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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930691/dna-methylome-analysis-identifies-transcription-factor-based-epigenomic-signatures-of-multilineage-competence-in-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#1
Tsukasa Sanosaka, Takuya Imamura, Nobuhiko Hamazaki, MuhChyi Chai, Katsuhide Igarashi, Maky Ideta-Otsuka, Fumihito Miura, Takashi Ito, Nobuyuki Fujii, Kazuho Ikeo, Kinichi Nakashima
Regulation of the epigenome during in vivo specification of brain stem cells is still poorly understood. Here, we report DNA methylome analyses of directly sampled cortical neural stem and progenitor cells (NS/PCs) at different development stages, as well as those of terminally differentiated cortical neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. We found that sequential specification of cortical NS/PCs is regulated by two successive waves of demethylation at early and late development stages, which are responsible for the establishment of neuron- and glia-specific low-methylated regions (LMRs), respectively...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925810/ube3a-mediated-regulation-of-imprinted-genes-and-epigenome-wide-marks-in-human-neurons
#2
S Jesse Lopez, Keith Dunaway, M Saharul Islam, Charles Mordaunt, Annie Vogel Ciernia, Makiko Meguro-Horike, Shin-Ichi Horike, David J Segal, Janine LaSalle
The dysregulation of genes in neurodevelopmental disorders that lead to social and cognitive phenotypes is a complex, multilayered process involving both genetics and epigenetics. Parent-of-origin effects of deletion and duplication of the 15q11-q13 locus leading to Angelman, Prader-Willi, and Dup15q syndromes are due to imprinted genes, including UBE3A, which is maternally expressed exclusively in neurons. UBE3A encodes a ubiquitin E3 ligase protein with multiple downstream targets, including RING1B, which in turn monoubiquitinates histone variant H2A...
September 19, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923016/5-hydroxymethylcytosine-is-highly-dynamic-across-human-fetal-brain-development
#3
Helen Spiers, Eilis Hannon, Leonard C Schalkwyk, Nicholas J Bray, Jonathan Mill
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic processes play a key role in orchestrating transcriptional regulation during the development of the human central nervous system. We previously described dynamic changes in DNA methylation (5mC) occurring during human fetal brain development, but other epigenetic processes operating during this period have not been extensively explored. Of particular interest is DNA hydroxymethylation (5hmC), a modification that is enriched in the human brain and hypothesized to play an important role in neuronal function, learning and memory...
September 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921898/maternal-chronic-folate-supplementation-ameliorates-behavior-disorders-induced-by-prenatal-high-fat-diet-through-methylation-alteration-of-bdnf-and-grin2b-in-offspring-hippocampus
#4
Zhonghai Yan, Fei Jiao, Xiaoshuang Yan, Hailong Ou
SCOPE: Maternal consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy increases the risk of behavioral problems. Folate plays an important role in neuroplasticity and the preservation of neuronal integrity. This study aimed at determining the influence of diets supplemented with folate on offspring behavior, and the mechanisms involved. METHODS AND RESULTS: Female mice were fed a control diet, a high-fat diet, control diet supplemented with folate, or a high-fat diet supplemented with folate for 5 wks before mating...
September 17, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914148/dna-methylation-in-candidate-genes-for-handedness-predicts-handedness-direction
#5
Judith Schmitz, Robert Kumsta, Dirk Moser, Onur Güntürkün, Sebastian Ocklenburg
Handedness is a complex trait influenced by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Asymmetries of DNA methylation and gene expression in the developing foetus are thought to underlie its development. However, its molecular epigenetics are not well understood. We collected buccal cells from adult left- and right-handers (n = 60) to investigate whether epigenetic biomarkers of handedness can be identified in non-neuronal tissue. We associated DNA methylation in promoter regions of candidate genes with handedness direction...
