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microRNA neuron

Grit Taschenberger, Julia Tereshchenko, Sebastian Kügler
Experimentally restricting transgene expression exclusively to astrocytes has proven difficult. Using adeno-associated-virus-mediated gene transfer, we assessed two commonly used glial fibrillary acidic protein promoters: the full-length version gfa2 (2,210-bp human glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP] promoter) and the truncated variant gfaABC1D (681-bp GFAP promoter). The capacity to drive efficient, but also cell-type specific, expression of the EGFP in astrocytes was tested both in vitro in rat primary cortical cultures as well as in vivo in the rat striatum...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Guangfu Di, Zhichun Wang, Wenming Wang, Feng Cheng, Hua Liu
Oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)/re-oxygenation (OGDR) causes damages to neuronal cells. Sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2) expression could exert neuroprotective functions. Here, we aim to induce SphK2 expression via inhibiting the anti-SphK2 microRNA: microRNA-613 ("miR-613"). In both SH-SY5Y neuronal cells and primary murine hippocampal neurons, transfection of the miR-613's specific inhibitor, antagomiR-613 ("antamiR-613"), induced miR-613 depletion and SphK2 expression. Reversely, forced over-expression of miR-613 caused SphK2 downregulation in SH-SY5Y cells...
September 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yuxiao Tang, Xingjian Cai, Hongwei Zhang, Hui Shen, Wanyin Wang, Zhilei Shen, Wei Gu, Changquan Ling, Min Li
The mechanisms of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation have been studied persistently but still are not elucidated. Considering the emerging roles of microRNA in stress response, we conducted a microRNA microarray in mice hypothalamus to identify the potential role of microRNAs in regulating the HPA axis. In total, 41 microRNAs changed during heat stress, in which we found that miR-212 contains binding sequence with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) 3'UTR according to sequence analysis. We observed that miR-212 expression in the hypothalamus was escalated by repeated heat and restraint stress...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Michael Gliksberg, Gil Levkowitz
Social discrimination is regulated by a variety of sensory inputs. In this issue of Neuron, Dulcis et al. (2017) show that chemosensory-mediated kin preference in Xenopus is determined by changes in neurotransmitter composition, which are regulated by specific microRNAs.
September 13, 2017: Neuron
Luca Gallelli, Erika Cione, Maria Cristina Caroleo, Marco Carotenuto, Pasqualina Lagana, Antonio Siniscalchi, Vincenzo Guidetti
Migraine is a prevalent neurovascular disorders with a complex pathophysiology and therapeutic options characterized by important side effects or problems related to drug abuse. No specific biomarkers are recognized to be univocal for this subclinical condition, yet. In this concern microRNAs have been suggested as potentially useful screening/diagnostic tool, and research is underway to recognize the most effective candidate(s). microRNAs, able to regulate immune and neuronal processes are herein reported for both, mice models with multiple induced pain conditions and human subjects...
September 12, 2017: MicroRNA
Hong-Pei Ji, Yu Xiong, Wei-Tao Song, En-Dong Zhang, Zhao-Lin Gao, Fei Yao, Tao Su, Rong-Rong Zhou, Xiao-Bo Xia
Retinal degenerative diseases ultimately result into irreversible photoreceptor death or loss. At present, the most promising treatment for these diseases is cell replacement therapy. Müller glia are the major glia in the retina, displaying cardinal features of retinal progenitor cells, and can be candidate of seed cells for retinal degenerative diseases. Here, mouse retinal Müller glia dissociated and cultured in vitro amplified and were dedifferentiated into Müller glia-derived progenitors (MGDPs), demonstrating expression of stem/progenitor cell markers Nestin, Sox2 and self-renewal capacity...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lingyang Chen, Xiaodan Wang, Wenguang Huang, Tingting Ying, Minjuan Chen, Jianbin Cao, Mingcang Wang
PURPOSE: Anesthetic reagents, such as bupivacaine (Bv), induce significant neurotoxicity in dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs). In this study, we investigated the expression, function and cross-association of microRNA-137-3p (miR-137-3p) and lysine (K)-specific demethylase 1A (LSD1) in a murine model of Bv-induced neural injury in DRGNs. METHODS: Murine DRGNs were culture in vitro and treated with Bv. QPCR was used to evaluate miR-137-3p expression in Bv-injured DRGNs...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Daniel G Abernathy, Woo Kyung Kim, Matthew J McCoy, Allison M Lake, Rebecca Ouwenga, Seong Won Lee, Xiaoyun Xing, Daofeng Li, Hyung Joo Lee, Robert O Heuckeroth, Joseph D Dougherty, Ting Wang, Andrew S Yoo
Directed reprogramming of human fibroblasts into fully differentiated neurons requires massive changes in epigenetic and transcriptional states. Induction of a chromatin environment permissive for acquiring neuronal subtype identity is therefore a major barrier to fate conversion. Here we show that the brain-enriched miRNAs miR-9/9(∗) and miR-124 (miR-9/9(∗)-124) trigger reconfiguration of chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation, and mRNA expression to induce a default neuronal state. miR-9/9(∗)-124-induced neurons (miNs) are functionally excitable and uncommitted toward specific subtypes but possess open chromatin at neuronal subtype-specific loci, suggesting that such identity can be imparted by additional lineage-specific transcription factors...
