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Inflammation epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909236/antiepileptic-drugs-as-analgesics-adjuvants-in-inflammatory-pain-current-preclinical-evidence
#1
REVIEW
Tomić Maja, Pecikoza Uroš, Micov Ana, Vučković Sonja, Stepanović-Petrović Radica
Inflammatory pain is the most common type of pain that is treated clinically. The use of currently available treatments (classic analgesics - NSAIDs, paracetamol and opioids) is limited by insufficient efficacy and/or side effects/tolerance development. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are widely used in neuropathic pain treatment, but there is substantial preclinical evidence on their efficacy against inflammatory pain, too. In this review we focus on gabapentinoids (gabapentin and pregabalin) and dibenzazepine AEDs (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and recently introduced eslicarbazepine acetate) and their potential for relieving inflammatory pain...
June 15, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883923/cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-related-inflammation-with-epilepsy-mimicking-a-presentation-of-brain-tumor-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Kosuke Kusakabe, Akihiro Inoue, Shirabe Matsumoto, Mie Kurata, Riko Kitazawa, Hideaki Watanabe, Takeharu Kunieda
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri), a rare and treatable variant of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, lacks specific imaging and clinical features, and requires invasive brain biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) caused by CAA-ri in the right occipital lobe. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 78-year-old man with a history of hypertension and rheumatoid arthritis was admitted to our hospital following an episode of seizures...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875629/rna-editing-and-retrotransposons-in-neurology
#3
REVIEW
Heinz Krestel, Jochen C Meier
Compared to sites in protein-coding sequences many more targets undergoing adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing were discovered in non-coding regions of human cerebral transcripts, particularly in genetic transposable elements called retrotransposons. We review here the interaction mechanisms of RNA editing and retrotransposons and their impact on normal function and human neurological diseases. Exemplarily, A-to-I editing of retrotransposons embedded in protein-coding mRNAs can contribute to protein abundance and function via circular RNA formation, alternative splicing, and exonization or silencing of retrotransposons...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872270/pharmacological-activities-mechanisms-of-action-and-safety-of-salidroside-in-the-central-nervous-system
#4
REVIEW
Zhifeng Zhong, Jing Han, Jizhou Zhang, Qing Xiao, Juan Hu, Lidian Chen
The primary objective of this review article was to summarize comprehensive information related to the neuropharmacological activity, mechanisms of action, toxicity, and safety of salidroside in medicine. A number of studies have revealed that salidroside exhibits neuroprotective activities, including anti-Alzheimer's disease, anti-Parkinson's disease, anti-Huntington's disease, anti-stroke, anti-depressive effects, and anti-traumatic brain injury; it is also useful for improving cognitive function, treating addiction, and preventing epilepsy...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867355/histological-characterization-of-the-irritative-zones-in-focal-cortical-dysplasia-using-a-preclinical-rat-model
#5
Abhay Deshmukh, Jared Leichner, Jihye Bae, Yinchen Song, Pedro A Valdés-Hernández, Wei-Chiang Lin, Jorge J Riera
Current clinical practice in focal epilepsy involves brain source imaging (BSI) to localize brain areas where from interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) emerge. These areas, named irritative zones , have been useful to define candidate seizures-onset zones during pre-surgical workup. Since human histological data are mostly available from final resected zones, systematic studies characterizing pathophysiological mechanisms and abnormal molecular/cellular substrates in irritative zones-independent of them being epileptogenic-are challenging...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858515/comorbid-epilepsy-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-implications-of-postnatal-inflammation-for-brain-excitability
#6
Megan Leigh Lewis, Mitchell Kesler, Sydney A Candy, Jong M Rho, Quentin J Pittman
OBJECTIVE: In different cohorts, 5%-30% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) also have epilepsy. The high co-occurrence of these disorders suggests that a common mechanistic link may exist. The underlying pathophysiology of this comorbidity remains unknown. To investigate the mechanism(s) involved in the pathogenesis of ASD and epilepsy, we developed and validated a novel mouse model that concurrently exhibits hallmark features of both disorders. METHODS: We utilized inbred BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice that exhibit the core behavioral characteristics of ASD (ie, impaired sociability, altered vocalizations, and restricted interests)...
