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Inflammation epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918641/evaluation-of-the-biocompatibility-of-polypyrrole-implanted-subdurally-in-gaers
#1
Sebastien H Bauquier, Karen J McLean, Jonathan L Jiang, Ray C Boston, Alan Lai, Zhilian Yue, Simon E Moulton, Amy J Halliday, Gordon Wallace, Mark J Cook
This blinded controlled prospective randomized study investigates the biocompatibility of polypyrrole (PPy) polymer that will be used for intracranial triggered release of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Three by three millimeters PPy are implanted subdurally in six adult female genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg. Each rat has a polymer implanted on one side of the cortex and a sham craniotomy performed on the other side. After a period of seven weeks, rats are euthanized and parallel series of coronal sections are cut throughout the implant site...
December 5, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916232/neuroinflammation-in-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#2
REVIEW
Julie A Wixey, Kirat K Chand, Paul B Colditz, S Tracey Bjorkman
Disruption to the maternal environment during pregnancy from events such as hypoxia, stress, toxins, inflammation, and reduced placental blood flow can affect fetal development. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is commonly caused by chronic placental insufficiency, interrupting supply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus resulting in abnormal fetal growth. IUGR is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, occurring in approximately 5-10% of pregnancies. The fetal brain is particularly vulnerable in IUGR and there is an increased risk of long-term neurological disorders including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, learning difficulties, behavioural difficulties and psychiatric diagnoses...
November 25, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904472/clearing-the-corpses-regulatory-mechanisms-novel-tools-and-therapeutic-potential-of-harnessing-microglial-phagocytosis-in-the-diseased-brain
#3
REVIEW
Irune Diaz-Aparicio, Sol Beccari, Oihane Abiega, Amanda Sierra
Apoptosis is a widespread phenomenon that occurs in the brain in both physiological and pathological conditions. Dead cells must be quickly removed to avoid the further toxic effects they exert in the parenchyma, a process executed by microglia, the brain professional phagocytes. Although phagocytosis is critical to maintain tissue homeostasis, it has long been either overlooked or indirectly assessed based on microglial morphology, expression of classical activation markers, or engulfment of artificial phagocytic targets in vitro...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894304/brain-inflammation-is-accompanied-by-peripheral-inflammation-in-cstb-mice-a-model-for-progressive-myoclonus-epilepsy
#4
Olesya Okuneva, Zhilin Li, Inken Körber, Saara Tegelberg, Tarja Joensuu, Li Tian, Anna-Elina Lehesjoki
Progressive myoclonus epilepsy of Unverricht-Lundborg type (EPM1) is an autosomal recessively inherited childhood-onset neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by myoclonus, seizures, and ataxia. Mutations in the cystatin B gene (CSTB) underlie EPM1. The CSTB-deficient (Cstb (-/-) ) mouse model recapitulates key features of EPM1, including myoclonic seizures. The mice show early microglial activation that precedes seizure onset and neuronal loss and leads to neuroinflammation. We here characterized the inflammatory phenotype of Cstb (-/-) mice in more detail...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884611/microglial-positron-emission-tomography-pet-imaging-in-epilepsy-applications-opportunities-and-pitfalls
#5
Gregory Scott, Mohammad Mahmud, David R Owen, Michael R Johnson
Neuroinflammation is increasingly implicated in epileptogenesis and epilepsy. Microglia are an important mediator of central nervous system inflammation, and the development of positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands which bind the Translocator Protein (TSPO), an outer mitochondrial membrane protein expressed by microglia, has enabled in vivo measurement of neuroinflammation. Here, we outline the principles and potential pitfalls of TSPO PET imaging in relation to epilepsy, and opportunities for using TSPO imaging as a biomarker for future anti-inflammatory based therapeutics in epilepsy...
November 13, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883181/workshop-on-neurobiology-of-epilepsy-appraisal-imaging-biomarkers-in-epilepsy
#6
REVIEW
Erwin A van Vliet, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Andrew J Cole, Alon Friedman, Matthias J Koepp, Heidrun Potschka, Riikka Immonen, Asla Pitkänen, Paolo Federico
Neuroimaging offers a wide range of opportunities to obtain information about neuronal activity, brain inflammation, blood-brain barrier alterations, and various molecular alterations during epileptogenesis or for the prediction of pharmacoresponsiveness as well as postoperative outcome. Imaging biomarkers were examined during the XIII Workshop on Neurobiology of Epilepsy (XIII WONOEP) organized in 2015 by the Neurobiology Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Here we present an extended summary of the discussed issues and provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the biomarker potential of different neuroimaging approaches for epilepsy...