September 15, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900200/differential-landscape-of-non-cpg-methylation-in-embryonic-stem-cells-and-neurons-caused-by-dnmt3s
#6
Jong-Hun Lee, Sung-Joon Park, Kenta Nakai
Methylated non-CpGs (mCpH; H means A, C, and T) have emerged as key epigenetic marks in mammalian embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and neurons, regulating cell type-specific functions. In these two cell types, mCpHs show distinct motifs and correlations to transcription that could be a key in understanding the cell type-specific regulations. Thus, we attempted to uncover the underlying mechanism of the differences in ESCs and neurons by conducting a comprehensive analysis of public whole genome bisulfite sequencing data...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891753/the-influence-of-schisandrin-b-on-a-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-using-%C3%AE-amyloid-protein-a%C3%AE-1-42-mediated-damage-in-sh-sy5y-neuronal-cell-line-and-underlying-mechanisms
#7
Ming Zhang, Hong-Xia Zheng, Yang-Yang Gao, Bo Zheng, Jing-Ping Liu, He Wang, Zhan-Jun Yang, Zhi-Ying Zhao
Schisandrin B, an active substance, is derived from Chinese herb fruit Wuweizi, which exerts various pharmacological activities and has displayed significant beneficial effects in ameliorating Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to further extend our examination for the use of schisandrin B extract in the potential treatment of AD effects by investigating DNA methylation (DNMT), known to be modified in this disease using SH-SY5Y neuronal cell line exposed to β-amyloid protein (Aβ1-42). In particular, the purpose of this investigation was to examine alterations in mRNA and protein expression of DNMT...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886366/micrornas-induce-a-permissive-chromatin-environment-that-enables-neuronal-subtype-specific-reprogramming-of-adult-human-fibroblasts
#8
Daniel G Abernathy, Woo Kyung Kim, Matthew J McCoy, Allison M Lake, Rebecca Ouwenga, Seong Won Lee, Xiaoyun Xing, Daofeng Li, Hyung Joo Lee, Robert O Heuckeroth, Joseph D Dougherty, Ting Wang, Andrew S Yoo
Directed reprogramming of human fibroblasts into fully differentiated neurons requires massive changes in epigenetic and transcriptional states. Induction of a chromatin environment permissive for acquiring neuronal subtype identity is therefore a major barrier to fate conversion. Here we show that the brain-enriched miRNAs miR-9/9(∗) and miR-124 (miR-9/9(∗)-124) trigger reconfiguration of chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation, and mRNA expression to induce a default neuronal state. miR-9/9(∗)-124-induced neurons (miNs) are functionally excitable and uncommitted toward specific subtypes but possess open chromatin at neuronal subtype-specific loci, suggesting that such identity can be imparted by additional lineage-specific transcription factors...
September 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886188/alkylation-induced-cerebellar-degeneration-dependent-on-aag-and-parp1-does-not-occur-via-previously-established-cell-death-mechanisms
#9
Carrie M Margulies, Isaac Alexander Chaim, Aprotim Mazumder, June Criscione, Leona D Samson
Alkylating agents are ubiquitous in our internal and external environments, causing DNA damage that contributes to mutations and cell death that can result in aging, tissue degeneration and cancer. Repair of methylated DNA bases occurs primarily through the base excision repair (BER) pathway, a multi-enzyme pathway initiated by the alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (Aag, also known as Mpg). Previous work demonstrated that mice treated with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) undergo cerebellar degeneration in an Aag-dependent manner, whereby increased BER initiation by Aag causes increased tissue damage that is dependent on activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (Parp1)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886082/haloperidol-induces-pharmacoepigenetic-response-by-modulating-mirna-expression-global-dna-methylation-and-expression-profiles-of-methylation-maintenance-genes-and-genes-involved-in-neurotransmission-in-neuronal-cells
#10
Babu Swathy, Moinak Banerjee
INTRODUCTION: Haloperidol has been extensively used in various psychiatric conditions. It has also been reported to induce severe side effects. We aimed to evaluate whether haloperidol can influence host methylome, and if so what are the possible mechanisms for it in neuronal cells. Impact on host methylome and miRNAs can have wide spread alterations in gene expression, which might possibly help in understanding how haloperidol may impact treatment response or induce side effects. METHODS: SK-N-SH, a neuroblasoma cell line was treated with haloperidol at 10μm concentration for 24 hours and global DNA methylation was evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880816/5-aza-2-deoxycytidine-a-dna-methylation-inhibitor-induces-cytotoxicity-cell-cycle-dynamics-and-alters-expression-of-dna-methyltransferase-1-and-3a-in-mouse-hippocampus-derived-neuronal-ht22-cells
