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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341475/microrna-664a-5p-promotes-neuronal-differentiation-of-sh-sy5y-cells
#1
Kazunori Watanabe, Ryuhei Yamaji, Takashi Ohtsuki
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a class of small noncoding RNAs that play important roles in the translational regulation of gene expression. A number of miRNAs are known to act as key regulators of diverse processes such as neuronal differentiation. In this study, we have attempted to identify novel miRNAs related to neuronal differentiation via microarray analysis in the human neuronal differentiation model neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We identified 15 up-regulated and eight down-regulated miRNAs in SH-SY5Y cells treated with all-trans retinoic acid to induce differentiation...
January 17, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339535/functional-changes-of-ampa-responses-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-progenitors-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#2
Venkat Swaroop Achuta, Tommi Möykkynen, Ulla-Kaisa Peteri, Giorgio Turconi, Claudio Rivera, Kari Keinänen, Maija L Castrén
Altered neuronal network formation and function involving dysregulated excitatory and inhibitory circuits are associated with fragile X syndrome (FXS). We examined functional maturation of the excitatory transmission system in FXS by investigating the response of FXS patient-derived neural progenitor cells to the glutamate analog (AMPA). Neural progenitors derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines generated from boys with FXS had augmented intracellular Ca2+ responses to AMPA and kainate that were mediated by Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) lacking the GluA2 subunit...
January 16, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329581/microrna-124-regulates-the-expression-of-mekk3-in-the-inflammatory-pathogenesis-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Longping Yao, Yongyi Ye, Hengxu Mao, Fengfei Lu, Xiaozheng He, Guohui Lu, Shizhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder that is characterised by selective loss of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Chronic inflammation of the central nervous system is mediated by microglial cells and plays a critical role in the pathological progression of PD. Brain-specific microRNA-124 (miR-124) expression is significantly downregulated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated BV2 cells and in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327503/noncoding-rnas-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
M Laura Idda, Rachel Munk, Kotb Abdelmohsen, Myriam Gorospe
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the main cause of dementia among the elderly worldwide. Despite intense efforts to develop drugs for preventing and treating AD, no effective therapies are available as yet, posing a growing burden at the personal, medical, and socioeconomic levels. AD is characterized by the production and aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP), the presence of hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein Tau (MAPT), and chronic inflammation leading to neuronal loss...
January 12, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324753/microrna-signatures-of-endogenous-huntingtin-cag-repeat-expansion-in-mice
#5
Peter Langfelder, Fuying Gao, Nan Wang, David Howland, Seung Kwak, Thomas F Vogt, Jeffrey S Aaronson, Jim Rosinski, Giovanni Coppola, Steve Horvath, X William Yang
In Huntington's disease (HD) patients and in model organisms, messenger RNA transcriptome has been extensively studied; in contrast, comparatively little is known about expression and potential role of microRNAs. Using RNA-sequencing, we have quantified microRNA expression in four brain regions and liver, at three different ages, from an allelic series of HD model mice with increasing CAG length in the endogenous Huntingtin gene. Our analyses reveal CAG length-dependent microRNA expression changes in brain, with 159 microRNAs selectively altered in striatum, 102 in cerebellum, 51 in hippocampus, and 45 in cortex...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323027/micrornas-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-emerging-therapeutic-targets
#6
REVIEW
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder, with the clinical main symptoms caused by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, corpus striatum and brain cortex. Over 90% of patients with PD have sporadic PD and occur in people with no known family history of the disorder. Currently there is no cure for PD. Treatment with medications to increase dopamine relieves the symptoms but does not slow down or reverse the damage to neurons in the brain. Increasing evidence points to inflammation as a chief mediator of PD with inflammatory response mechanisms, involving microglia and leukocytes, activated following loss of dopaminergic neurons...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322615/melatonin-protects-against-a%C3%AE-induced-neurotoxicity-in-primary-neurons-via-mir-132-pten-akt-foxo3a-pathway
#7
Yue Zhao, Ranran Zhao, Jintao Wu, Qian Wang, Kunkun Pang, Qingqing Shi, Qing Gao, Yanlai Hu, Xiaoguang Dong, Jing Zhang, Jinhao Sun
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a kind of neurodegenerative disorder associated with age. Investigations suggest that amyliod-β (Aβ) is implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. The accumulation of Aβ in the brain causes oxidative stress and synaptic toxicity, leads to synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Previous investigations suggest that melatonin an endogenous hormone can counteract Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms of Aβ-induced toxicity and melatonin treatment remain elusive...
