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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933583/looking-beyond-the-5-httlpr-polymorphism-genetic-and-epigenetic-layers-of-regulation-affecting-the-serotonin-transporter-gene-expression
#1
REVIEW
Sandra Iurescia, Davide Seripa, Monica Rinaldi
Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter that regulates fundamental aspects of brain development, physiology and behaviour. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is deputized to the reuptake of 5-HT from the intersynaptic space in the presynaptic neurons. 5-HTT governs duration and magnitude of 5-HT biological actions, acting as a master regulator of the fine-tuning of 5-HT signalling. Genetic variation at SLC6A4 gene locus, encoding 5-HTT, contributes to alteration in 5-HT reuptake. The 5-HTTLPR/rs25531/rs25532 polymorphisms located in the promoter region of SLC6A4 gene have been associated with stress-related psychopathology and functional brain phenotypes...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933582/microrna-181c-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-rats
#2
Chen Fang, Qian Li, Guowen Min, Min Liu, Jing Cui, Jing Sun, Liang Li
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) characterized by global cerebral ischemia is an important risk factor contributing to the development of dementia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the cellular adaptation to long-term ischemia/hypoxia by turning off or on the expression of target genes. MiR-181c is widely expressed in the nervous system, and tripartite motif 2 (TRIM2) is one of its target genes. In this work, we had identified that progressive spatial memory deficiency was induced in the bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2-VO) rat models...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932485/axonal-micrornas-localization-function-and-regulatory-mechanism-during-axon-development
#3
REVIEW
Bin Wang, Lan Bao
Subcellular localization and translation of messenger RNAs are essential for the regulation of neuronal development and synaptic function. As post-transcriptional regulators, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been emerging as central players in the development and maturation of the nervous system. Recent discoveries reveal the critical functions of miRNAs in the axon of neurons via multiple pathways of molecular regulation. Here, we introduce methods for isolating axonal miRNAs and review recent findings on the localization and function as well as regulatory mechanism of axonal miRNAs during axon development...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931227/epigenetics-of-amphetamine-induced-sensitization-hdac5-expression-and-microrna-in-neural-remodeling
#4
Philip K Liu, Christina H Liu
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities modify chromatin structure and play a role in learning and memory during developmental processes. Studies of adult mice suggest HDACs are involved in neural network remodeling in brain repair, but its function in drug addiction is less understood. We aimed to examine in vivo HDAC5 expression in a preclinical model of amphetamine-induced sensitization (AIS) of behavior. We generated specific contrast agents to measure HDAC5 levels by in vivo molecular contrast-enhanced (MCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in amphetamine-naïve mice as well as in mice with AIS...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924451/mir-124-promotes-newborn-olfactory-bulb-neuron-dendritic-morphogenesis-and-spine-density
#5
Guifa Li, Shucai Ling
Using microarray analysis, we detected microRNA-124 (miR-124) to be abundantly expressed in the olfactory bulb (OB). miR-124 regulates adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ). However, much less is known about its role in newborn OB neurons. Here, using both gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, we demonstrate that brain-specific miR-124 affects dendritic morphogenesis and spine density in newborn OB neurons. Functional Annotation Clustering of miR-124 targets was enriched in "cell morphogenesis involved in neuron differentiation...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923457/micrornas-in-the-hypothalamus
#6
REVIEW
Mohammed Taouis
The brain is considered a major site for microRNA (miRNA) expression; as evidenced by several studies reporting microarray data of different brain substructures. The hypothalamus is among the brain regions that plays a crucial role in integrating signals from other brain nuclei as well as environmental, hormonal, metabolic and neuronal signals from the periphery in order to deliver an adequate response. The hypothalamus controls vital functions such as reproduction, energy homeostasis, water balance, circadian rhythm and stress...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922111/mir-365-targets-%C3%AE-arrestin-2-to-reverse-morphine-tolerance-in-rats
#7
Jian Wang, Wei Xu, Tao Zhong, Zongbin Song, Yu Zou, Zhuofeng Ding, Qulian Guo, Xinzhong Dong, Wangyuan Zou
Morphine tolerance is a challenging clinical problem that limits its clinical application in pain treatment. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) modulate gene expression in a post transcriptional manner, and their dysregulation causes various diseases. However, the significance of miRNAs in morphine tolerance is still poorly understood. In the present study, we hypothesized that microRNA-365 (miR-365) is a key functional small RNA that reverses morphine tolerance through regulation of β-arrestin 2 in rats. Here, microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR showed that miR-365 was robustly decreased in the spinal cord after chronic morphine administration...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919694/neuron-specific-sumo-knockdown-suppresses-global-gene-expression-response-and-worsens-functional-outcome-after-transient-forebrain-ischemia-in-mice
#8
Lin Zhang, Xiaozhi Liu, Huaxin Sheng, Shuai Liu, Ying Li, Julia Q Zhao, David S Warner, Wulf Paschen, Wei Yang
Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation (SUMOylation) plays key roles in neurologic function in health and disease. Neuronal SUMOylation is essential for emotionality and cognition, and this pathway is dramatically activated in post-ischemic neurons, a neuroprotective response to ischemia. It is also known from cell culture studies that SUMOylation modulates gene expression. However, it remains unknown how SUMOylation regulates neuronal gene expression in vivo, in the physiologic state and after ischemia, and modulates post-ischemic recovery of neurologic function...