#11
Jing Yang, Xiaoli Tian, Jie Yang, Junhe Cui, Shuyuan Jiang, Rui Shi, You Liu, Xiaolei Liu, Wenqiang Xu, Wei Xie, Xiaoe Jia, Rengui Bade, Tao Zhang, Ming Zhang, Kerui Gong, Shaochun Yan, Zhanjun Yang, Guo Shao
Epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation are essential for processes of gene expression in normal mammalian development. DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) are responsible for initiating and maintaining DNA methylation. It is known that 5-Aza-CdR, an inhibitor of DNMT induces cytotoxicity by reducing DNMT activity in various tumor cell lines. However, disturbances in neuronal DNA methylation may also play a role in altered brain functions. Thus, it was of interest to determine whether alterations in DNA methylation might be associated with neuronal functions by using 5-Aza-CdR, on mouse hippocampus-derived neuronal HT22 cell line...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864022/child-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-following-preterm-and-term-birth-what-can-the-placenta-tell-us
#12
REVIEW
Nicolette A Hodyl, Natalie Aboustate, Tina Bianco-Miotto, Claire T Roberts, Vicki L Clifton, Michael J Stark
A significant proportion of children born preterm will experience some level of neurodevelopmental impairment. Changes in placental function have been observed with many antenatal conditions that are risk factors for preterm birth and/or poor neurodevelopment including fetal growth restriction and in-utero inflammation. This review will highlight placental factors that have been studied to understand the underlying mechanisms and identify biomarkers that lead to poor child neurodevelopmental outcomes. These include changes in gross morphological and histopathological structure and the placental inflammatory response to prenatal infection...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860502/bi-directional-and-shared-epigenomic-signatures-following-proton-and-56-fe-irradiation
#13
Soren Impey, Timothy Jopson, Carl Pelz, Amanuel Tafessu, Fatema Fareh, Damian Zuloaga, Tessa Marzulla, Lara-Kirstie Riparip, Blair Stewart, Susanna Rosi, Mitchell S Turker, Jacob Raber
The brain's response to radiation exposure is an important concern for patients undergoing cancer therapy and astronauts on long missions in deep space. We assessed whether this response is specific and prolonged and is linked to epigenetic mechanisms. We focused on the response of the hippocampus at early (2-weeks) and late (20-week) time points following whole body proton irradiation. We examined two forms of DNA methylation, cytosine methylation (5mC) and hydroxymethylation (5hmC). Impairments in object recognition, spatial memory retention, and network stability following proton irradiation were observed at the two-week time point and correlated with altered gene expression and 5hmC profiles that mapped to specific gene ontology pathways...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851441/parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-dna-methylation-levels-in-human-blood-and-saliva
#14
Yu-Hsuan Chuang, Kimberly C Paul, Jeff M Bronstein, Yvette Bordelon, Steve Horvath, Beate Ritz
BACKGROUND: Several articles suggest that DNA methylation levels in blood relate to Parkinson's disease (PD) but there is a need for a large-scale study that involves suitable population based controls. The purposes of the study were: (1) to study whether PD status is associated with DNA methylation levels in blood/saliva; (2) to study whether observed associations relate to blood cell types; and (3) to characterize genome-wide significant markers ("CpGs") and clusters of CpGs (co-methylation modules) in terms of biological pathways...
August 30, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835159/increased-dna-methylation-in-the-parvalbumin-gene-promoter-is-associated-with-methamphetamine-dependence
#15
Siriluk Veerasakul, Paritat Watiktinkorn, Samur Thanoi, Caroline F Dalton, Helene A Fachim, Sutisa Nudmamud-Thanoi, Gavin P Reynolds
AIM: The parvalbumin (PV)-containing subgroup of GABAergic neurons is particularly affected in schizophrenia and animal models of psychosis, including after methamphetamine (METH) administration. We investigated whether METH dependence and METH-induced psychosis may involve an effect on DNA methylation of the PVALB promoter. MATERIALS & METHODS: The methylation of a PVALB promoter sequence was determined in 100 METH-dependent and 102 control subjects using pyrosequencing...