January 11, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317607/mirna-3473b-contributes-to-neuroinflammation-following-cerebral-ischemia
#8
Xiaoyu Wang, Shuangshuang Chen, Jingshu Ni, Jian Cheng, Jia Jia, Xuechu Zhen
MicroRNAs play an essential role in stroke pathology. Here, we investigated the role of a newly identified microRNA, miR-3473b, in stroke pathology. The expression of miR-3473b was upregulated in the cortex and striatum in mice following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Intracerebroventricular injection of the miR-3473b antagomir prior to MCAO remarkably attenuated ischemia-induced expression of miR-3473b and pro-inflammatory factors in the ischemic brain and decreased infarct volumes in mice following MCAO...
January 9, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315268/mirna-influences-in-neuroblast-modulation-an-introspective-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Vanessa Zammit, Byron Baron, Duncan Ayers
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common occurring solid paediatric cancer in children under the age of five years. Whether of familial or sporadic origin, chromosome abnormalities contribute to the development of NB and cause dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs are small non-coding, single stranded RNAs that target messenger RNAs at the post-transcriptional levels by repressing translation within all facets of human physiology. Such gene 'silencing' activities by miRNAs allows the development of regulatory feedback loops affecting multiple functions within the cell, including the possible differentiation of neural stem cell (NSC) lineage selection...
January 9, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311649/high-content-image-analysis-reveals-function-of-mir-124-upstream-of-vimentin-in-regulating-motor-neuron-mitochondria
#10
Tal Yardeni, Raquel Fine, Yuvraj Joshi, Tal Gradus-Pery, Noga Kozer, Irit Reichenstein, Eran Yanowski, Shir Nevo, Hila Weiss-Tishler, Michal Eisenberg-Bord, Tal Shalit, Alexander Plotnikov, Haim M Barr, Eran Perlson, Eran Hornstein
microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical for neuronal function and their dysregulation is repeatedly observed in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we implemented high content image analysis for investigating the impact of several miRNAs in mouse primary motor neurons. This survey directed our attention to the neuron-specific miR-124, which controls axonal morphology. By performing next generation sequencing analysis and molecular studies, we characterized novel roles for miR-124 in control of mitochondria localization and function...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309927/glycogen-synthase-kinases-moonlighting-proteins-with-theranostic-potential-in-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Siddavaram Nagini, Josephraj Sophia, Rajakishore Mishra
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a serine/threonine kinase is an archetypal multifunctional moonlighting protein involved in diverse cellular processes including metabolism, insulin signaling, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, neuronal function and embryonic development. The two known isoforms, GSK-3α and GSK-3β that undergo activation/inactivation by post-translational, site-specific phosphorylation incorporate a vast number of substrates in their repertoire. Dysregulation of GSK-3 has been linked to diverse disease entities including cancer...
January 5, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307821/lncrna-gas5-regulates-ischemic-stroke-as-a-competing-endogenous-rna-for-mir-137-to-regulate-the-notch1-signaling-pathway
#12
Fenghui Chen, Lixin Zhang, Erwei Wang, Chaofeng Zhang, Xiaoting Li
Ischemic stroke is related to a variety of physiological and pathological processes including autophagy and apoptosis. Growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5), a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), is known to negatively regulate cell survival and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. However, the function and molecular mechanism of lncRNA GAS5 in ischemic stroke have not been reported. Real-time PCR was used to detect GAS5 and microRNA-137 (miR-137) expression in the brain tissues of mice underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated mouse primary brain neurons...
January 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299985/vegf-a-stimulus-for-neuronal-development-and-regeneration-in-the-cns-and-pns
#13
Verena Theis, Carsten Theiss
The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a homodimeric disulfide bound glycoprotein that promotes endothelial growth, accompanied by higher vascular permeability, and therefore represents an important factor for angiogenesis and vascularization. In addition, VEGF also has a neurotrophic and neuroprotective impact on glial and neuronal cells within the CNS and PNS. Recently, we have shown that VEGF increases somato- and dendritogenesis in neonatal, but not in mature CNS neurons [1], and leads to axonal growth cone guidance during embryonic development of the PNS [2, 3]...
