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microRNA neuron

Xianjuan Kou, Xingran Liu, Xianbing Chen, Jie Li, Xiaoqi Yang, Jingjing Fan, Yi Yang, Ning Chen
The underlying molecular mechanisms for aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not fully understood. Currently, growing evidences have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in aging and aging-related diseases. The up-regulation of miR-34a has been reported to be associated with aging-related diseases, and thus it should be a promising therapeutic target. Ampelopsin, also called dihydromyricetin (DHM), a natural flavonoid from Chinese herb Ampelopsis grossedentata, has been reported to possess multiple pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-cancer functions...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Le Li, Creed M Stary
Astrocytes and microglia play crucial roles in the response to cerebral ischemia and are effective targets for stroke therapy in animal models. MicroRNAs (miRs) are important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that function by inhibiting the translation of select target genes. In astrocytes, miR expression patterns regulate mitochondrial function in response to oxidative stress via targeting of Bcl2 and heat shock protein 70 family members. Mitochondria play an active role in microglial activation, and miRs regulate the microglial neuroinflammatory response...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Angélica Torres-Berrío, Juan Pablo Lopez, Rosemary C Bagot, Dominique Nouel, Gregory Dal Bo, Santiago Cuesta, Lei Zhu, Colleen Manitt, Conrad Eng, Helen M Cooper, Kai-Florian Storch, Gustavo Turecki, Eric J Nestler, Cecilia Flores
BACKGROUD: Variations in the expression of the Netrin-1 guidance cue receptor DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) appear to confer resilience or susceptibility to psychopathologies involving prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction. METHODS: With the use of postmortem brain tissue, mouse models of defeat stress, and in vitro analysis, we assessed microRNA (miRNA) regulation of DCC and whether changes in DCC levels in the PFC lead to vulnerability to depression-like behaviors...
August 18, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Silvia Honda Takada, Juliane Midori Ikebara, Erica de Sousa, Débora Sterzeck Cardoso, Rodrigo Ribeiro Resende, Henning Ulrich, Martin Rückl, Sten Rüdiger, Alexandre Hiroaki Kihara
It is well known that calcium (Ca(2+)) is involved in the triggering of neuronal death. Ca(2+) cytosolic levels are regulated by Ca(2+) release from internal stores located in organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. Indeed, Ca(2+) transit from distinct cell compartments follows complex dynamics that are mediated by specific receptors, notably inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs). Ca(2+) release by IP3Rs plays essential roles in several neurological disorders; however, details of these processes are poorly understood...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Christophe Beclin, Philipp Follert, Elke Stappers, Serena Barral, Coré Nathalie, Antoine de Chevigny, Virginie Magnone, Kévin Lebrigand, Ute Bissels, Danny Huylebroeck, Andreas Bosio, Pascal Barbry, Eve Seuntjens, Harold Cremer
During neurogenesis, generation, migration and integration of the correct numbers of each neuron sub-type depends on complex molecular interactions in space and time. MicroRNAs represent a key control level allowing the flexibility and stability needed for this process. Insight into the role of this regulatory pathway in the brain is still limited. We performed a sequential experimental approach using postnatal olfactory bulb neurogenesis in mice, starting from global expression analyses to the investigation of functional interactions between defined microRNAs and their targets...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jinping Shao, Jing Cao, Jiannan Wang, Xiuhua Ren, Songxue Su, Ming Li, Zhihua Li, Qingzan Zhao, Weidong Zang
Voltage-gated sodium channels, which are involved in pain pathways, have emerged as major targets for therapeutic intervention in pain disorders. Nav1.7, the tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channel isoform encoded by SCN9A and predominantly expressed in pain-sensing neurons in the dorsal root ganglion, plays a crucial role in nociception. MicroRNAs are highly conserved, small non-coding RNAs. Through binding to the 3' untranslated region of their target mRNAs, microRNAs induce the cleavage and/or inhibition of protein translation...
2016: Molecular Pain
Zhong Liu, Cheng Zhang, Alireza Khodadadi-Jamayran, Lam Dang, Xiaosi Han, Kitai Kim, Hu Li, Rui Zhao
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, and therefore represent a promising donor tissue source for treating neurodegenerative diseases and repairing injuries of the nervous system. However, it remains unclear how canonical microRNAs (miRNAs), the subset of miRNAs requiring the Drosha-Dgcr8 microprocessor and the type III RNase Dicer for biogenesis, regulate NSCs. In this study, we established and characterized <i>Dgcr8</i><sup>-/-</sup> NSCs from conditionally <i>Dgcr8</i>-disrupted mouse embryonic brain...