August 24, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828398/poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-parp-1-induction-by-cocaine-is-post-transcriptionally-regulated-by-mir-125b
#16
Sabyasachi Dash, Muthukumar Balasubramaniam, Tanu Rana, Arthur Godino, Emily G Peck, Jeffery Shawn Goodwin, Fernando Villalta, Erin S Calipari, Eric J Nestler, Chandravanu Dash, Jui Pandhare
Cocaine exposure alters gene expression in the brain via methylation and acetylation of histones along with methylation of DNA. Recently, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) catalyzed PARylation has been reported as an important regulator of cocaine-mediated gene expression. In this study, we report that the cellular microRNA "miR-125b" plays a key role for cocaine-induced PARP-1 expression. Acute and chronic cocaine exposure resulted in the downregulation of miR-125b concurrent with upregulation of PARP-1 in dopaminergic neuronal cells and nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice but not in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) or ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821749/dna-methylation-in-demyelinated-multiple-sclerosis-hippocampus
#17
Anthony M Chomyk, Christina Volsko, Ajai Tripathi, Sadie A Deckard, Bruce D Trapp, Robert J Fox, Ranjan Dutta
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the human central nervous system (CNS). Memory impairments and hippocampal demyelination are common features in MS patients. Our previous data have shown that demyelination alters neuronal gene expression in the hippocampus. DNA methylation is a common epigenetic modifier of gene expression. In this study, we investigated whether DNA methylation is altered in MS hippocampus following demyelination. Our results show that mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferase were increased in demyelinated MS hippocampus, while de-methylation enzymes were decreased...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815487/benzophenone-3-impairs-autophagy-alters-epigenetic-status-and-disrupts-retinoid-x-receptor-signaling-in-apoptotic-neuronal-cells
#18
Agnieszka Wnuk, Joanna Rzemieniec, Władysław Lasoń, Wojciech Krzeptowski, Małgorzata Kajta
Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is the most widely used compound among UV filters for the prevention of photodegradation. Population studies have demonstrated that it penetrates through the skin and crosses the blood-brain barrier. However, little is known about the impact of BP-3 on the nervous system and its possible adverse effects on the developing brain. We demonstrated that the neurotoxic effects of BP-3 were accompanied by the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by apoptosis-related caspase-3 activation and apoptotic body formation as well as the inhibition of autophagy, as determined by the downregulation of autophagy-related genes, decreased autophagosome formation, and reduced LC3B-to-LC3A ratio...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812058/environmental-pollutants-and-neurodevelopment-review-of-benefits-from-closure-of-a-coal-burning-power-plant-in-tongliang-china
#19
Vrinda Kalia, Frederica Perera, Deliang Tang
Background. Understanding preventable causes of neurodevelopmental disorders is a public health priority. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from combustion of fossil fuel, lead, and mercury are among known neurodevelopmental toxicants. Method. For the first time, we comprehensively review the findings from a study by the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health and Chinese partners that followed 2 groups of mother-child pairs, one from 2002 and another from 2005, in Tongliang County, China. Pregnant mothers in the 2 cohorts experienced different exposure to PAH because a local coal-burning power plant was shut down in 2004...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809129/effect-of-methotrexate-vitamin-b12-on-dna-methylation-as-a-potential-factor-in-leukemia-treatment-related-neurotoxicity
#20
Victoria J Forster, Alex McDonnell, Rachel Theobald, Jill A McKay
Methotrexate (MTX) is administered to treat childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It acts by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase which reduces methyltetrahydrofolate, a key component in one carbon metabolism, thus reducing cell proliferation. Further perturbations to one carbon metabolism, such as reduced vitamin B12 levels via the use of nitrous oxide for sedation during childhood ALL treatment, may increase neurotoxicity risk. With B12 as an enzymatic cofactor, methyltetrahydrofolate is essential to produce methionine, which is critical for DNA methylation...
August 15, 2017: Epigenomics
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