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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433420/dna-methylation-program-in-normal-and-alcohol-induced-thinning-cortex
#1
Nail Can Öztürk, Marisol Resendiz, Hakan Öztürk, Feng C Zhou
While cerebral underdevelopment is a hallmark of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), the mechanism(s) guiding the broad cortical neurodevelopmental deficits are not clear. DNA methylation is known to regulate early development and tissue specification through gene regulation. Here, we examined DNA methylation in the onset of alcohol-induced cortical thinning in a mouse model of FASD. C57BL/6 (B6) mice were administered a 4% alcohol (v/v) liquid diet from embryonic (E) days 7-16, and their embryos were harvested at E17, along with isocaloric liquid diet and lab chow controls...
February 20, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423529/pif-promotes-brain-re-myelination-locally-while-regulating-systemic-inflammation-clinically-relevant-multiple-sclerosis-m-smegmatis-model
#2
Giuseppe Migliara, Martin Mueller, Alessia Piermattei, Chaya Brodie, Michael J Paidas, Eytan R Barnea, Francesco Ria
Neurologic disease diagnosis and treatment is challenging. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease with few clinical forms and uncertain etiology. Current studies suggest that it is likely caused by infection(s) triggering a systemic immune response resulting in antigen/non-antigen-related autoimmune response in central nervous system (CNS). New therapeutic approaches are needed. Secreted by viable embryos, PreImplantation Factor (PIF) possesses a local and systemic immunity regulatory role...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422052/folic-acid-reduces-tau-phosphorylation-by-regulating-pp2a-methylation-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#3
Miaoyan Zheng, Chen Zou, Mengyue Li, Guowei Huang, Yuxia Gao, Huan Liu
High incidence rate of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau are the hallmarks of AD. Hyperphosphorylated tau has been detected in diabetic animals as well as in diabetic patients. Folates mediate the transfer of one carbon unit, required in various biochemical reactions. The effect of folate on tau phosphorylation in diabetic models still remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of folic acid on hyperphosphorylation of tau in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421879/dna-methylation-mechanism-of-intracellular-zinc-deficiency-induced-injury-in-primary-hippocampal-neurons-in-the-rat-brain
#4
Cong-Cong He, Zi-Yu Wang, Kun Tian, Wei Liu, Yi-Bo Li, Yan Hong, Li-Xia Yu, Wei Pang, Yu-Gang Jiang, Yan-Qiang Liu
OBJECTIVE: To explore Zn(2+) deficiency-induced neuronal injury in relation to DNA methylation, providing valuable data and basic information for clarifying the mechanism of Zn(2+) deficiency-induced neuronal injury. METHODS: Cultured hippocampal neurons were exposed to the cell membrane-permeant Zn(2+) chelator N,N,N',N'-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) (2 μM), and to TPEN (2 μM) plus ZnSO4 (5 μM) for 24 hours. We analyzed intracellular Zn(2+) levels, neuronal viability, and protein/mRNA levels for DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), DNA (cytosine-5-) methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3a), methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, beta (GADD45b) in the treated neurons...
April 19, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416970/dna-methylation-profiling-in-peripheral-lung-tissues-of-smokers-and-patients-with-copd
#5
Isaac K Sundar, Qiangzong Yin, Brian S Baier, Li Yan, Witold Mazur, Dongmei Li, Martha Susiarjo, Irfan Rahman
BACKGROUND: Epigenetics changes have been shown to be affected by cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoke (CS)-mediated DNA methylation can potentially affect several cellular and pathophysiological processes, acute exacerbations, and comorbidity in the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to determine whether genome-wide lung DNA methylation profiles of smokers and patients with COPD were significantly different from non-smokers. We isolated DNA from parenchymal lung tissues of patients including eight lifelong non-smokers, eight current smokers, and eight patients with COPD and analyzed the samples using Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401839/caregiver-maltreatment-causes-altered-neuronal-dna-methylation-in-female-rodents
#6
Jennifer Blaze, Tania L Roth
Negative experiences with a caregiver during infancy can result in long-term changes in brain function and behavior, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. It is our central hypothesis that brain and behavior changes are conferred by early childhood adversity through epigenetic changes involving DNA methylation. Using a rodent model of early-life caregiver maltreatment (involving exposure to an adverse caregiving environment for postnatal days 1-7), we have previously demonstrated abnormal methylation of DNA associated with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adult rats...
May 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398586/neonatal-inhibition-of-dna-methylation-alters-cell-phenotype-in-sexually-dimorphic-regions-of-the-mouse-brain
#7
M Mosley, J Weathington, L R Cortes, E Bruggeman, A Castillo-Ruiz, B Xue, N G Forger
Many of the best-studied neural sex differences relate to differences in cell number and are due to the hormonal control of developmental cell death. However, several prominent neural sex differences persist even if cell death is eliminated. We hypothesized that these may reflect cell phenotype "decisions" that depend on epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. To test this, we treated newborn mice with the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor zebularine, or vehicle, and examined two sexually dimorphic markers at weaning...