September 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
Babu Swathy, Moinak Banerjee
INTRODUCTION: Haloperidol has been extensively used in various psychiatric conditions. It has also been reported to induce severe side effects. We aimed to evaluate whether haloperidol can influence host methylome, and if so what are the possible mechanisms for it in neuronal cells. Impact on host methylome and miRNAs can have wide spread alterations in gene expression, which might possibly help in understanding how haloperidol may impact treatment response or induce side effects. METHODS: SK-N-SH, a neuroblasoma cell line was treated with haloperidol at 10μm concentration for 24 hours and global DNA methylation was evaluated...
2017: PloS One
Xiang Lv, Jia Yan, Jue Jiang, Xuhui Zhou, Yi Lu, Hong Jiang
Sevoflurane is the most widely used anaesthetic administered by inhalation. Exposure to sevoflurane in neonatal mice can induce learning deficits and abnormal social behaviours. MicroRNA (miR)-27a-3p, a short, noncoding RNA that functions as a tumour suppressor, is upregulated after inhalation of anaesthetic, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is one of its target genes. The objective of this study was to investigate how the miR-27a-3p-PPARγ interaction affects sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
Belinda J Goldie, Chantel Fitzsimmons, Judith Weidenhofer, Joshua R Atkins, Dan O Wang, Murray J Cairns
While the cytoplasmic function of microRNA (miRNA) as post-transcriptional regulators of mRNA has been the subject of significant research effort, their activity in the nucleus is less well characterized. Here we use a human neuronal cell model to show that some mature miRNA are preferentially enriched in the nucleus. These molecules were predominantly primate-specific and contained a sequence motif with homology to the consensus MAZ transcription factor binding element. Precursor miRNA containing this motif were shown to have affinity for MAZ protein in nuclear extract...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Franc Llorens, Katrin Thüne, Pol Andrés-Benito, Waqas Tahir, Belén Ansoleaga, Karina Hernández-Ortega, Eulàlia Martí, Inga Zerr, Isidro Ferrer
The present study analyzes by RT-qPCR the expression of microRNA (miRNA)-27a-3p, miRNA-124-3p, miRNA-132-3p, and miRNA-143-3p in the locus coeruleus (LC), entorhinal cortex (EC), CA1 region of the hippocampus (CA1), and dentate gyrus (DG) of middle-aged (MA) individuals with no brain lesions and of cases at Braak and Braak stages I-II and II-IV of neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology. The most affected region is the LC in which miRNA-27a-3p, miRNA-124-3p, and miRNA-143-3p show a trend to increase at stages I-II and are significantly up-regulated at stages III-IV when compared with MA...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Yu Li, Changxin Jia, Dianlong Zhang, Guangzhen Ni, Xia Miao, Ruirong Tu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Studies in developing animals have demonstrated that when anesthetic agents, such as propofol, are early administered in life, it can lead to neuronal cell death and learning disabilities. However, the mechanisms causing these effects remains unknown. A recent report found that propofol could significantly upregulat miR-206 expression in the human ASCs. miR-206 could also induce apoptosis in human malignant cancers. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that propofol induces neurotoxicity in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)...
