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Inflammation epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053743/in-vitro-modeling-of-experimental-succinic-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-deficiency-ssadhd-using-brain-derived-neural-stem-cells
#1
Kara R Vogel, Garrett R Ainslie, Erwin E Jansen, Gajja S Salomons, Jean-Baptiste Roullet, K Michael Gibson
We explored the utility of neural stem cells (NSCs) as an in vitro model for evaluating preclinical therapeutics in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase-deficient (SSADHD) mice. NSCs were obtained from aldh5a1+/+ and aldh5a1-/- mice (aldh5a1 = aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 = SSADH). Multiple parameters were evaluated including: (1) production of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyrate), the biochemical hallmark of SSADHD; (2) rescue from cell death with the dual mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibitor, XL-765, an agent previously shown to rescue aldh5a1-/- mice from premature lethality; (3) mitochondrial number, total reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial superoxide production, all previously documented as abnormal in aldh5a1-/- mice; (4) total ATP levels and ATP consumption; and (5) selected gene expression profiles associated with epilepsy, a prominent feature in both experimental and human SSADHD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052569/analysis-of-the-expression-of-angioarchitecture-related-factors-in-patients-with-cerebral-arteriovenous-malformation
#2
Guang-Zhong Chen, Yu Ke, Kun Qin, Meng-Qi Dong, Shao-Jian Zeng, Xiao-Feng Lin, Sheng-Quan Zhan, Kai Tang, Chao Peng, Xiao-Wen Ding, Dong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (cAVM) is a type of vascular malformation associated with vascular remodeling, hemodynamic imbalance, and inflammation. We detected four angioarchitecture-related cytokines to make a better understanding of the potential aberrant signaling in the pathogenesis of cAVM and found useful proteins in predicting the risk of cerebral hemorrhage. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis was conducted on specimens from twenty patients with cAVM diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography and twenty primary epilepsy controls using antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)...
October 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042524/-autoimmune-and-epilepsy
#3
Riki Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro Sakamoto, Akio Ikeda
The recent discovery of autoimmune antibodies to the neuronal cell surface membrane and extra- or intra-cellular proteins, such as NMDAR and LGI1, shed light on a proposed new etiology of epilepsy, namely, "autoimmune epilepsy". A large part of this entity most likely belongs to a forme fruste of autoimmune (limbic) encephalitis. Seizures are usually subacute in onset and refractory to antiepileptic medications. Patients occasionally manifest multiple seizure semiologies, such as autonomic or faciobrachial dystonic seizures...
October 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034952/viscum-articulatum-burm-f-a-review-on-its-phytochemistry-pharmacology-and-traditional-uses
#4
REVIEW
Bhishma P Patel, Pawan K Singh
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review and highlight traditional and ethnobotanical uses, phytochemical constituents, IP status, biological activity and pharmacological activity of Viscum articulatum. METHODS: Thorough literature searches were performed on Viscum articulatum, and data were analysed for reported traditional uses, pharmacological activity, phytochemicals present and patents filed. Scientific and patent databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Google patents, USPTO and Espacenet were searched using different keywords...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032011/sitagliptin-enhances-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-pregabalin-against-pentylenetetrazole-induced-acute-epileptogenesis-in-mice-implication-of-oxidative-inflammatory-apoptotic-and-autophagy-pathways
#5
Manar A Nader, Hayam Ateyya, Mohamed El-Shafey, Nagla A El-Sherbeeny
The current investigation aimed at studying the anti-epileptogenic effect of sitagliptin. The possible effect of the drug in combination with pregabalin in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- induced seizures was studied. In addition, the postulated mechanisms that could mediate such effect were explored namely, suppression of oxidative stress and neuro-inflammatory markers, autophagy and apoptosis. Seven days prior to PTZ (60 mg/kg, sc) injection, mice were treated with sitagliptin (5, 15, and 60 mg/kg, twice daily, orally) or pregabalin (30 mg/kg, once daily, orally) or their combination...
October 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987196/overview-of-neuroradiology
#6
Elna-Marie Larsson, Johan Wikström
Neuroradiology with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is essential for the initial evaluation of patients with a clinical suspicion of brain and spine disorders. Morphologic imaging is required to obtain a probable diagnosis to support the treatment decisions in pre- and perinatal disorders, vascular diseases, traumatic injuries, metabolic disorders, epilepsy, infection/inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, degenerative spinal disease, and tumors of the central nervous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977690/neuroinflammatory-pathways-as-treatment-targets-and-biomarker-candidates-in%C3%A2-epilepsy-emerging-evidence-from-preclinical-and-clinical-studies
#7
Erwin A van Vliet, Eleonora Aronica, Annamaria Vezzani, Teresa Ravizza
Accumulating evidence indicates an important pathophysiological role of brain inflammation in epilepsy. In this review, we will provide an update of specific inflammatory pathways that have been proposed to be crucial in the underlying molecular mechanisms of epilepsy, including the interleukin-1 receptor/toll-like receptor signaling, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, complement signaling and chemokines. Furthermore, by drawing on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies we will discuss the potential of these signaling pathways targets for novel therapeutic interventions that control drug-resistant seizures or have disease-modifying effects...