April 7, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393704/epigenetic-regulation-of-memory-therapeutic-potential-for-disorders
#8
Padmanabh Singh, Sweta Srivas, M K Thakur
Memory is a vital function which declines in different physiological and pathological conditions such as aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Research in the past has reported that memory formation and consolidation require the precise expression of synaptic plasticity genes. However, little is known about the regulation of these genes. Epigenetic modification is now a well established mechanism that regulates synaptic plasticity genes and neuronal functions including memory. Such modification includes mainly DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation, histone acetylation and methylation which involve chromatin modifying enzymes...
April 4, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389369/prenatal-stress-and-depression-associated-neuronal-development-in-neonates
#9
REVIEW
Mahino Fatima, Saurabh Srivastav, Amal Chandra Mondal
Prenatal maternal depression has its direct effects on early brain development deficits with permanent changes in neuroendocrine functions and impaired behavior in offsprings. Prenatal stress (PS) transmits its affect on developing fetus and on pregnancy outcomes in adult offsprings. This results in impaired neurodevelopment, delayed cognitive and motor development with impaired behavior towards stressful conditions. There are sufficient evidences in animal models suggesting depression responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its hormonal response via cortisol, responsible for its critical effects in both the mother and offspring...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365388/comparative-analysis-of-mbd-seq-and-medip-seq-and-estimation-of-gene-expression-changes-in-a-rodent-model-of-schizophrenia
#10
Jennifer L Neary, Stephanie M Perez, Kara Peterson, Daniel J Lodge, Melanie A Carless
We conducted a comparative study of multiplexed affinity enrichment sequence methodologies (MBD-seq and MeDIP-seq) in a rodent model of schizophrenia, induced by in utero methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) exposure. We also examined related gene expression changes using a pooled sample approach. MBD-seq and MeDIP-seq identified 769 and 1771 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between F2 offspring of MAM-exposed rats and saline control rats, respectively. The assays showed good concordance, with ~56% of MBD-seq-detected DMRs being identified by or proximal to MeDIP-seq DMRs...
March 29, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346321/growth-arrest-and-dna-damage-inducible-protein-45%C3%AE-mediated-dna-demethylation-of-voltage-dependent-t-type-calcium-channel-3-2-subunit-enhances-neuropathic-allodynia-after-nerve-injury-in-rats
#11
Cheng-Yuan Lai, Ming-Chun Hsieh, Yu-Cheng Ho, An-Sheng Lee, Hsueh-Hsiao Wang, Jen-Kun Cheng, Yat-Pang Chau, Hsien-Yu Peng
BACKGROUND: Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45β reactivates methylation-silenced neural plasticity-associated genes through DNA demethylation. However, growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45β-dependent demethylation contributes to neuropathic allodynia-associated spinal plasticity remains unclear. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (654 out of 659) received a spinal nerve ligation or a sham operation with or without intrathecal application of one of the following: growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45β messenger RNA-targeted small interfering RNA, lentiviral vector expressing growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45β, Ro 25-6981 (an NR2B-bearing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist), or KN-93 (a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II antagonist) were used for behavioral measurements, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, dot blots, detection of unmodified cytosine enrichment at cytosine-phosphate-guanine site, chromatin immunoprecipitation quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, and slice recordings...
March 27, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335720/widespread-promoter-methylation-of-synaptic-plasticity-genes-in-long-term-potentiation-in-the-adult-brain-in-vivo
#12
Jesper L V Maag, Dominik C Kaczorowski, Debabrata Panja, Timothy J Peters, Clive R Bramham, Karin Wibrand, Marcel E Dinger
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is a key modulator of gene expression in mammalian development and cellular differentiation, including neurons. To date, the role of DNA modifications in long-term potentiation (LTP) has not been explored. RESULTS: To investigate the occurrence of DNA methylation changes in LTP, we undertook the first detailed study to describe the methylation status of all known LTP-associated genes during LTP induction in the dentate gyrus of live rats...
March 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334952/dnmt1-mutations-found-in-hsanie-patients-affect-interaction-with-uhrf1-and-neuronal-differentiation
#13
Martha Smets, Stephanie Link, Patricia Wolf, Katrin Schneider, Veronica Solis, Joel Ryan, Daniela Meilinger, Weihua Qin, Heinrich Leonhardt
DNMT1 is recruited to substrate sites by PCNA and UHRF1 to maintain DNA methylation after replication. The cell cycle dependent recruitment of DNMT1 is mediated by the PCNA-binding domain (PBD) and the targeting sequence (TS) within the N-terminal regulatory domain. The TS domain was found to be mutated in patients suffering from hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies with dementia and hearing loss (HSANIE) and autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN) and is associated with global hypomethylation and site specific hypermethylation...