November 24, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881712/astrocytic-tlr4-at-the-crossroads-of-inflammation-and-seizure-susceptibility
#7
Christian Henneberger, Christian Steinhäuser
Astrocytes have been implicated in epilepsy development, but their contribution is under debate. In this issue, Shen et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201605046) demonstrate that early postnatal inflammatory stimuli activate toll-like receptor 4 signaling in astrocytes and promote excitatory synaptogenesis, thereby increasing seizure susceptibility in young and adult mice.
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876238/thermography-examination-of-abdominal-area-skin-temperatures-in-individuals-with-and-without-focal-onset-epilepsy
#8
Hollis H King, Charles Thomas Cayce, Jeph Herrin
: Early osteopathic theory and practice, and the work of the medical intuitive Edgar Cayce suggested that the abdominal areas of individuals with epilepsy would manifest "cold spots." The etiology for this phenomenon was thought to be abdominal adhesions caused by inflammation and viscero-somatic reflexes caused by adhesions or injury to visceral or musculoskeletal system structures. Indeed, until that advent of electroencephalography in the 1930s, medical practice regarding epilepsy focused on abdominal neural and visceral structures...
October 21, 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873133/altered-expression-of-cxcl13-and-cxcr5-in-intractable-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-and-pilocarpine-induced-epileptic-rats
#9
Ruohan Li, Limin Ma, Hao Huang, Shu Ou, Jinxian Yuan, Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Xi Liu, Juan Yang, Yangmei Chen, Xi Peng
The mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of epilepsy are still unclear. Recent studies have indicated that inflammatory processes occurring in the brain are involved in a common and crucial mechanism in epileptogenesis. C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) and its only receptor, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and participate in inflammatory responses. The present study aimed to assess the expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in the brain tissues of both patients with intractable epilepsy (IE) and a rat model (lithium-pilocarpine) of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to identify possible roles of the CXCL13-CXCR5 signaling pathway in epileptogenesis...
November 21, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836728/altered-gene-expression-profile-in-a-mouse-model-of-scn8a-encephalopathy
#10
Ryan S Sprissler, Jacy L Wagnon, Rosie K Bunton-Stasyshyn, Miriam H Meisler, Michael F Hammer
SCN8A encephalopathy is a severe, early-onset epilepsy disorder resulting from de novo gain-of-function mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.6. To identify the effects of this disorder on mRNA expression, RNA-seq was performed on brain tissue from a knock-in mouse expressing the patient mutation p.Asn1768Asp (N1768D). RNA was isolated from forebrain, cerebellum, and brainstem both before and after seizure onset, and from age-matched wildtype littermates. Altered transcript profiles were observed only in forebrain and only after seizures...
November 9, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784470/-autoimmune-inflammation-a-cause-of-epilepsy-to-which-attention-needs-to-be-paid
#11
L P Zou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784343/patterns-of-association-of-chronic-medical-conditions-and-major-depression
#12
S B Patten, J V A Williams, D H Lavorato, J L Wang, N Jetté, T T Sajobi, K M Fiest, A G M Bulloch
AIMS: Age and sex-related patterns of association between medical conditions and major depressive episodes (MDE) are important for understanding disease burden, anticipating clinical needs and for formulating etiological hypotheses. General population estimates are especially valuable because they are not distorted by help-seeking behaviours. However, even large population surveys often deliver inadequate precision to adequately describe such patterns. In this study, data from a set of national surveys were pooled to increase precision, supporting more precise characterisation of these associations...
October 27, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748849/gastrodin-ameliorates-subacute-phase-cerebral-ischemia%C3%A2-reperfusion-injury-by-inhibiting-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-rats
#13
Bo Liu, Fei Li, Jingshan Shi, Danli Yang, Yuanyuan Deng, Qihai Gong
Gastrodin (GAS), which is extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, has long been used to improve stroke, epilepsy, dizziness and dementia. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of GAS on subacute phase cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion (I/R) injury remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of GAS on cerebral I/R injury in rats. The rats were pretreated with GAS by gavage for 7 days followed by I/R surgery, and were then treated with GAS for 7 days after I/R surgery...