October 4, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967695/intravenous-immunoglobulin-for-the-treatment-of-childhood-encephalitis
#8
REVIEW
Mildred A Iro, Natalie G Martin, Michael Absoud, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: Encephalitis is a syndrome of neurological dysfunction due to inflammation of the brain parenchyma, caused by an infection or an exaggerated host immune response, or both. Attenuation of brain inflammation through modulation of the immune response could improve patient outcomes. Biological agents such as immunoglobulin that have both anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties may therefore be useful as adjunctive therapies for people with encephalitis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) as add-on treatment for children with encephalitis...
October 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965622/chronic-inflammation-in-refractory-hippocampal-sclerosis-related-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
REVIEW
Jordan M Gales, Richard A Prayson
Emerging evidence suggests chronic inflammation may play a role in hippocampal sclerosis-associated temporal lobe epilepsy. We sought to systematically evaluate for its presence in a group of 315 patients who underwent surgery for medically-refractory epilepsy and who had hippocampal sclerosis. Upon histologic review of hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections, 95 (41%) cases demonstrated the presence of lymphocytes within the perivascular region and diffusely within the brain parenchyma. Those cases with chronic inflammation evident on hematoxylin and eosin staining were significantly more likely to experience a post-operative seizure recurrence than those without it (p=0...
October 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965226/soluble-fas-faslare-elevated-in-the-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-neurocysticercosis
#10
Xiaohua Chen, Xuan Yu, Yipeng Wang, Jiankui Zhu, Junchao Gu
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taeniasolium is one of the most common parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. Inflammation and apoptosis are two main responses involved in NCC pathogenesis. We aimed to examine apoptosis by the TUNEL assay and apoptosis-associated sFas and sFasL levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of patients with NCC. Brain biopsy (n = 1), CSF (n = 14), and serum (n = 36) of patients with NCC and uninfected controls (n = 14 and 24 for CSF and serum, respectively) were collected together with clinical data...
September 30, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960670/long-term-effects-of-anterior-thalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-on-spatial-learning-in-the-pilocarpine-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Elenn Soares Ferreira, Laís Gabrielle Vieira, Daniela Macedo Moraes, Beatriz O Amorim, Jackeline Moraes Malheiros, Clement Hamani, Luciene Covolan
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment is a significant comorbidity of temporal lobe epilepsy that is associated with extensive hippocampal cell loss. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior thalamic nucleus (ANT) has been used for the treatment of refractory partial seizures. In the pilocarpine model of epilepsy, ANT DBS applied during status epilepticus (SE) reduces hippocampal inflammation and apoptosis. When given to chronic epileptic animals it reduces hippocampal excitability and seizure frequency...
September 28, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950818/inflammation-and-epilepsy-preclinical-findings-and-potential-clinical-translation
#12
Gaetano Terrone, Alessia Salamone, Annamaria Vezzani
BACKGROUND: The lack of treatments which can prevent epilepsy development or improve disease prognosis represents an unmet and urgent clinical need. The development of such drugs requires a deep understanding of the mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis. In the last decade, preclinical studies in models of acute seizures and of chronic epilepsy highlighted that neuroinflammation arising in brain areas of seizure onset and generalization is a key contributor to neuronal hyper-excitability underlying seizure generation...
September 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941881/historical-evolution-of-ideas-on-eclampsia-preeclampsia-a-proposed-optimistic-view-of-preeclampsia
#13
Pierre-Yves Robillard, Gustaaf Dekker, Gérard Chaouat, Marco Scioscia, Silvia Iacobelli, Thomas C Hulsey
Eclampsia (together with epilepsy) being the first disease ever written down since the beginning of writings in mankind 5000 years ago, we will make a brief presentation of the different major steps in comprehension of Pre-eclampsia. 1) 1840. Rayer, description of proteinuria in eclampsia, 2) 1897 Vaquez, discovery of gestational hypertension in eclamptic women, 3) In the 1970's, description of the "double" trophoblastic invasion existing only in humans (Brosens & Pijnenborg,), 4) between the 1970's and the 1990's, description of preeclampsia being a couple disease...
