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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198032/comparative-efficacy-of-metoclopramide-ondansetron-and-maropitant-in-preventing-parvoviral-enteritis-induced-emesis-in-dogs
#1
E Yalcin, G O Keser
The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficiencies of selected anti-emetic drugs (metoclopramide, ondansetron and maropitant) in preventing vomiting in the treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis. We designed a randomized, prospective clinical study. PVE quick ELISA test-positive dogs between 4 and 12 months of age were included in the study. Each of metoclopramide, ondansetron, maropitant and control group had 8 dogs. Metoclopramide and ondansetron were administered as 0.5 mg/kg doses three times a day via intravenous route, and maropitant was administered as 1 mg/kg doses once a day subcutaneously...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185059/severe-proarrhythmic-potential-of-the-antiemetic-agents-ondansetron-and-domperidone
#2
Gerrit Frommeyer, Christina Fischer, Christian Ellermann, Philipp S Lange, Dirk G Dechering, Simon Kochhäuser, Michael Fehr, Lars Eckardt
The potential of ondansetron and domperidone, both clinically established antiemetic agents, to increase the QT-interval has been described in several case reports. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these drugs may provoke polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in a sensitive experimental model of drug-induced proarrhythmia. In 10 female rabbits, ondansetron (1, 5 and 10 µM, n = 10) or domperidone (0.5, 1 and 2 µM, n = 8) was infused after obtaining baseline data. Eight endo- and epicardial monophasic action potentials and a simultaneously recorded 12-lead ECG reproduced the clinically observed QT-prolongation (ondansetron: 1 µM:+17 ms, 5 µM:+41 ms, 10 µM:+78 ms, p < 0...
February 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168082/simultaneous-determination-of-dexamethasone-ondansetron-granisetron-tropisetron-and-azasetron-in-infusion-samples-by-hplc-with-dad-detection
#3
Fu-Chao Chen, Lin-Hai Wang, Jun Guo, Xiao-Ya Shi, Bao-Xia Fang
A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of five antiemetic agents in infusion samples: dexamethasone, ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron, and azasetron. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex C18 column (4.6 mm × 150 mm, 5 μm) using acetonitrile-50 mM KH2PO4 buffer-triethylamine (25 : 74 : 1; v/v; pH 4.0). Flow rate was 1.0 mL/min with a column temperature of 30°C...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152708/influencing-antiemetic-prescribing-practices-and-funding-changes-through-evidence-based-guidelines
#4
Michael Wan, Aliya Pardhan, Erin Redwood, Andrea Crespo, Nita Lakhani, Leonard Kaizer
: 31 Background: In 2013 Cancer Care Ontario released updated antiemetic recommendations supporting the use of aprepitant-based combinations as 1(st) line therapy for highly emetogenic and 2(nd) line therapy for moderately emetogenic chemotherapy and discouraging the prolonged use of 5-HT3 antagonists. In 2014 changes were made in the Ontario drug formulary to align public funding to those recommendations. The impact of the changes in guidance and public funding on prescribing practices are now being analyzed...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134463/review-pharmacogenetics-of-alcoholism-treatment-implications-of-ethnic-diversity
#5
Anita Cservenka, Megan M Yardley, Lara A Ray
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pharmacogenetic studies of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have suggested that the efficacy of treatments for AUD is, in part, influenced by the genetic background of an individual. Since the frequency of alleles associated with pharmacotherapy for AUD varies by ancestral background, the effectiveness of medications used to treat AUD may vary among different populations. The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing pharmacogenetic studies of treatments for AUD in individuals of European, East Asian, African, and American Indian/Alaska Native ancestry...
November 4, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125813/signal-transduction-underlying-the-inhibitory-mechanism-of-fluoxetine-on-electrical-field-stimulation-response-in-rat-ileal-smooth-muscle
#6
Phyu Phyu Khin, Tin Sandar Zaw, Uy Dong Sohn
Fluoxetine (FLX), a well-known antidepressant drug under the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, exerts its action by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin selectively. In some studies, it has been demonstrated that FLX relaxes the intestinal smooth muscle. In this study, we aimed at studying the signal transduction pathway underlying the muscle relaxation effect of FLX on electrically stimulated rat ileal muscle contraction. To investigate the possible mechanism involved, various antagonists were used...
January 27, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115218/contrasting-effects-of-5-ht3-receptor-stimulation-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-or-ventral-tegmentum-on-food-intake-in-the-rat
#7
Wayne E Pratt, Peagan Lin, Zachary Pierce-Messick, Adeolu O Ilesanmi, Kara A Clissold
Although serotonin (5-HT) signaling is known to regulate food intake and energy homeostasis, the roles of the 5-HT3 receptor in feeding processes have been elusive. 5-HT3 receptors are found throughout mesolimbic circuitry that promote feeding not only in response to hunger, but also to the palatable and rewarding properties of food. These experiments examined if stimulation or blockade of the 5-HT3 receptor of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) or ventral tegmentum affected food intake in the rat in response to hunger or the presence of a palatable diet...
