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Inflammation epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632329/postictal-hypoperfusion-hypoxia-provides-the-foundation-for-a-unified-theory-of-seizure-induced-brain-abnormalities-and-behavioral-dysfunction
#1
REVIEW
Jordan S Farrell, Roberto Colangeli, Marshal D Wolff, Alexandra K Wall, Thomas J Phillips, Antis George, Paolo Federico, G Campbell Teskey
A recent article by Farrell et al. characterizes the phenomenon, mechanisms, and treatment of a local and severe hypoperfusion/hypoxia event that occurs in brain regions following a focal seizure. Given the well-established role of cerebral ischemia/hypoxia in brain damage and behavioral dysfunction in other clinical settings (e.g., stroke, cerebral vasospasm), we put forward a new theory: postictal hypoperfusion/hypoxia is responsible for the negative consequences associated with seizures. Fortunately, inhibition of two separate molecular targets, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and l-type calcium channels, can prevent the expression of postictal hypoperfusion/hypoxia...
June 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623167/the-ketogenic-diet-affects-the-social-behavior-of-young-male-rats
#2
Daniela Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz D Liśkiewicz, Marta M Nowacka-Chmielewska, Joanna Nowicka, Andrzej Małecki, Jarosław J Barski
The positive effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on social behavior have been recently reported in patients and rodent models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Given the beneficial effects of the KD on epilepsy, mitochondrial function, carbohydrate metabolism, and inflammation, treatment based on the KD has the potential to reduce some of the ASD-associated symptoms, including abnormal social interactions. It is not known whether the KD influences sociability by reducing the pathological processes underlying ASD or through some independent mechanism...
June 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620379/neuroimmune-interactions-in-schizophrenia-focus-on-vagus-nerve-stimulation-and-activation-of-the-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#3
REVIEW
Fabiana Maria das Graças Corsi-Zuelli, Fernanda Brognara, Gustavo Fernando da Silva Quirino, Carlos Hiroji Hiroki, Rafael Sobrano Fais, Cristina Marta Del-Ben, Luis Ulloa, Helio Cesar Salgado, Alexandre Kanashiro, Camila Marcelino Loureiro
Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders and is aggravated by the lack of efficacious treatment. Although its etiology is unclear, epidemiological studies indicate that infection and inflammation during development induces behavioral, morphological, neurochemical, and cognitive impairments, increasing the risk of developing schizophrenia. The inflammatory hypothesis of schizophrenia is also supported by clinical studies demonstrating systemic inflammation and microglia activation in schizophrenic patients...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607533/cysteinyl-leukotrienes-as-potential-pharmacological-targets-for-cerebral-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Paolo Gelosa, Francesca Colazzo, Elena Tremoli, Luigi Sironi, Laura Castiglioni
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent lipid mediators widely known for their actions in asthma and in allergic rhinitis. Accumulating data highlights their involvement in a broader range of inflammation-associated diseases such as cancer, atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cardiovascular diseases. The reported elevated levels of CysLTs in acute and chronic brain lesions, the association between the genetic polymorphisms in the LTs biosynthesis pathways and the risk of cerebral pathological events, and the evidence from animal models link also CysLTs and brain diseases...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607431/cerebrospinal-fluid-micrornas-are-potential-biomarkers-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-status-epilepticus
#5
Rana Raoof, Eva M Jimenez-Mateos, Sebastian Bauer, Björn Tackenberg, Felix Rosenow, Johannes Lang, Müjgan Dogan Onugoren, Hajo Hamer, Tessa Huchtemann, Peter Körtvélyessy, Niamh M C Connolly, Shona Pfeiffer, Jochen H M Prehn, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, David C Henshall, Catherine Mooney
There is a need for diagnostic biomarkers of epilepsy and status epilepticus to support clinical examination, electroencephalography and neuroimaging. Extracellular microRNAs may be potentially ideal biomarkers since some are expressed uniquely within specific brain regions and cell types. Cerebrospinal fluid offers a source of microRNA biomarkers with the advantage of being in close contact with the target tissue and sites of pathology. Here we profiled microRNA levels in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy or status epilepticus, and compared findings to matched controls...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606690/antiparasitic-treatment-of-neurocysticercosis-the-effect-of-cyst-destruction-in-seizure-evolution
#6
REVIEW
Hector H Garcia, Oscar H Del Brutto