June 2, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844694/a-review-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-as-a-therapeutic-intervention
#7
REVIEW
Rhaya L Johnson, Christopher G Wilson
In this review, we provide an overview of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved clinical uses of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) as well as information about the ongoing studies and preclinical research to expand the use of VNS to additional applications. VNS is currently FDA approved for therapeutic use in patients aged >12 years with drug-resistant epilepsy and depression. Recent studies of VNS in in vivo systems have shown that it has anti-inflammatory properties which has led to more preclinical research aimed at expanding VNS treatment across a wider range of inflammatory disorders...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29805804/potential-synergies-of-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-and-butyrate-on-the-modulation-of-metabolism-inflammation-cognition-and-general-health
#8
REVIEW
Franco Cavaleri, Emran Bashar
The low-carbohydrate high-fat diet (LCHFD), also known as the ketogenic diet, has cycled in and out of popularity for decades as a therapeutic program to treat metabolic syndrome, weight mismanagement, and drug-resistant disorders as complex as epilepsy, cancer, dementia, and depression. Despite the benefits of this diet, health care professionals still question its safety due to the elevated serum ketones it induces and the limited dietary fiber. To compound the controversy, patient compliance with the program is poor due to the restrictive nature of the diet and symptoms related to energy deficit and gastrointestinal adversity during the introductory and energy substrate transition phase of the diet...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793313/therapeutic-effects-of-scoparone-on-pilocarpine-pilo-induced-seizures-in-mice
#9
Jie Xia, Cheng-Yan Li, Hui Wang, Qi-Mei Zhang, Zhong-Mou Han
Epilepsy is a common and devastating neurological disorder. Inflammatory processes and apoptosis in brain tissue have been reported in human epilepsy. Scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) is an important chemical substance, which has multiple beneficial activities, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties. In our present study, we attempted to investigate if scoparone could attenuate seizures-induced blood brain barrier breakdown, inflammation and apoptosis. Pilocarpine (Pilo) and methylscopolamine were used to establish acute seizure animal model...
January 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776417/sinomenine-exerts-anticonvulsant-profile-and-neuroprotective-activity-in-pentylenetetrazole-kindled-rats-involvement-of-inhibition-of-nlrp1-inflammasome
#10
Bo Gao, Yu Wu, Yuan-Jian Yang, Wei-Zu Li, Kun Dong, Jun Zhou, Yan-Yan Yin, Da-Ke Huang, Wen-Ning Wu
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder and is not well controlled by available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Inflammation is considered to be a critical factor in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Sinomenine (SN), a bioactive alkaloid with anti-inflammatory effect, exerts neuroprotective activity in many nervous system diseases. However, little is known about the effect of SN on epilepsy. METHODS: The chronic epilepsy model was established by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766039/beneficial-outcome-of-urethane-treatment-following-status-epilepticus-in-a-rat-organophosphorus-toxicity-model
#11
Asheebo Rojas, Wenyi Wang, Avery Glover, Zahra Manji, Yujiao Fu, Raymond Dingledine
The efficacy of benzodiazepines to terminate electrographic status epilepticus (SE) declines the longer a patient is in SE. Therefore, alternative methods for ensuring complete block of SE and refractory SE are necessary. We compared the ability of diazepam and a subanesthetic dose of urethane to terminate prolonged SE and mitigate subsequent pathologies. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were injected with diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) to induce SE. Rats were administered diazepam (10 mg/kg, ip) or urethane (0...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765321/brain-lipopolysaccharide-preconditioning-induced-gene-reprogramming-mediates-a-tolerance-state-in-electroconvulsive-shock-model-of-epilepsy
#12
Elham Amini, Mojtaba Golpich, Abdoreza S Farjam, Behnam Kamalidehghan, Zahurin Mohamed, Norlinah M Ibrahim, Abolhassan Ahmadiani, Azman A Raymond
There is increasing evidence pointing toward the role of inflammatory processes in epileptic seizures, and reciprocally, prolonged seizures induce more inflammation in the brain. In this regard, effective strategies to control epilepsy resulting from neuroinflammation could be targeted. Based on the available data, preconditioning (PC) with low dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through the regulation of the TLR4 signaling pathway provides neuroprotection against subsequent challenge with injury in the brain. To test this, we examined the effects of a single and chronic brain LPS PC, which is expected to lead to reduction of inflammation against epileptic seizures induced by electroconvulsive shock (ECS)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764485/the-role-of-inflammation-in-the-development-of-epilepsy
#13
REVIEW
Amna Rana, Alberto E Musto
Epilepsy, a neurological disease characterized by recurrent seizures, is often associated with a history of previous lesions in the nervous system. Impaired regulation of the activation and resolution of inflammatory cells and molecules in the injured neuronal tissue is a critical factor to the development of epilepsy. However, it is still unclear as to how that unbalanced regulation of inflammation contributes to epilepsy. Therefore, one of the goals in epilepsy research is to identify and elucidate the interconnected inflammatory pathways in systemic and neurological disorders that may further develop epilepsy progression...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743967/neuropharmacological-potential-and-delivery-prospects-of-thymoquinone-for-neurological-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Md Jakaria, Duk-Yeon Cho, Md Ezazul Haque, Govindarajan Karthivashan, In-Su Kim, Palanivel Ganesan, Dong-Kug Choi
Thymoquinone (TQ) is an active ingredient isolated from Nigella sativa and has various pharmacological activities, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, and infections. In addition, it might be a potential neuropharmacological agent because it exhibits versatile potential for attenuating neurological impairments. It features greater beneficial effects in toxin-induced neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity. In various models of neurological disorders, it demonstrates emergent functions, including safeguarding various neurodegenerative diseases and other neurological diseases, such as stroke, schizophrenia, and epilepsy...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737480/notch-signaling-regulates-microglial-activation-and-inflammatory-reactions-in-a-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Lei Wu, Yushuang Li, Minhua Yu, Fei Yang, Mengqi Tu, Haibo Xu
The inflammatory response mediated by microglia in the central nervous system is closely related to epilepsy. Notch signaling plays an important role in the microglial activation during hypoxia. This study aimed to investigate whether Notch signaling is involved in microglial activation and subsequent inflammation-related neuronal injury during the process of epileptogenesis in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. By using western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence labeling, we found that the expression of Notch signaling increased after status epilepticus and that a γ-secretase inhibitor could significantly inhibit the upregulation of Notch signaling, the activation of microglia, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines...