October 20, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Qin-Qin He, Liu-Lin Xiong, Fei Liu, Xiang He, Guo-Ying Feng, Fei-Fei Shang, Qing-Jie Xia, You-Cui Wang, De-Lu Qiu, Chao-Zhi Luo, Jia Liu, Ting-Hua Wang
Neuroregeneration and apoptosis are two important pathophysiologic changes after spinal cord injury (SCI), but their underlying mechanisms remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in the regulation of neuroregeneration and neuronal apoptosis, research areas that have been greatly expanded in recent years. Here, using miRNA arrays to profile miRNA transcriptomes, we demonstrated that miR-127-3p was significantly down-regulated after spinal cord transection (SCT). Then, bioinformatics analyses and experimental detection showed that miR-127-3p exhibited specific effects on the regulation of neurite outgrowth and the induction of neuronal apoptosis by regulating the expression of the mitochondrial membrane protein mitoNEET...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
John G Conboy
The Rbfox genes encode an ancient family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are critical developmental regulators in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and brain. The hallmark of Rbfox proteins is a single high-affinity RRM domain, highly conserved from insects to humans, that binds preferentially to UGCAUG motifs at diverse regulatory sites in pre-mRNA introns, mRNA 3'UTRs, and pre-miRNAs hairpin structures. Versatile regulatory circuits operate on Rbfox pre-mRNA and mRNA to ensure proper expression of Rbfox1 protein isoforms, which then act on the broader transcriptome to regulate alternative splicing networks, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing...
October 17, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Yan Xu, Christopher C Quinn
Axonal branch formation and synaptogenesis are sequential events that are required for the establishment of neuronal connectivity. However, little is known about how the transition between these two events is regulated. Here, we report that the lin-4 microRNA can regulate the transition between branch formation and synaptogenesis in the PLM axon of C. elegans. The PLM axon grows a collateral branch during the early L1 stage and undergoes synaptogenesis during the late L1 stage. Loss of the lin-4 microRNA disrupts synaptogenesis during the late L1 stage, suggesting that lin-4 promotes synaptogenesis...
October 13, 2016: Developmental Biology
Stefanie G Wohl, Thomas A Reh
The profile of miRNAs in mature glia is not well characterized, and most studies have been done in cultured glia. In order to identify the miRNAs in adult and young (postnatal day 11/12) Müller glia of the neural retina, we isolated the Müller glia from Rlbp-CreER: Stop(f/f)-tdTomato mice by means of fluorescent activated cell sorting and analyzed their miRNAs using NanoStrings Technologies(®). In freshly isolated adult Müller glia, we identified 7 miRNAs with high expression levels in the glia, but very low levels in the retinal neurons...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Deivid C Rodrigues, Dae-Sung Kim, Guang Yang, Kirill Zaslavsky, Kevin C H Ha, Rebecca S F Mok, P Joel Ross, Melody Zhao, Alina Piekna, Wei Wei, Benjamin J Blencowe, Quaid Morris, James Ellis
A progressive increase in MECP2 protein levels is a crucial and precisely regulated event during neurodevelopment, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We report that MECP2 is regulated post-transcriptionally during in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into cortical neurons. Using reporters to identify functional RNA sequences in the MECP2 3' UTR and genetic manipulations to explore the role of interacting factors on endogenous MECP2, we discover combinatorial mechanisms that regulate RNA stability and translation...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Balachandar Radhakrishnan, A Alwin Prem Anand
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory RNAs involved in gene regulation. The regulation is effected by either translational inhibition or transcriptional silencing. In vertebrates, the importance of miRNA in development was discovered from mice and zebrafish dicer knockouts. The miRNA-9 (miR-9) is one of the most highly expressed miRNAs in the early and adult vertebrate brain. It has diverse functions within the developing vertebrate brain. In this article, the role of miR-9 in the developing forebrain (telencephalon and diencephalon), midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord of vertebrate species is highlighted...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Vanessa Gonçalves Pereira, Matheus Trovão de Queiroz, Vânia D'Almeida
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is caused by deficiency of α-l-iduronidase, involved in degradation of glycosaminoglycans. Clinical manifestations are widely variable and patients with severe phenotype present developmental delay and cognitive decline, among other systemic alterations. MPS I patients present secondary accumulation of gangliosides in neuronal cells, besides accumulation of undegraded glycosaminoglycans. Reduction of Neu1 expression has been previously observed in the cerebellum of MPS I mice; to be active, neuraminidase 1 forms the lysosomal multienzyme complex (LMC) with two other proteins, β-galactosidase and protective protein/cathepsin A, involved in stepwise degradation of gangliosides in the lysosomes...