November 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737716/brain-region-and-epilepsy-associated-differences-in-inflammatory-mediator-levels-in-medically-refractory-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#14
Kenneth I Strauss, Kost V Elisevich
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy patients have distinct immune/inflammatory cell profiles and inflammatory mediator levels in the blood. Although the neural origin of inflammatory cells and mediators has been implied, few studies have measured these inflammatory components in the human brain itself. This study examines the brain levels of chemokines (8), cytokines (14), and vascular injury mediators (3) suspected of being altered in epilepsy. METHODS: Soluble protein extracts of fresh frozen resected hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and temporal cortex from 58 medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy subjects and 4 nonepileptic neurosurgical subjects were assayed for 25 inflammation-related mediators using ultrasensitive low-density arrays...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735051/restriction-spectrum-imaging-reveals-decreased-neurite-density-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Richard Q Loi, Kelly M Leyden, Akshara Balachandra, Vedang Uttarwar, Donald J Hagler, Brianna M Paul, Anders M Dale, Nathan S White, Carrie R McDonald
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become a popular tool for delineating the location and extent of white matter injury in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, DTI yields nonspecific measures that are confounded by changes occurring within both the intracellular and extracellular environments. This study investigated whether an advanced diffusion method, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) could provide a more robust measure of white matter injury in TLE relative to DTI due to RSI's ability to separate intraaxonal diffusion (i...
November 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710878/how-effective-is-the-ketogenic-diet-for-electrical-status-epilepticus-of-sleep
#16
REVIEW
Sarah Aminoff Kelley, Eric Heath Kossoff
Electrical status epilepticus of sleep (ESES), with the activation of profuse amounts of epileptiform discharges in sleep, may lead to intractable epilepsy and neurocognitive decline in children. Numerous varied treatments including antiseizure medications, steroids, and surgery have been investigated as possible treatment options. The ketogenic diet (KD) is an additional treatment option which may add to our treatment armamentarium for ESES. The KD may theoretically improve ESES by affecting GABA systems and reducing inflammation...
November 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695956/octreotide-ameliorates-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-acute-and-kindled-murine-ptz-paradigms
#17
M Y Al-Shorbagy, Noha N Nassar
In the present study, the role of octreotide (OCT) in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling as well as in acute convulsion models was evaluated. Mice were allocated in groups as (1) control saline; (2) acute PTZ (PTZ-a; 60 mg/kg, i.p.), as a single convulsive dose; and (3) kindled (PTZ-k) receiving nine subconvulsive doses of PTZ (40 mg/kg, i.p.) for 17 days. Groups 4-7 received either valproic acid (VPA) 50 mg/kg or OCT (50 μg/kg, Sandostatin®) 30 min by oral gavage before PTZ-a or PTZ-k. The median seizure stage, latency onset of first stage 4/5 seizures, and incidence of convulsing animals were recorded...
October 1, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692004/inflammatory-aspects-of-epileptogenesis-contribution-of-molecular-inflammatory-mechanisms
#18
Feyza Alyu, Miriş Dikmen
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease characterised with seizures. The aetiology of the most generalised epilepsies cannot be explicitly determined and the seizures are pronounced to be genetically determined by disturbances of receptors in central nervous system. Besides, neurotransmitter distributions or other metabolic problems are supposed to involve in epileptogenesis. Lack of adequate data about pharmacological agents that have antiepileptogenic effects point to need of research on this field...
October 3, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667783/comparison-of-feline-brain-anatomy-in-0-25-and-3%C3%A2-tesla-magnetic-resonance-images
#19
P Przyborowska, Z Adamiak, P Holak, Y Zhalniarovich
The intention of the comparison of both low and high field was to examine which anatomical brain structures of cats were visible on low field images, as in clinical veterinary practice, 3 Tesla (T) magnets were of limited availability. The research was performed on 20 European short-haired male and female cats, aged 1-3 years, with body weight of 2-4 kg. 0.25 T magnetic resonance images of neurocranium were acquired in all using T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences with repetition time (TR) of 4010 ms and echo time (TE) of 90 ms in dorsal and transverse plane, and T2-weighted fast spine echo sequences with TR of 4290 ms and TE of 120 ms in sagittal plane...
September 25, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601660/infiltrating-monocytes-promote-brain-inflammation-and-exacerbate-neuronal-damage-after-status-epilepticus
#20
Nicholas H Varvel, Jonas J Neher, Andrea Bosch, Wenyi Wang, Richard M Ransohoff, Richard J Miller, Raymond Dingledine
The generalized seizures of status epilepticus (SE) trigger a series of molecular and cellular events that produce cognitive deficits and can culminate in the development of epilepsy. Known early events include opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and astrocytosis accompanied by activation of brain microglia. Whereas circulating monocytes do not infiltrate the healthy CNS, monocytes can enter the brain in response to injury and contribute to the immune response. We examined the cellular components of innate immune inflammation in the days following SE by discriminating microglia vs...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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