January 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112563/assessment-of-absorption-of-transdermal-ondansetron-in-normal-research-cats
#8
Lara B Zajic, Andrea K Herndon, Liberty G Sieberg, Amber L Caress, Paula K Morgan, Ryan J Hansen, Luke A Wittenburg, Daniel L Gustafson, Jessica M Quimby
Objectives The objective of this study was to assess the absorption of transdermal ondansetron in healthy cats. Methods Five research cats with unremarkable complete blood count, biochemistry and urinalysis were used for both single- and multiple-dose application studies. For single-dose application, 4 mg ondansetron in 0.1 ml Lipoderm gel was applied once to the internal ear pinna. Blood samples were collected via jugular catheter over a 48 h period following administration (0, 15 mins, 30 mins, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108820/prevention-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-the-role-of-neurokinin-1-nk1-receptor-antagonists
#9
Snežana M Bošnjak, Richard J Gralla, Lee Schwartzberg
Chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN) has a significant negative impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. The use of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists (RAs) has reduced the risk of vomiting, but (except for palonosetron) their effect on nausea, especially delayed nausea, is limited. This article reviews the role of NK1RAs when combined with 5-HT3RA-dexamethasone in CIN prophylaxis. Aprepitant has not shown consistent superiority over a two-drug (ondansetron-dexamethasone) combination in nausea control after cisplatin- or anthracycline-cyclophosphamide (AC)-based highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC)...
January 20, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096679/a-phase-ii-single-arm-trial-of-palonosetron-for-the-prevention-of-acute-and-delayed-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-in-malignant-glioma-patients-receiving-multidose-irinotecan-in-combination-with-bevacizumab
#10
Mary Lou Affronti, Sarah Woodring, Katherine B Peters, James E Herndon, Frances McSherry, Patrick N Healy, Annick Desjardins, James J Vredenburgh, Henry S Friedman
PURPOSE: Given that the prognosis of recurrent malignant glioma (MG) remains poor, improving quality of life (QoL) through symptom management is important. Meta-analyses establishing antiemetic guidelines have demonstrated the superiority of palonosetron (PAL) over older 5-hydroxytryptamine 3-receptor antagonists in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) prevention, but excluded patients with gliomas. Irinotecan plus bevacizumab is a treatment frequently used in MG, but is associated with low (55%) CINV complete response (CR; no emesis or use of rescue antiemetic) with commonly prescribed ondansetron...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070660/treatment-options-for-hyperemesis-gravidarum
#11
REVIEW
Amy Abramowitz, Emily S Miller, Katherine L Wisner
Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a severe and prolonged form of nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy. HG affects 0.3-2% of pregnancies and is defined by dehydration, ketonuria, and more than 5% body weight loss. Initial pharmacologic treatment for HG includes a combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine. Additional interventions include ondansetron or dopamine antagonists such as metoclopramide or promethazine. The options are limited for women who are not adequately treated with these medications. We suggest that mirtazapine is a useful drug in this context and its efficacy has been described in case studies...
January 9, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059581/hot-and-cold-drugs-national-park-service-medication-stability-at-the-extremes-of-temperature
#12
Patil Armenian, Danielle Campagne, Geoff Stroh, Crystal Ives Tallman, William Z D Zeng, Thomas Lin, Roy R Gerona
STUDY OBJECTIVE: National Park Service (NPS) Parkmedics provide medical care in austere environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of specific medications used by Parkmedics at extremes of temperatures likely to be faced in the field. METHODS: This is a bench research study conducted in the laboratory setting over a 4-week period. Parenteral medications were separated into 4 temperature exposure groups: A) 45°C (hot); B) -20°C (cold); C) hot then cold temperatures alternating weekly; and D) cold then hot temperatures alternating weekly...
January 6, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058142/comparison-of-intraabdominal-and-trocar-site-local-anaesthetic-infiltration-on-postoperative-analgesia-after-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#13
Gülsüm Altuntaş, Ömer Taylan Akkaya, Derya Özkan, Mehmet Murat Sayın, Şener Balas, Elif Özlü
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the efficacy of local anaesthetic infiltration to trocar wounds and intraperitoneally on postoperative pain as a part of a multimodal analgesia method after laparoscopic cholecystectomies. METHODS: The study was performed on 90 ASA I-III patients aged between 20 and 70 years who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All patients had the same general anaesthesia drug regimen. Patients were randomized into three groups by a closed envelope method: group I (n=30), trocar site local anaesthetic infiltration (20 mL of 0...