January 3, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296213/suppression-of-microrna-9-5p-rescues-learning-and-memory-in-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-rats-model
#14
Na Wei, Kai Zheng, Rui Xue, Sheng-Li Ma, Hua-Yan Ren, Hui-Fen Huang, Wei-Wei Wang, Jing-Jing Xu, Kui-Sheng Chen
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion has been associated with cognitive impairment in dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular disease (VaD), the two most common neurodegenerative diseases in aged people. However, the effective therapeutic approaches for both AD and VaD are still missing. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in the epigenetic regulation in many neurological disorders; the critical roles of miRNAderegulation had been implicated in both AD and VaD. In the current study, we reported that miR-9-5p is elevated in the serum and cerebrospinalfluid of patientswith VaD...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286086/microrna-107-prevents-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-neurotoxicity-and-memory-impairment-in-mice
#15
Bohui Shu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Ganqin Du, Qizhi Fu, Lina Huang
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has still not been fully elucidated, however it is thought that the build up of amyloid plaque at least partially causes the symptoms of AD. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non‑coding small RNA molecules that regulate the expression and degradation of proteins. The present study induced symptoms of AD in mice via intraventricular injection of amyloid‑β 1‑42 (Aβ1‑42), which decreased levels of miR‑107. However, miR‑107 levels increased following administration of miR‑107 mimic, a double‑stranded RNA molecule designed to imitate the native miRNA...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286067/changes-in-microrna-expression-in-the-brachial-plexus-avulsion-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#16
Yuzhou Liu, Le Wang, Jie Lao, Xin Zhao
The present study aimed to perform microRNA (miRNA/miR) expression profiling of the thalamus (T), the anterior cingulate (AC), the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (DHSC) and the blood (B) in post‑complete brachial plexus avulsion (CBPA) pain model, and analyze biological functions. Neuropathic pain was induced in Sprague‑Dawley rats by CBPA. Animal behavioral tests were performed to differentiate the pain and control groups. DHSC, T, AC and B tissues were collected from the two groups for miRNA array analysis...
December 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285299/mir-20a-5p-promotes-radio-resistance-by-targeting-npas2-in-nasopharyngeal-cancer-cells
#17
Fangfang Zhao, Youguang Pu, Liting Qian, Chunbao Zang, Zhenchao Tao, Jin Gao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key players of gene expression involved in diverse biological processes including the cancer radio-resistance, which hinders the effective cancer therapy. Here we found that the miR-20a-5p level is significantly up-regulated in radio-resistant nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) cells via an RNA-seq and miR-omic analysis. Moreover, we identified that the neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) gene is one of the targets of miR-20a-5p. The involvement of miR-20a-5p and NPAS2 with NPC radio-resistance was further validated by either down- or up-regulation of their levels in NPC cell lines...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277556/microrna-16-targets-mrna-involved-in-neurite-extension-and-branching-in-hippocampal-neurons-during-presymptomatic-prion-disease
#18
Kristyn Burak, Lise Lamoureux, Amrit Boese, Anna Majer, Reuben Saba, Yulian Niu, Kathy Frost, Stephanie A Booth
The mechanisms that lead to neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases are poorly understood. Prion diseases, like many more common disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, are characterized by the progressive accumulation of misfolded disease-specific proteins. The earliest changes observed in brain tissue include a reduction in synaptic number and retraction of dendritic spines, followed by reduced length and branching of neurites. These pathologies are observable during presymptomatic stages of disease and are accompanied by altered expression of transcripts that include miRNAs...
December 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274035/microrna-30e-regulates-neuroinflammation-in-mptp-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-by-targeting-nlrp3
#19
Dongsheng Li, Hongqi Yang, Jianjun Ma, Sha Luo, Siyuan Chen, Qi Gu
Accumulating evidences suggest that neuroinflammation is a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). MicroRNAs have been recently recognized as crucial regulators of inflammatory responses. Here, we found significant downregulation of microRNA-30e (miR-30e) in SNpc of MPTP-induced PD mice. Next, we employed miR-30e agomir to upregulate miR-30e expression in MPTP-treated mice. Our results showed that delivery of miR-30e agomir remarkably improved motor behavioral deficits and neuronal activity, and inhibited the loss of dopamine neurons...
December 22, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250806/paraquat-and-mptp-alter-microrna-expression-profiles-and-downregulated-expression-of-mir-17-5p-contributes-to-pq-induced-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration
#20
Qingqing Wang, Yanting Zhan, Nan Ren, Zhangjing Wang, Qunwei Zhang, Siying Wu, Huangyuan Li
Recent evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the toxic effects of paraquat (PQ) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) on miRNA expression profiles in dopaminergic neurons have not been investigated. In the present study, we used microarray analysis to show that PQ and MPTP induce alterations of miRNA expression in neuro-2a cells. The results reveal that treatment with 300 μm PQ caused miRNA deregulation, such that 60 miRNAs were upregulated and 228 miRNAs were downregulated...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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