delineating the benign cause from the sinister. Red flags include unstable vital signs, acidotic breathing, presence of bile or blood stained vomitus, features of gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction, encephalopathy and papilledema...
September 8, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882877/clinical-pathway-produces-sustained-improvement-in-acute-gastroenteritis-care
#3
Lori Rutman, Eileen J Klein, Julie C Brown
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite widespread use of the rotavirus vaccine in the last decade, dehydrating illnesses impact almost 2 billion children worldwide annually. Evidence supports oral rehydration therapy as a first-line treatment of mild to moderate dehydration. Ondansetron has proven to be a safe and effective adjunct in children with vomiting. We implemented a clinical pathway in our pediatric emergency department (ED) in January 2005 to improve care for this common condition...
September 7, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866307/evaluation-of-periprocedural-hypersensitivity-reactions
#4
Melissa Iammatteo, Taha Keskin, Elina Jerschow
BACKGROUND: Identifying the cause of periprocedural hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) remains challenging because of the multitude of medications involved. Antibiotics are the most common cause in the United States, whereas neuromuscular blocking agents are most common in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To identify causative agents for periprocedural HSRs. METHODS: This study was a 7-year retrospective medical record review of patients evaluated between December 2009 and January 2017 at a drug allergy center in Bronx, New York for periprocedural HSRs, defined as occurring soon before, during, or soon after a medical procedure or operation with or without general anesthesia...
August 30, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862050/synthetic-cannabinoid-black-mamba-infidelity-in-patients-presenting-for-emergency-stabilization-in-colorado-a-p-scan-cohort
#5
Nicklaus Brandehoff, Axel Adams, Kyle McDaniel, Samuel D Banister, Roy Gerona, Andrew A Monte
BACKGROUND: Use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has increased over the last decade. During this period, variability of both clinical presentations and chemical compositions of these compounds has increased. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are the most commonly used NPS and there are more than 100 documented unique molecules in this class. "Black Mamba", often associated to ADB-FUBINACA, is the most commonly used SC in Colorado. It has been linked to kidney injury, myocardial toxicity, seizures, and death...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861718/repeated-forced-swim-exacerbates-methamphetamine-induced-neurotoxicity-neuroprotective-effects-of-nanowired-delivery-of-5-ht3-receptor-antagonist-ondansetron
#6
José Vicente Lafuente, Aruna Sharma, Dafin F Muresanu, Asya Ozkizilcik, Z Ryan Tian, Ranjana Patnaik, Hari S Sharma
The possibility that stress associated with chronic forced swim (FS) may exacerbate methamphetamine (METH) neurotoxicity was examined in a rat model. Rats were subjected to FS in a pool (30 °C) for 15 min daily for 8 days. Control rats were kept at room temperature. METH was administered (9 mg/kg, s.c.) in both control and FS rats and allowed to survive 4 h after the drug injection. METH in FS rats exacerbated BBB breakdown to Evans blue albumin (EBA) by 150 to 220% and ([131])-Iodine by 250 to 380% as compared to naive rats after METH...
August 31, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856920/efficacy-of-ondansetron-for-spinal-anesthesia-during-cesarean-section-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#7
Chengmao Zhou, Yu Zhu, Zeqing Bao, Xianxue Wang, Qili Liu
Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of ondansetron during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Methods We sought randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on ondansetron during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section in The Cochrane Library, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science from their inception to September 2016. Results Altogether, 21 RCTs were included in this study. Meta-analysis showed that the ondansetron group had a lower incidence of nausea/vomiting and bradycardia than the placebo group during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia [relative risk (RR) = 0...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856448/olanzapine-for-prevention-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-in-children-and-adolescents-a-multi-center-feasibility-study
#8
J Flank, T Schechter, P Gibson, D L Johnston, A D Orsey, C Portwine, L Sung, L L Dupuis
CONTEXT: There are no prospective pediatric trials evaluating olanzapine for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) prevention. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the feasibility of a trial of olanzapine to evaluate the contribution of olanzapine to CINV control in pediatric oncology patients. METHODS: Patients < 18 years receiving CINV prophylaxis with ondansetron/granisetron/palonosetron ± dexamethasone ± aprepitant were eligible to participate in this prospective, single-arm, open-label study...