April 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330812/molecular-evidence-for-differential-long-term-outcomes-of-early-life-severe-acute-malnutrition
#14
Allan Sheppard, Sherry Ngo, Xiaoling Li, Michael Boyne, Debbie Thompson, Anthony Pleasants, Peter Gluckman, Terrence Forrester
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in infants may present as one of two distinct syndromic forms: non-edematous (marasmus), with severe wasting and no nutritional edema; or edematous (kwashiorkor) with moderately severe wasting. These differences may be related to developmental changes prior to the exposure to SAM and phenotypic changes appear to persist into adulthood with differences between the two groups. We examined whether the different response to SAM and subsequent trajectories may be explained by developmentally-induced epigenetic differences...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329817/early-life-benzo-a-pyrene-exposure-causes-neurodegenerative-syndromes-in-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio-and-the-mechanism-involved
#15
Dongxu Gao, Chonggang Wang, Zhihui Xi, Yixi Zhou, Yuanchuan Wang, Zhenghong Zuo
There is increasing recognition of the importance of early-life environmental exposures in health disorders at later-life stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether early-life exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) could induce neurodegenerative syndromes at later-life stages in zebrafish. Embryos were exposed to BaP at doses of 0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, and 50 nM from early embryogenesis to 96 h post-fertilization (hpf), then transferred to clean water and maintained for 365 days. We found that BaP decreased locomotor and cognitive ability, neurotransmitter levels of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and norepinephrine; and induced loss of dopaminergic neurons and resulted in neurodegeneration...
January 30, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320934/allele-specific-non-cg-dna-methylation-marks-domains-of-active-chromatin-in-female-mouse-brain
#16
Christopher L Keown, Joel B Berletch, Rosa Castanon, Joseph R Nery, Christine M Disteche, Joseph R Ecker, Eran A Mukamel
DNA methylation at gene promoters in a CG context is associated with transcriptional repression, including at genes silenced on the inactive X chromosome in females. Non-CG methylation (mCH) is a distinct feature of the neuronal epigenome that is differentially distributed between males and females on the X chromosome. However, little is known about differences in mCH on the active (Xa) and inactive (Xi) X chromosomes because stochastic X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) confounds allele-specific epigenomic profiling...
April 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314819/depressive-like-behaviors-are-regulated-by-nox1-nadph-oxidase-by-redox-modification-of-nmda-receptor-1
#17
Masakazu Ibi, Junjie Liu, Noriaki Arakawa, Shiho Kitaoka, Ai Kawaji, Ken-Ichi Matsuda, Kazumi Iwata, Misaki Matsumoto, Masato Katsuyama, Kai Zhu, Satoshi Teramukai, Tomoyuki Furuyashiki, Chihiro Yabe-Nishimura
Involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been suggested in the development of psychiatric disorders. NOX1 is a nonphagocytic form of NADPH oxidase whose expression in the nervous system is negligible compared with other NOX isoforms. However, NOX1-derived ROS increase inflammatory pain and tolerance to opioid analgesia. To clarify the role of NOX1 in the brain, we examined depressive-like behaviors in mice deficient in Nox1 (Nox1(-/Y)). Depressive-like behaviors induced by chronic social defeat stress or administration of corticosterone (CORT) were significantly ameliorated in Nox1(-/Y) Generation of ROS was significantly elevated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of mice administrated with CORT, while NOX1 mRNA was upregulated only in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) among brain areas responsible for emotional behaviors...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280564/methylation-of-avpr1a-in-the-cortex-of-wild-prairie-voles-effects-of-cpg-position-and-polymorphism
#18
M Okhovat, S M Maguire, S M Phelps
DNA methylation can cause stable changes in neuronal gene expression, but we know little about its role in individual differences in the wild. In this study, we focus on the vasopressin 1a receptor (avpr1a), a gene extensively implicated in vertebrate social behaviour, and explore natural variation in DNA methylation, genetic polymorphism and neuronal gene expression among 30 wild prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Examination of CpG density across 8 kb of the locus revealed two distinct CpG islands overlapping promoter and first exon, characterized by few CpG polymorphisms...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279785/epigenetic-interventions-for-epileptogenesis-a-new-frontier-for-curing-epilepsy
#19
REVIEW
Iyan Younus, Doodipala Samba Reddy
This article highlights the emerging therapeutic potential of specific epigenetic modulators as promising antiepileptogenic or disease-modifying agents for curing epilepsy. Currently, there is an unmet need for antiepileptogenic agents that truly prevent the development of epilepsy in people at risk. There is strong evidence that epigenetic signaling, which exerts high fidelity regulation of gene expression, plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of epileptogenesis and chronic epilepsy. These modifications are not hard-wired into the genome and are constantly reprogrammed by environmental influences...
March 6, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275132/impact-of-polyunsaturated-and-saturated-fat-overfeeding-on-the-dna-methylation-pattern-in-human-adipose-tissue-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Alexander Perfilyev, Ingrid Dahlman, Linn Gillberg, Fredrik Rosqvist, David Iggman, Petr Volkov, Emma Nilsson, Ulf Risérus, Charlotte Ling
Background: Dietary fat composition can affect ectopic lipid accumulation and, thereby, insulin resistance. Diets that are high in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have different metabolic responses.Objective: We investigated whether the epigenome of human adipose tissue is affected differently by dietary fat composition and general overfeeding in a randomized trial.Design: We studied the effects of 7 wk of excessive SFA (n = 17) or PUFA (n = 14) intake (+750 kcal/d) on the DNA methylation of ∼450,000 sites in human subcutaneous adipose tissue...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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