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039501/comparison-of-dexamethasone-dimenhydrinate-and-dexamethasone-ondansetron-in-prevention-of-nausea-and-vomiting-in-postoperative-patients
#14
Nurcan Kizilcik, Sevgi Bilgen, Ferdi Menda, Hatice Türe, Bilgehan Aydın, Elif Cigdem Kaspar, Ozge Koner
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting is one of the most common problems after implementation of general anesthesia. The incidence can reach 80% in high-risk patients, depending on the type of surgery. In our study, we aimed to compare dexamethasone-dimenhydrinate and dexamethasone-ondansetron combinations in prevention of nausea and vomiting in postoperative patients. METHOD: Sixty 18-65-year-olds ASAI-II females who underwent rhinoplasty were included in the study...
February 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039245/chewing-gum-for-the-treatment-of-postoperative-nausea-and-vomiting-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
J N Darvall, M Handscombe, K Leslie
BACKGROUND: A novel treatment, chewing gum, may be non-inferior to ondansetron in inhibiting postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in female patients after laparoscopic or breast surgery. In this pilot study, we tested the feasibility of a large randomized controlled trial. METHODS: We randomized 94 female patients undergoing laparoscopic or breast surgery to ondansetron 4 mg i.v. or chewing gum if PONV was experienced in the postanaesthesia care unit (PACU)...
January 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032216/effectiveness-of-aprepitant-in-addition-to-ondansetron-in-the-prevention-of-nausea-and-vomiting-caused-by-fractionated-radiotherapy-to-the-upper-abdomen-avert
#16
Steven Ades, M Halyard, K Wilson, T Ashikaga, R Heimann, S Kumar, W Blackstock
PURPOSE: Despite a lower risk of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving radiotherapy to the upper abdomen (UA-RINV) with prophylactic 5-HT3 antagonist therapy, patients can still experience UA-RINV. The aim of this multicenter phase II study was to assess effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of protracted dual NK1-receptor and 5-HT3 antagonist prophylaxis against UA-RINV. METHODS: Patients receiving fractionated radiotherapy with radiosensitizing chemotherapy received oral ondansetron 8 mg po q12 h and aprepitant 125/80/80 mg on a Monday, Wednesday, Friday schedules throughout radiotherapy...
December 28, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007031/comparative-safety-and-effectiveness-of-serotonin-receptor-antagonists-in-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#17
Andrea C Tricco, Erik Blondal, Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Charlene Soobiah, Afshin Vafaei, John Ivory, Lisa Strifler, Roberta Cardoso, Emily Reynen, Vera Nincic, Huda Ashoor, Joanne Ho, Carmen Ng, Christy Johnson, Erin Lillie, Jesmin Antony, Derek J Roberts, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Sharon E Straus
BACKGROUND: Although serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonists are effective in reducing nausea and vomiting, they may be associated with increased cardiac risk. Our objective was to examine the comparative safety and effectiveness of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists (e.g., dolasetron, granisetron, ondansetron, palonosetron, tropisetron) alone or combined with steroids for patients undergoing chemotherapy. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception until December 2015 for studies comparing 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with each other or placebo in chemotherapy patients...
December 23, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002639/clinical-pharmacogenetics-implementation-consortium-cpic-guideline-for-cyp2d6-genotype-and-use-of-ondansetron-and-tropisetron
#18
Gillian C Bell, Kelly E Caudle, Michelle Whirl-Carrillo, Ronald J Gordon, Keiko Hikino, Cynthia A Prows, Andrea Gaedigk, Jose A G Agundez, Senthilkumar Sadhasivam, Teri E Klein, Matthias Schwab
5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3 ) receptor antagonists are used in the prevention of chemotherapy- induced, radiation-induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting. CYP2D6 polymorphisms can influence the metabolism of some of these drugs (i.e. ondansetron and tropisetron) thereby affecting drug efficacy. We summarize evidence from the published literature supporting these associations and provide therapeutic recommendations for ondansetron and tropisetron based on CYP2D6 genotype (updates at www.pharmgkb...
December 21, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002167/haloperidol-versus-ondansetron-for-treatment-of-established-nausea-and-vomiting-following-general-anesthesia-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Vanda G Yazbeck-Karam, Sahar M Siddik-Sayyid, Hanane B Barakat, Serge Korjian, Marie T Aouad
BACKGROUND: Haloperidol is an antipsychotic. At low doses, it is a useful agent for the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). However, its use for treating established PONV has not been well studied. METHODS: This randomized double-blinded trial tested whether haloperidol is noninferior to ondansetron for the early treatment of established PONV in adult patients undergoing general anesthesia. The primary outcome is whether patients were PONV free during the first 4 hours...
February 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988282/publishing-negative-findings-and-the-challenge-of-avoiding-type-ii-errors-in-studies-of-suspect-teratogens-example-of-a-recent-ondansetron-publication
#20
REVIEW
Stanley A Edlavitch
It is important that negative, as well as positive, studies be published to complete the available picture in areas of scientific inquiry. At the same time, it is critical that the implications of a negative study not be overstated and generalized when major issues of study design and data accuracy may be the reason that no relationship was discovered. The challenge of avoiding type II errors in interpreting negative findings has major public health implications, especially when the relationship of an exposure to birth defects is the concern...
December 15, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
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