Antiparasitic agents against Taenia solium cysticercosis have been in use since 1979, although its use has been questioned on the basis that cysts would die naturally and thus treatment-induced inflammation is unnecessary. In addition, isolated reports have also questioned whether neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a cause of epilepsy. After more than three and a half decades, a large body of evidence is available. Little if any doubt exists about NCC as a cause of seizures - NCC is consistently associated with seizures when appropriate groups are compared, and in a large subset of cases, seizure semiology correlates with the anatomical location of lesions...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597918/inflammation-in-the-developing-rat-modulates-astroglial-reactivity-to-seizures-in-the-mature-brain
#7
Zuzanna Setkowicz, Emilia Kosonowska, Krzysztof Janeczko
Astrocytes participate in neuronal development and excitability, and produce factors enhancing or suppressing inflammatory processes occurring due to neurodegenerative diseases, such as epilepsy. Seizures, in turn, trigger the release of inflammatory mediators, causing structural and functional changes in the brain. Therefore, it appears reasonable to determine whether generalized inflammation at developmental periods can affect astrocyte reactivity to epileptic seizures occurring in the adult brain. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected in 6- or 30-day-old rats (P6 or P30, respectively)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579059/neuroketotherapeutics-a-modern-review-of-a-century-old-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Scott J Koppel, Russell H Swerdlow
Neuroketotherapeutics represent a class of bioenergetic medicine therapies that feature the induction of ketosis. These therapies include medium-chain triglyceride supplements, ketone esters, fasting, strenuous exercise, the modified Atkins diet, and the classic ketogenic diet. Extended experience reveals persons with epilepsy, especially pediatric epilepsy, benefit from ketogenic diets although the mechanisms that underlie its effects remain unclear. Data indicate ketotherapeutics enhance mitochondrial respiration, promote neuronal long-term potentiation, increase BDNF expression, increase GPR signaling, attenuate oxidative stress, reduce inflammation, and alter protein post-translational modifications via lysine acetylation and β-hydroxybutyrylation...
June 1, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576733/neuronal-zinc-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-is-decreased-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-patients-and-rats
#9
Ying Liu, Teng Wang, Xi Liu, Xin Wei, Tao Xu, Maojia Yin, Xueying Ding, Lijuan Mo, Lifen Chen
Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a 42-kDa protein encoded by the AZGP1 gene that is known as a lipid mobilizing factor and is highly homologous to major histocompatibility complex class I family molecules. Recently, transcriptomic research has shown that AZGP1 expression is reduced in the brain tissue of epilepsy patients. However, the cellular distribution and biological role of ZAG in the brain and epilepsy are unclear. Patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and brain trauma were included in this study, and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled rats were also used...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553399/the-gut-brain-axis-a-new-pathogenic-view-of-neurologic-symptoms-description-of-a-pediatric-case
#10
Raffaele Falsaperla, Catia Romano, Piero Pavone, Giovanna Vitaliti, Qian Yuan, Nazgole Motamed-Gorji, Riccardo Lubrano
Recent literature data have given emphasis to the relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and neurologic diseases, underlying a new pathogenic pathway: The so-called "gut-brain axis." Herein, authors report a case of a 10-month-old male infant, admitted for drug-resistant epilepsy, associated with irritable behavior and GI discomfort, secondary to cow's milk protein allergy. Seizures were described by parents as upward eye movements that were mostly deviated to the right and were associated with slight extension of his neck...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545366/role-of-positron-emission-tomography-for-central-nervous-system-involvement-in-systemic-autoimmune-diseases-status-and-perspectives
#11
Daniele Mauro, Gaetano Barbagallo, Salvatore D'Angelo, Sannino Pasqualina, Saverio Naty, Caterina Bruno, Ignazio Olivieri, Rosa Daniela Grembiale, Francesco Ursini
In the last years, an increasing interest in molecular imaging has been raised by the extending potential of positron emission tomography (PET). The role of PET imaging, originally confined to the oncology setting, is continuously extending thanks to the development of novel radiopharmaceutical and to the implementation of hybrid imaging techniques, where PET scans are combined with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in order to improve spatial resolution. Early preclinical studies suggested that 18F-FDG PET can detect neuroinflammation; new developing radiopharmaceuticals targeting more specifically inflammation-related molecules are moving in this direction...