August 23, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
Davide Dulcis, Giordano Lippi, Christiana J Stark, Long H Do, Darwin K Berg, Nicholas C Spitzer
Changes in social preference of amphibian larvae result from sustained exposure to kinship odorants. To understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms of this neuroplasticity, we investigated the effects of olfactory system activation on neurotransmitter (NT) expression in accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) interneurons during development. We show that protracted exposure to kin or non-kin odorants changes the number of dopamine (DA)- or gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-expressing neurons, with corresponding changes in attraction/aversion behavior...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
Nicolette A Hodyl, Natalie Aboustate, Tina Bianco-Miotto, Claire T Roberts, Vicki L Clifton, Michael J Stark
A significant proportion of children born preterm will experience some level of neurodevelopmental impairment. Changes in placental function have been observed with many antenatal conditions that are risk factors for preterm birth and/or poor neurodevelopment including fetal growth restriction and in-utero inflammation. This review will highlight placental factors that have been studied to understand the underlying mechanisms and identify biomarkers that lead to poor child neurodevelopmental outcomes. These include changes in gross morphological and histopathological structure and the placental inflammatory response to prenatal infection...
September 2017: Placenta
Shayne A Bellingham, Andrew F Hill
Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are disorders of the central nervous system that affect both humans and animals. The underlying cause of prion diseases is the formation and propagation of the infectious prion protein. Prion diseases are difficult to diagnose and treat due to a prolonged asymptomatic incubation period prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA species and have been identified as potential biomarkers that also function to regulate disease-specific pathways and proteins in several neurodegenerative disorders, including prion diseases...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tuan Xu, Heidi Q Xie, Yunping Li, Yingjie Xia, Yangsheng Chen, Li Xu, Lingyun Wang, Bin Zhao
Emerging evidence has shown that dioxin causes dysregulation of microRNAs (miRs) in a variety of tissues or cells. However, little is known about dioxin effects on neuronal miRs expression. In the present study, 277 differentially expressed miRs were identified by miRs microarray analysis in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, at 10(-10) M) treated SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. Among them, 53 miRs exhibited changes of more than 0.4-fold. Consistent with the microarray data, we verified the induction effect of TCDD on hsa-miR-608 expression, which is a primate-specific miR associated with brain functions...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jing Gan, Qianyun Cai, Yi Qu, Fengyan Zhao, Chaomin Wan, Rong Luo, Dezhi Mu
Status epilepticus (SE) can cause brain damage and lead to neural dysfunction. Developing novel targets for SE therapy and diagnosis is important and necessary. Previously, we found several differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) in the developing hippocampus following SE, including the autophagy-related miR-96. In the present study, we employed immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis to assess the expression of autophagy-related 7 (Atg7) and Atg16L1 and the status of autophagosome formation in the hippocampus of immature rats with SE...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lorena Di Pietro, Mirko Baranzini, Maria Grazia Berardinelli, Wanda Lattanzi, Mauro Monforte, Giorgio Tasca, Amelia Conte, Giandomenico Logroscino, Fabrizio Michetti, Enzo Ricci, Mario Sabatelli, Camilla Bernardini
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons followed by muscle weakness, paralysis and death. The disease progression is extremely variable among patients, and reliable prognostic markers have not been identified. The aim of the study was to functionally characterize selected genes and microRNAs acting in the skeletal muscle of ALS patients, taking into account the duration and evolution of the disease, in order to obtain information regarding the muscle response to ALS progression...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sean Quinlan, Aidan Kenny, Miguel Medina, Tobias Engel, Eva M Jimenez-Mateos
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level in a sequence-specific manner. After their discovery in 1993, mounting data have provided compelling evidence for their causal involvement in several human diseases, such as cancer and disorders of the brain. MicroRNAs have been described as the main regulator of homeostasis in neurons, and their dysregulation results in pathological conditions in the brain. In this review, we will focus on the role of MicroRNAs as novel drug targets and biomarkers of the three main neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's diseases, and Huntington's disease) and their role in other neurological disorders including traumatic brain injury and status epilepticus...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
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