December 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919684/neuroprotective-effects-of-mir-27a-against-traumatic-brain-injury-via-suppressing-foxo3a-mediated-neuronal-autophagy
#9
Liqian Sun, Manman Zhao, Yan Wang, Aihua Liu, Ming Lv, Youxiang Li, Xinjian Yang, Zhongxue Wu
MicroRNA-27a (miR-27a) has been reported to be a brain-specific miRNA and aberrantly expressed in the brain suffered from traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study is designed to investigate the potential role and molecular mechanism of miR-27a in the pathogenesis of TBI. The level of miR-27a in brain was manipulated by intracerebroventricular injection of lentiviral-encoding miR-27a before TBI induction. Real-time PCR was used to detected miR-27a and Forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) levels in the hippocampus...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913161/novel-brain-expressed-rna-identified-at-the-mir137-schizophrenia-associated-locus
#10
Olympia Gianfrancesco, Alix Warburton, David A Collier, Vivien J Bubb, John P Quinn
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a locus on chromosome 1p21.3 to be highly associated with schizophrenia. A microRNA, MIR137, within this locus has been proposed as the gene causally associated with schizophrenia, due to its known role as a regulator of neuronal development and function. However, the involvement of other genes within this region, including DPYD (dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase), is also plausible. In this communication, we describe a previously uncharacterised, brain-expressed RNA, EU358092, within the schizophrenia-associated region at 1p21...
November 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907012/the-signature-of-microrna-dysregulation-in-muscle-paralyzed-by-spinal-cord-injury-includes-downregulation-of-micrornas-that-target-myostatin-signaling
#11
Rita De Gasperi, Zachary A Graham, Lauren M Harlow, William A Bauman, Weiping Qin, Christopher P Cardozo
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in muscle atrophy, reduced force generation and an oxidative-to-glycolytic fiber type shift. The mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain incompletely understood. To gain new insights regarding mechanisms involved in deterioration of muscle after SCI, global expression profiles of miRs in paralyzed gastrocnemius muscle were compared between sham-operated (Sham) and spinal cord-transected (SCI) rats. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis of the altered miRs identified signaling via insulin, IGF-1, integrins and TGF-β as being significantly enriched for target genes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905005/microrna-128-3p-protects-mouse-against-cerebral-ischemia-through-reducing-p38%C3%AE-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-activity
#12
Guochao Mao, Pengyu Ren, Gang Wang, Feng Yan, Yuelin Zhang
The p38α, also named Mapk14, is a pro-apoptotic protein, which is reported to be downregulated 2 h after cerebral ischemia. However, little is known what causes the downregulation of p38α protein level. Here, we studied the effect of cerebral ischemia on p38α mRNA expression and p38α protein level in brain of mice. We found that p38α protein level is reduced after middle cerebral artery occlusion. However, at the meantime, p38α mRNA expression has no detectable changes, suggesting that the possible posttranscription is regulated by ischemia...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900578/potential-mechanism-of-neurite-outgrowth-enhanced-by-electrical-stimulation-involvement-of-microrna-363-5p-targeting-dclk1-expression-in-rat
#13
Xin Quan, Liangliang Huang, Yafeng Yang, Teng Ma, Zhongyang Liu, Jun Ge, Jinghui Huang, Zhuojing Luo
Electrical stimulation (ES) promotes neurite outgrowth and nerve regeneration, but the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. In the present study, we investigated the role of micro RNAs (miRNAs) in ES-mediated neurite outgrowth. First, we performed microarray analyses to identify changes in the miRNAs profile of dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs) following ES. The expression of 16 known miRNAs was altered by ES. Bioinformatics showed that the potential targets of these differentially expressed miRNAs were involved in neurite outgrowth...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884727/impact-of-17beta-estradiol-and-progesterone-on-inflammatory-and-apoptotic-microrna-expression-after-ischemia-in-a-rat-model
#14
Rebecca Herzog, Adib Zendedel, Leoni Lammerding, Cordian Beyer, Alexander Slowik
17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) are neuroprotective factors in the brain preventing neuronal death under different injury paradigms. In previous studies, we demonstrated that both steroids dampen neuronal damage, improve local energy metabolism and attenuate pro-inflammatory responses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulators of distinct target genes on the RNA level. Their expression patterns are misbalanced in several neurological disorders. To explore the regulatory mechanisms of steroid hormones on selected miRNAs and their validated targets in ischemia, we used the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883060/environmental-intervention-as-a-therapy-for-adverse-programming-by-ancestral-stress