May 23, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516343/therapeutic-dormancy-to-delay-postsurgical-glioma-recurrence-the-past-present-and-promise-of-focal-hypothermia
#12
REVIEW
Didier Wion
Surgery precedes both radiotherapy and chemotherapy as the first-line therapy for glioma. However, despite multimodal treatment, most glioma patients die from local recurrence in the resection margin. Glioma surgery is inherently lesional, and the response of brain tissue to surgery includes hemostasis, angiogenesis, reactive gliosis and inflammation. Unfortunately, these processes are also associated with tumorigenic side-effects. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that the response to a surgery-related brain injury is hijacked by residual glioma cells and participates in the local regeneration of tumor tissues at the resection margin...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505490/heat-induced-temperature-dysregulation-and-seizures-in-dravet-syndrome-gefs-gabrg2-q390x-mice
#13
Timothy A Warner, Zhong Liu, Robert L Macdonald, Jing-Qiong Kang
It has been established that febrile seizures and its extended syndromes like generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures (FS) plus (GEFS+) and Dravet syndrome have been associated with mutations especially in SCN1A and GABRG2 genes. In patients, the onset of FS is likely due to the combined effect of temperature and inflammation in genetically vulnerable individuals because fever is often associated with infection. Much effort has been spent to understand the mechanisms underlying fever induction of seizures...
August 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497109/hippocampal-tnf%C3%AE-signaling-contributes-to-seizure-generation-in-an-infection-induced-mouse-model-of-limbic-epilepsy
#14
Dipan C Patel, Glenna Wallis, E Jill Dahle, Pallavi B McElroy, Kyle E Thomson, Raymond J Tesi, David E Szymkowski, Peter J West, Roy M Smeal, Manisha Patel, Robert S Fujinami, H Steve White, Karen S Wilcox
Central nervous system infection can induce epilepsy that is often refractory to established antiseizure drugs. Previous studies in the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced mouse model of limbic epilepsy have demonstrated the importance of inflammation, especially that mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), in the development of acute seizures. TNFα modulates glutamate receptor trafficking via TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) to cause increased excitatory synaptic transmission. Therefore, we hypothesized that an increase in TNFα signaling after TMEV infection might contribute to acute seizures...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486943/kb-r7943-reduces-4-aminopyridine-induced-epileptiform-activity-in-adult-rats-after-neuronal-damage-induced-by-neonatal-monosodium-glutamate-treatment
#15
Mariana Hernandez-Ojeda, Monica E Ureña-Guerrero, Paola E Gutierrez-Barajas, Jazmin A Cardenas-Castillo, Antoni Camins, Carlos Beas-Zarate
BACKGROUND: Neonatal monosodium glutamate (MSG) treatment triggers excitotoxicity and induces a degenerative process that affects several brain regions in a way that could lead to epileptogenesis. Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCX1-3) are implicated in Ca(2+) brain homeostasis; normally, they extrude Ca(2+) to control cell inflammation, but after damage and in epilepsy, they introduce Ca(2+) by acting in the reverse mode, amplifying the damage. Changes in NCX3 expression in the hippocampus have been reported immediately after neonatal MSG treatment...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462087/identification-of-brain-regions-predicting-epileptogenesis-by-serial-18-f-ge-180-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-neuroinflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
Vera Russmann, Matthias Brendel, Erik Mille, Angela Helm-Vicidomini, Roswitha Beck, Lisa Günther, Simon Lindner, Axel Rominger, Michael Keck, Josephine D Salvamoser, Nathalie L Albert, Peter Bartenstein, Heidrun Potschka