October 6, 2016: Gene
Mahesh Mundalil Vasu, Ayyappan Anitha, Taro Takahashi, Ismail Thanseem, Keiko Iwata, Tetsuya Asakawa, Katsuaki Suzuki
Evidence suggests neuroprotective effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), on the developed neurons in the adult brain. In contrast, the drug may be deleterious to immature or undifferentiated neural cells, although the mechanism is unclear. Recent investigations have suggested that microRNAs (miRNA) may be critical for effectiveness of psychotropic drugs including SSRI. We investigated whether fluoxetine could modulate expressions of neurologically relevant miRNAs in two neuroblastoma SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y cell lines...
2016: PloS One
Vivian Y Poon, Minxia Gu, Fang Ji, Antonius M VanDongen, Marc Fivaz
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that are emerging as important post-transcriptional regulators of neuronal and synaptic development. The precise impact of miRNAs on presynaptic function and neurotransmission remains, however, poorly understood. RESULTS: Here, we identify miR-27b-an abundant neuronal miRNA implicated in neurological disorders-as a global regulator of the presynaptic transcriptome. miR-27b influences the expression of three quarters of genes associated with presynaptic function in cortical neurons...
October 4, 2016: BMC Genomics
Sydney Aten, Katelin F Hansen, Kari R Hoyt, Karl Obrietan
The microRNA (miRNA) class of small (typically 22-24 nt) non-coding RNA affects a wide range of physiological processes in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). By acting as potent regulators of mRNA translation and stability, miRNAs fine-tune the expression of a multitude of genes that play critical roles in complex cognitive processes, including learning and memory. Of note, within the CNS, miRNAs can be expressed in an inducible, and cell-type specific manner. Here, we provide a brief overview of the expression and functional effects of the miR-132/212 gene locus in forebrain circuits of the CNS, and then discuss a recent publication that explored the contributions of miR-132 and miR-212 to cognition and to transcriptome regulation...
2016: RNA & Disease
Weidong Le, Junjiao Wu, Yu Tang
Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the brains of patients with PD, microglia have both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects, depending on their activation state. In this review, we focus on recent research demonstrating the neuroprotective role of microglia in PD. Accumulating evidence indicates that the protective mechanisms of microglia may result from their regulation of transrepression pathways via nuclear receptors, anti-inflammatory responses, neuron-microglia crosstalk, histone modification, and microRNA regulation...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Kihwan Lee, Hyunju Kim, Kyongman An, Oh-Bin Kwon, Sungjun Park, Jin Hee Cha, Myoung-Hwan Kim, Yoontae Lee, Joung-Hun Kim, Kwangwook Cho, Hye-Sun Kim
MicroRNAs have emerged as key factors in development, neurogenesis and synaptic functions in the central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated a pathophysiological significance of microRNA-188-5p (miR-188-5p) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We found that oligomeric Aβ1-42 treatment diminished miR-188-5p expression in primary hippocampal neuron cultures and that miR-188-5p rescued the Aβ1-42-mediated synapse elimination and synaptic dysfunctions. Moreover, the impairments in cognitive function and synaptic transmission observed in 7-month-old five familial AD (5XFAD) transgenic mice, were ameliorated via viral-mediated expression of miR-188-5p...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
M L Ou, G Liu, D Xiao, B H Zhang, C C Guo, X G Ye, Y Liu, N Zhang, M Wang, Y J Han, X H Ye, C X Jing, G Yang
miR-137, a brain-enriched microRNA, is involved in the control of neuronal proliferation, differentiation, and dendritic arborization, all of which are important for proper neurogenesis and relevant to schizophrenia. miR-137 is also known to regulate many genes implicated in schizophrenia risk. Although reports have associated the miR-137 polymorphism rs1625579 with this disease, their results have been inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between rs1625579 and schizophrenia...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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