May 8, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702408/dysregulated-long-non-coding-rnas-in-the-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-mouse-model
#16
Yoonhyuk Jang, Jangsup Moon, Soon-Tae Lee, Jin-Sun Jun, Tae-Joon Kim, Jung-Ah Lim, Byeong-Su Park, Jung-Suk Yu, Dong-Kyu Park, Ah Reaum Yang, Kyung-Ii Park, Ki-Young Jung, Manho Kim, Keun-Hwa Jung, Daejong Jeon, Kon Chu, Sang Kun Lee
PURPOSE: To perform comprehensive profiling of long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) in temporal lobe epilepsy. METHODS: We performed extensive profiling of LncRNAs and mRNAs in the mouse pilocarpine model in specific brain regions, the hippocampus and cortex, and compared the results to those of the control mouse. Differentially expressed LncRNAs and mRNAs were identified with a microarray analysis (Arraystar Mouse LncRNA Expression Microarray V3.0). Then, gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis were performed to investigate the potential roles of the differentially expressed mRNAs in the pilocarpine model...
April 13, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700828/therapeutic-potential-to-reduce-brain-injury-in-growth-restricted-newborns
#17
Julie A Wixey, Kirat K Chand, Lily Pham, Paul B Colditz, S Tracey Bjorkman
Brain injury in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) infants is a major contributing factor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Adverse outcomes range from mild learning difficulties, to attention difficulties, neurobehavioral issues, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and other cognitive and psychiatric disorders. While the use of medication to ameliorate neurological deficits in IUGR neonates have been identified as warranting urgent research for several years, few trials have been reported. This review summarises clinical trials focusing on brain protection in the IUGR newborn as well as therapeutic interventions trialled in animal models of IUGR...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673722/density-spectral-array-of-bis-vista%C3%A2-monitoring-system-in-a-functional-hemispherectomy
#18
C Luis, E Vilà, L Moltó, A Pardo, J L Fernández Candila, S Pacreu
We present the case of an adult patient with drug-resistant epilepsy caused by extensive inflammation in the right cerebral hemisphere. She was scheduled to undergo right functional hemispherectomy, which is common in pediatric surgery, but about which few studies have been published with respect to adult patients. During the intraoperative period, the density spectral array of the bilateral bispectral index (BIS) VISTATM monitoring system was used. We observed a power increase in low frequency (0.1-4Hz) and alpha bands (8-12Hz) in the right hemisphere, where the epileptogenic focus was...
April 16, 2018: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672844/longitudinal-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-glial-cell-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-toward-identification-of-optimal-treatment-windows
#19
Duc-Loc Nguyen, Catriona Wimberley, Charles Truillet, Benoit Jego, Fabien Caillé, Géraldine Pottier, Raphaël Boisgard, Irène Buvat, Viviane Bouilleret
OBJECTIVE: Mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy is the most common type of drug-resistant partial epilepsy, with a specific history that often begins with status epilepticus due to various neurological insults followed by a silent period. During this period, before the first seizure occurs, a specific lesion develops, described as unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS). It is still challenging to determine which drugs, administered at which time point, will be most effective during the formation of this epileptic process...
June 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653194/chronic-agomelatine-treatment-prevents-comorbid-depression-in-the-post-status-epilepticus-model-of-acquired-epilepsy-through-suppression-of-inflammatory-signaling
#20
Jana Tchekalarova, Dimitrinka Atanasova, Lidia Kortenska, Milena Atanasova, Nikolai Lazarov
Inflammatory signal molecules are suggested to be involved in the mechanism underlying comorbid depression in epilepsy. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the novel antidepressant agomelatine, a potent melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and serotonin 5HT2C receptor antagonist, can prevent depressive symptoms developed during the chronic epileptic phase by suppressing an inflammatory response. Chronic treatment with agomelatine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) was initiated an hour after the kainate acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) and maintained for a period of 10 weeks in Wistar rats...
July 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
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