August 30, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844591/addition-of-3-day-aprepitant-to-ondansetron-and-dexamethasone-for-prophylaxis-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-among-patients-with-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-receiving-5-day-cisplatin-based-chemotherapy
#9
Raafat Abdel-Malek, Noha Abbas, Kyrillus S Shohdy, Mohamed Ismail, Radwa Fawzy, Dalal S Salem, Ezzat Safwat
BACKGROUND: Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant are currently emerging as powerful prophylactic agents for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Therefore, it is important to adjust the anti-emetic regimens based on personal risk factors of the patient, duration of the chemotherapy regimen and cost-effectiveness. PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of the 3-day aprepitant along with ondansetron and dexamethasone in controlling CINV in patients with large B cell lymphoma receiving multiday-cisplatin regimen chemotherapy...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814338/anti-nausea-effects-and-pharmacokinetics-of-ondansetron-maropitant-and-metoclopramide-in-a-low-dose-cisplatin-model-of-nausea-and-vomiting-in-the-dog-a-blinded-crossover-study
#10
Hannah Kenward, Jonathan Elliott, Terry Lee, Ludovic Pelligand
BACKGROUND: Nausea is a subjective sensation which is difficult to measure in non-verbal species. The aims of this study were to determine the efficacy of three classes of antiemetic drugs in a novel low dose cisplatin model of nausea and vomiting and measure change in potential nausea biomarkers arginine vasopressin (AVP) and cortisol. A four period cross-over blinded study was conducted in eight healthy beagle dogs of both genders. Dogs were administered 18 mg/m(2) cisplatin intravenously, followed 45 min later by a 15 min infusion of either placebo (saline) or antiemetic treatment with ondansetron (0...
August 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807069/a-pilot-project-demonstrating-that-combat-medics-can-safely-administer-parenteral-medications-in-the-emergency-department
#11
Steven G Schauer, Cord W Cunningham, Andrew D Fisher, Robert A DeLorenzo
Introduction Select units in the military have improved combat medic training by integrating their functions into routine clinical care activities with measurable improvements in battlefield care. This level of integration is currently limited to special operations units. It is unknown if regular Army units and combat medics can emulate these successes. The goal of this project was to determine whether US Army combat medics can be integrated into routine emergency department (ED) clinical care, specifically medication administration...
August 15, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806217/the-effect-of-ondansetron-on-acute-opioid-tolerance-in-patients-receiving-intrathecal-opioids-prior-to-cesarean-delivery
#12
Kevin C Greer, Abdullah S Terkawi, Siny Tsang, Priyanka Singla, Marcel E Durieux, Mohamed Tiouririne
BACKGROUND: Multiple animal studies suggest that ondansetron ameliorates opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance. In this study, we aimed to determine if the administration of ondansetron prior to spinal anesthesia would have an effect on intrathecal opioid-induced acute opioid tolerance, postoperative pain, and analgesic requirements in patients undergoing cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Eighty-six patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery were recruited and randomly allocated to receive either 8 mg intravenous ondansetron (n = 44) or placebo (n = 42) in a prospective, double-blind design...
September 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801850/amisulpride-in-the-prevention-of-nausea-and-vomiting-induced-by-cisplatin-based-chemotherapy-a-dose-escalation-study
#13
Jørn Herrstedt, Yvonne Summers, Gedske Daugaard, Thomas B Christensen, Karin Holmskov, Paul D Taylor, Gabriel M Fox, Alexander Molassiotis
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiemetic effect of the dopamine D2- and dopamine D3-receptor antagonist, amisulpride, in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy. METHODS: This dose-finding, non-comparative study investigated the antiemetic effect and safety of increasing doses (2.5, 7.5 and 20 mg) of amisulpride against acute nausea and vomiting in the period 0-24 h after initiation of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The 20 mg dose was also investigated in combination with the 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, ondansetron...
August 11, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795523/a-limited-evaluation-of-the-association-of-race-and-anesthetic-medication-administration-a-single-center-experience-with-appendectomies
#14
Julia M Rosenbloom, Kumaran Senthil, Alexander S Long, Whitney R Robinson, Kenneth N Peeples, John E Fiadjoe, Ronald S Litman
BACKGROUND: Although it is known that a patient's race may influence their medical care, racial patterns of medication administration in pediatric anesthesia have not been well-studied. The aim of this study was to determine if differences exist between Black and White children with regard to administration of anesthetic and analgesic medications for a single procedure at our institution. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of medications administered to patients for emergency appendectomies at a large academic children's hospital from 2010 to 2015...