#15
J Keiko McCreary, Zachary T Erickson, YongXin Hao, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Igor Kovalchuk, Gerlinde A S Metz
Ancestral stress can program stress sensitivity and health trajectories across multiple generations. While ancestral stress is uncontrollable to the filial generations, it is critical to identify therapies that overcome transgenerational programming. Here we report that prenatal stress in rats generates a transgenerationally heritable endocrine and epigenetic footprint and elevated stress sensitivity which can be alleviated by beneficial experiences in later life. Ancestral stress led to downregulated glucocorticoid receptor and prefrontal cortex neuronal densities along with precocious development of anxiety-like behaviours...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880894/requirement-for-dicer-in-maintenance-of-monosynaptic-sensory-motor-circuits-in-the-spinal-cord
#16
Fumiyasu Imai, Xiaoting Chen, Matthew T Weirauch, Yutaka Yoshida
In contrast to our knowledge of mechanisms governing circuit formation, our understanding of how neural circuits are maintained is limited. Here, we show that Dicer, an RNaseIII protein required for processing microRNAs (miRNAs), is essential for maintenance of the spinal monosynaptic stretch reflex circuit in which group Ia proprioceptive sensory neurons form direct connections with motor neurons. In postnatal mice lacking Dicer in proprioceptor sensory neurons, there are no obvious defects in specificity or formation of monosynaptic sensory-motor connections...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878262/identification-of-suitable-reference-genes-for-bdv-infected-primary-rat-hippocampal-neurons
#17
Qiang Mao, Lujun Zhang, Yujie Guo, Lu Sun, Siwen Liu, Peng He, Rongzhong Huang, Lin Sun, Shigang Chen, Hong Zhang, Peng Xie
Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic RNA virus that infects the limbic system of mammals and results in behavioral disorders. The hippocampus is a core region in the limbic system, which contributes to memory and learning and is important in the regulation of emotion. However, no validated microRNA housekeeping genes have yet been identified in BDV‑infected rat primary hippocampal neurons. Proper normalization is key in accurate miRNA expression analysis. The present study used reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) to evaluate the expression stability of 10 commonly used reference genes [miR‑92a, 5S, U6, miR‑103, miR‑101a, miR-let-7a, miR‑16, E2 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), U87 and miR‑191] in BDV‑infected rat hippocampal neurons and non‑infected controls across 12 days post‑infection...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864650/heme-oxygenase-1-protects-spinal-cord-neurons-from-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-apoptosis-via-suppression-of-cdc42-mlk3-mkk7-jnk3-signaling
#18
Siyuan Wang, Tao Zhang, Zhen Yang, Jianhua Lin, Bin Cai, Qingfeng Ke, Wenbin Lan, Jinxing Shi, Shiqiang Wu, Wenping Lin
The mechanisms by which oxidative stress induces spinal cord neuron death has not been completely understood. Investigation on the molecular signal pathways involved in oxidative stress-mediated neuronal death is important for development of new therapeutics for oxidative stress-associated spinal cord disorders. In current study we examined the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the modulation of MLK3/MKK7/JNK3 signaling, which is a pro-apoptotic pathway, after treating primary spinal cord neurons with H2O2...
November 18, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856419/neuropeptide-y-npy-promotes-inflammation-induced-tumorigenesis-by-enhancing-epithelial-cell-proliferation
#19
Sabrina Jeppsson, Shanthi Srinivasan, Bindu Chandrasekharan
We have demonstrated that neuropeptide Y (NPY), abundantly produced by enteric neurons, is an important regulator of intestinal inflammation. However the role of NPY in the progression of chronic inflammation to tumorigenesis is unknown. We investigated whether NPY could modulate epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis, and thus regulate tumorigenesis. Repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulfate (DSSn) was used to model inflammation-induced tumorigenesis in wild-type (WT) and NPY knockout (NPY(-/-)) mice...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852797/modulation-of-mir-146a-complement-factor-h-mediated-inflammatory-responses-in-a-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Fang He, Bei Liu, Qiang Meng, Yang Sun, Weiwen Wang, Chao Wang
Increasing evidence supports the involvement of inflammatory and immune processes in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). MicroRNAs (miRNA) represent small regulatory RNA molecules that have been shown to act as negative regulators of gene expression controlling different biological processes, including immune-system homeostasis and function. We investigated the expression and cellular distribution of miRNA-146a (miR-146a) in a rat model of TLE. Prominent upregulation of miR-146a activation was evident at 1 week after status epilepticus (SE) and persisted in the chronic phase...
November 16, 2016: Bioscience Reports
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