Excessive activation of inflammatory signaling pathways seems to be a hallmark of epileptogenesis. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows in vivo detection of brain inflammation with spatial information and opportunities for longitudinal follow-up scanning protocols. Here, we assessed whether molecular imaging of the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) can serve as a biomarker for the development of epilepsy. Therefore, brain uptake of [(18)F]GE-180, a highly selective radioligand of TSPO, was investigated in a longitudinal PET study in a chronic rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458341/the-role-of-mpges-1-in-inflammatory-brain-diseases
#17
Yuri Ikeda-Matsuo
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been thought to be an important mediator of inflammation in peripheral tissues, but recent studies clearly show the involvement of PGE2 in inflammatory brain diseases. In some animal models of brain disease, the genetic disruption and chemical inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 resulted in the reduction of PGE2 and amelioration of symptoms, and it had been thought that PGE2 produced by COX-2 may be involved in the progression of injuries. However, COX-2 produces not only PGE2, but also some other prostanoids, and thus the protective effects of COX-2 inhibition, as well as severe side effects, may be caused by the inhibition of prostanoids other than PGE2...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455369/complement-c5ar1-signaling-promotes-polarization-and-proliferation-of-embryonic-neural-progenitor-cells-through-pkc%C3%AE
#18
Liam G Coulthard, Owen A Hawksworth, Rui Li, Anushree Balachandran, John D Lee, Farshid Sepehrband, Nyoman Kurniawan, Angela Jeanes, David G Simmons, Ernst Wolvetang, Trent M Woodruff
The complement system, typically associated with innate immunity, is emerging as a key controller of non-immune systems including in development, with recent studies linking complement mutations with neurodevelopmental disease. A key effector of the complement response is the activation fragment C5a which, through its receptor C5aR1, is a potent driver of inflammation. Surprisingly, C5aR1 is also expressed during early mammalian embryogenesis, however no clearly defined function is ascribed to C5aR1 in development...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452616/an-ovine-model-of-cerebral-catheter-venography-for-implantation-of-an-endovascular-neural-interface
#19
Thomas James Oxley, Nicholas Lachlan Opie, Gil Simon Rind, Kishan Liyanage, Sam Emmanuel John, Stephen Ronayne, Alan James McDonald, Anthony Dornom, Timothy John Haynes Lovell, Peter John Mitchell, Iwan Bennett, Sebastien Bauquier, Leon Norris Warne, Chris Steward, David Bruce Grayden, Patricia Desmond, Stephen M Davis, Terence John O'Brien, Clive N May
OBJECTIVE Neural interface technology may enable the development of novel therapies to treat neurological conditions, including motor prostheses for spinal cord injury. Intracranial neural interfaces currently require a craniotomy to achieve implantation and may result in chronic tissue inflammation. Novel approaches are required that achieve less invasive implantation methods while maintaining high spatial resolution. An endovascular stent electrode array avoids direct brain trauma and is able to record electrocorticography in local cortical tissue from within the venous vasculature...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446773/therapeutic-effects-of-anti-hmgb1-monoclonal-antibody-on-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-in-mice
#20
Li Fu, Keyue Liu, Hidenori Wake, Kiyoshi Teshigawara, Tadashi Yoshino, Hideo Takahashi, Shuji Mori, Masahiro Nishibori
Inflammatory processes in brain tissue have been described in human epilepsy of various etiologies and in experimental models of seizures. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is now recognized as representative of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In the present study, we focused on whether anti-HMGB1 antibody treatment could relieve status epilepticus- triggered BBB breakdown and inflammation response in addition to the seizure behavior itself. Pilocarpine and methyl-scopolamine were used to establish the acute seizure model...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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