September 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923528/arterial-spin-labeling-hyperperfusion-in-rasmussen-s-encephalitis-is-it-due-to-focal-brain-inflammation-or-a-postictal-phenomenon
#14
Savith Kumar, Chinmay P Nagesh, Bejoy Thomas, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Ramshekhar N Menon, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The study evaluated the utility of arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging in Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The hospital electronic database was searched using the search words "encephalitis," "autoimmune encephalitis" and "Rasmussen's encephalitis" for the period of 1 Jan 2015 to 31 Jan 2017. Clinically diagnosed cases of RE for which epilepsy protocol magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with perfusion imaging (ASL) performed on a 3T scanner were retrieved...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912503/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-mirnas-in-experimental-and-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
A Korotkov, J D Mills, J A Gorter, E A van Vliet, E Aronica
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common chronic neurological disease in humans. A number of studies have demonstrated differential expression of miRNAs in the hippocampus of humans with TLE and in animal models of experimental epilepsy. However, the dissimilarities in experimental design have led to largely discordant results across these studies. Thus, a comprehensive comparison is required in order to better characterize miRNA profiles obtained in various post-status epilepticus (SE) models. We therefore created a database and performed a meta-analysis of differentially expressed miRNAs across 3 post-SE models of epileptogenesis (electrical stimulation, pilocarpine and kainic acid) and human TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS)...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894435/neuroactive-steroids-receptor-interactions-and-responses
#16
REVIEW
Kald Beshir Tuem, Tesfay Mehari Atey
Neuroactive steroids (NASs) are naturally occurring steroids, which are synthesized centrally as de novo from cholesterol and are classified as pregnane, androstane, and sulfated neurosteroids (NSs). NASs modulate many processes via interacting with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), N-methyl-d-aspartate, serotonin, voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-dependent anion channels, α-adrenoreceptors, X-receptors of the liver, transient receptor potential channels, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurotrophin nerve growth factor, and σ1 receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888969/mtor-related-neuropathology-in-mutant-tsc2-zebrafish-phenotypic-transcriptomic-and-pharmacological-analysis
#17
Chloë Scheldeman, James D Mills, Aleksandra Siekierska, Ines Serra, Daniëlle Copmans, Anand M Iyer, Benjamin J Whalley, Jan Maes, Anna C Jansen, Lieven Lagae, Eleonora Aronica, Peter A M de Witte
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare, genetic disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2. Patients with TSC are neurologically characterized by the presence of abnormal brain structure, intractable epilepsy and TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders. Given the lack of effective long-term treatments for TSC, there is a need to gain greater insight into TSC-related pathophysiology and to identify and develop new treatments. In this work we show that homozygous tsc2(-/-) mutant zebrafish larvae, but not tsc2(+/-) and WT larvae, display enlarged brains, reduced locomotor behavior and epileptiform discharges at 7dpf...
September 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865097/suspected-phenobarbital-induced-pseudolymphoma-in-a-dog
#18
R Lampe, J Manens, N Sharp
Pseudolymphoma is a drug reaction to anti-epileptics that is well recognized in humans; it has been reported in one cat but not dogs. In this report, lymphoma-like clinical signs are suspected to be secondary to phenobarbital administration in a dog. A 2.5-year-old male, neutered Shepherd mix presented for a 3-day history of progressive ataxia, dazed mentation, pyrexia, and lethargy. While hospitalized, the dog developed generalized lymphadenopathy and sustained pyrexia. The dog was receiving levetiracetam and phenobarbital for epilepsy, and serum concentrations of both were within standard therapeutic ranges...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862995/intracranial-eeg-fluctuates-over-months-after-implanting-electrodes-in-human-brain
#19
Hoameng Ung, Steven N Baldassano, Hank Bink, Abba M Krieger, Shawniqua Williams, Flavia Vitale, Chengyuan Wu, Dean Freestone, Ewan Nurse, Kent Leyde, Kathryn A Davis, Mark Cook, Brian Litt
OBJECTIVE: Implanting subdural and penetrating electrodes in the brain causes acute trauma and inflammation that affect intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) recordings. This behavior and its potential impact on clinical decision-making and algorithms for implanted devices have not been assessed in detail. In this study we aim to characterize the temporal and spatial variability of continuous, prolonged human iEEG recordings. APPROACH: Intracranial electroencephalography from 15 patients with drug-refractory epilepsy, each implanted with 16 subdural electrodes and continuously monitored for an average of 18 months, was included in this study...
October 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856625/inhibition-of-p2x7-receptor-ameliorates-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-mediated-neuroinflammation-induced-by-status-epilepticus-in-rat-hippocampus
#20
Cheng Huang, Xiao-Sa Chi, Rui Li, Xin Hu, Hai-Xia Xu, Jin-Mei Li, Dong Zhou
P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has been reported participating in neuroinflammation in multiple neurological diseases. We explored the role of P2X7R in a rat status epilepticus (SE) model induced by coriaria lactone (CL) and its association with neuroinflammation. Thirty minutes after intracerebroventricular infusion with P2X7R antagonists Brilliant blue G (BBG), A-438079, A-740003, or agonists 2',3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP), SE was induced by intramuscular injection of CL in Sprague-Dawley rats...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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