August 10, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766304/benefits-of-ultrasound-guided-transversus-abdominis-plane-block-for-open-appendectomy-in-children
#15
Ilona Batko, Barbara K Kościelniak, Ilona Al-Mutari, Krzysztof Kobylarz
BACKGROUND: One of the most frequently performed emergency surgical procedures in children is an appendectomy. The aim of this study was to determine the benefits of supplementing standard, general anaesthesia with the ultrasound-guided right TAP block. METHODS: We analyzed the medical records of 90 children of both sexes, aged 4-16 years with a body mass of 16-78 kg who underwent general anaesthesia for open appendectomy. Sixty-two individuals were anaesthetized using the standard method, while 28 patients had an additional right-sided TAP block under ultrasound guidance...
2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765126/cost-utility-and-budget-impact-analyses-of-the-use-of-nepa-for-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-prophylaxis-in-italy
#16
Umberto Restelli, Gabriella Saibene, Patrizia Nardulli, Roberta Di Turi, Erminio Bonizzoni, Francesca Scolari, Tania Perrone, Davide Croce, Luigi Celio
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficiency of resources allocation and sustainability of the use of netupitant+palonosetron (NEPA) for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) prophylaxis assuming the Italian National Health Service (NHS) perspective. A published Markov model was adapted to assess the incremental cost-utility ratio of NEPA compared with aprepitant (APR) + palonosetron (PALO), fosaprepitant (fAPR) + PALO, APR + ondansetron (ONDA), fAPR + ONDA in patients receiving a highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) and with APR + PALO and fAPR + PALO in patients receiving a moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC)...
August 1, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764154/effect-of-agonist-and-antagonist-on-the-in-vitro-contractility-of-inflamed-vermiform-appendix
#17
Phani Bhushan Singh, Pushpakant Tiwary, Sanjeev K Singh, Ratna Pandey, Atanu Roy, Amrita Ghosh Kar, Somprakas Basu, Anil Kumar Tiwari
INTRODUCTION: Appendicitis poses a great health problem worldwide. Previous studies demonstrated structural damage to neuronal network and interstitial cell of Cajal in appendicitis. Above observations suggest for the alterations in appendicular motility/contractility in appendicitis. But the mechanisms involved in mediating the contractility in inflamed vermiform appendix is not known till date. AIM: The present in vitro study was performed to find out the mechanisms responsible for contractility in the inflamed human vermiform appendix...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760606/synthesis-analytical-characterization-and-capillary-electrophoretic-use-of-the-single-isomer-heptakis-6-o-sulfobutyl-beta-cyclodextrin
#18
Milo Malanga, Ida Fejős, Erzsébet Varga, Gábor Benkovics, András Darcsi, Julianna Szemán, Szabolcs Béni
This contribution reports the synthesis, characterization and capillary electrophoretic application of heptakis-(6-O-sulfobutyl-ether)-β-cyclodextrin sodium salt, (6-(SB)7-β-CD). The compound was obtained through a five-steps synthesis and it represents the first example of single-isomer sulfobutylated cyclodextrin that carries the negatively charged functions exclusively on its primary side and it is unmodified on the lower rim. The purity of each intermediate was determined by appropriate liquid chromatographic methods, while the isomeric purity of the final product was established by an ad-hoc developed HPLC method based on a CD-Screen-IEC column...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759183/co-administration-of-cyclosporin-a-and-ondansetron-decreases-transient-local-cerebral-ischemic-injury-in-the-mouse
#19
Michihiro Murozono, Ryouichi Miyashita, Akiko Takeda, Kunio Ynagita, Eiichi Sato, Yukihiko Ogiwara
OBJECTIVES: Several studies indicate that cyclosporin A has a protective effect against brain infarction. In this study, we aimed to determine if co-administration of cyclosporin A and ondansetron could reduce damage caused by cerebral ischemia. METHODS: ICR (Charles River Laboratories) mice were subjected to transient focal cerebral ischemia and divided into 4 groups (O, V, C, and Mix). Immediately after reperfusion, each ligand was administered intravenously through the external jugular vein...
July 2, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749713/safety-considerations-surrounding-use-of-treatment-options-for-nausea-and-vomiting-in-pregnancy
#20
Gideon Koren
Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is the most prevalent medical condition during gestation, affecting up to 85% of pregnant women. Many of them hesitate to use medications due to perceived fetal risks. Areas covered: There are two main aspects to medication safety in NVP: The fetal safety of drugs used to treat NVP symptoms, and the risks of untreated NVP. While mild and moderate NVP are not associated with major increase in fetal or maternal risks, and may render protective fetal effects, they have major impact on the quality of life of the mother...
August 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
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