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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218611/portal-hypertension-is-associated-with-poor-outcome-of-transarterial-chemoembolization-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
Jin Woo Choi, Jin Wook Chung, Dong Ho Lee, Hyo-Cheol Kim, Saebeom Hur, Myungsu Lee, Hwan Jun Jae
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether clinically relevant portal hypertension (CRPH) influences outcome and whether it may serve as a prognostic marker in patients treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: One hundred and forty-seven patients underwent conventional TACE as a first-line treatment for a single HCC. CRPH was graded as 0, 1, or 2. The influence of CRPH, together with other factors, on local tumour progression (LTP) and overall survival (OS) were analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression...
December 7, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218095/effect-of-repeated-neonatal-sevoflurane-exposure-on-the-learning-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity-at-juvenile-and-adult-age
#2
Xiaoli Liang, Yi Zhang, Chao Zhang, Chunchun Tang, Yi Wang, Juanjuan Ren, Xi Chen, Yu Zhang, Zhaoqiong Zhu
Currently sevoflurane is the volatile anesthetic most wildly used in pediatric surgery. Whether neonatal exposure to sevoflurane brings about a long-lasting adverse impact even at juvenile and adult age, attracts extensive concerns. However, to date the consensus has not been reached and how exposure to sevoflurane in early life affects long-term ability of learning and memory is not fully elucidated. To obtain further insight into this issue, 32 neonatal SD rats were assigned into control group (group C, n=16) and sevoflurane group (group SEV, n=16)...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213058/interplay-between-global-and-pathway-specific-synaptic-plasticity-in-ca1-pyramidal-cells
#3
Sven Berberich, Jörg Pohle, Marie Pollard, Janet Barroso-Flores, Georg Köhr
Mechanisms underlying information storage have been depicted for global cell-wide and pathway-specific synaptic plasticity. Yet, little is known how these forms of plasticity interact to enhance synaptic competition and network stability. We examined synaptic interactions between apical and basal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons in mouse hippocampal slices. Bursts (50 Hz) of three action potentials (AP-bursts) paired with preceding presynaptic stimulation in stratum radiatum specifically led to LTP of the paired pathway in adult mice (P75)...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207276/environmental-enrichment-improves-hippocampal-function-in-aged-rats-by-enhancing-learning-and-memory-ltp-and-mglur5-homer1c-activity
#4
Guiseppe P Cortese, Andrew Olin, Kenneth O'Riordan, Rikki Hullinger, Corinna Burger
Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that environmental enrichment (EE) in young rats results in improved learning ability and enhanced metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (mGluR-dependent LTP) resulting from sustained activation of p70S6 kinase. Here, we investigated whether 1-month EE is sufficient to improve hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and enhance hippocampal LTP in 23-24 month-old Fischer 344 male rats. Aged rats were housed in environmentally enriched, socially enriched, or standard housing conditions...
November 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205377/adenosine-a2a-receptors-are-required-for-glutamate-mglur5-and-dopamine-d1-receptor-evoked-erk1-2-phosphorylation-in-rat-hippocampus-involvement-of-nmda-receptor
#5
Paraskevi Krania, Eleni Dimou, Maria Bantouna, Stylianos Kouvaros, Eirini Tsiamaki, Costas Papatheodoropoulos, Konstantinos Sarantis, Fevronia Angelatou
Interaction between mGluR5 and NMDA receptors (NMDAR) is vital for synaptic plasticity and cognition. We recently demonstrated that stimulation of mGluR5 enhances NMDAR-responses in hippocampus by phosphorylating NR2B(Tyr1472) subunit, and this reaction was enabled by adenosine A2A receptors(A2A R) (Sarantis et al.2015). In this study, by using in vitro phosphorylation and western blot analysis in hippocampal slices of male Wistar rats, we show, that mGluR5 stimulation or mGluR5/NMDARs co-stimulation, synergistically activate ERK1/2 signaling leading to c-Fos expression...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204911/repeated-shock-stress-facilitates-basolateral-amygdala-synaptic-plasticity-through-decreased-camp-specific-phosphodiesterase-type-iv-pde4-expression
#6
Steve Ryan, Chenchen Li, Aurélie Menigoz, Rimi Hazra, Joanna Dabrowska, David Ehrlich, Katelyn Gordon, Donald G Rainnie
Previous studies have shown that exposure to stressful events can enhance fear memory and anxiety-like behavior as well as increase synaptic plasticity in the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA). We have evidence that repeated unpredictable shock stress (USS) elicits a long-lasting increase in anxiety-like behavior in rats, but the cellular mechanisms mediating this response remain unclear. Evidence from recent morphological studies suggests that alterations in the dendritic arbor or spine density of BLA principal neurons may underlie stress-induced anxiety behavior...
December 4, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204679/gestational-exposure-to-inorganic-arsenic-ias3-alters-glutamate-disposition-in-the-mouse-hippocampus-and-ionotropic-glutamate-receptor-expression-leading-to-memory-impairment
#7
Janikua Nelson-Mora, Martha L Escobar, Luis Rodríguez-Durán, Lourdes Massieu, Teresa Montiel, Verónica M Rodríguez, Karina Hernández-Mercado, María E Gonsebatt
Early life exposure to environmental pollutants and toxic chemicals has been linked to learning and behavioral alterations in children. iAs exposure is associated with different types neurological disorders such as memory and learning impairment. iAs is methylated in the brain by the arsenic III-methyltransferase in a process that requires glutathione (GSH). The xCT-antiporter cell membrane transporter participates in the influx of cystine for GSH synthesis in exchange for glutamate in a 1:1 ratio. In CD-1 mice gestationally exposed to 20 ppm of sodium arsenite in drinking water, we have previously observed up-regulation of xCT in the male mouse hippocampus which caused glutamatergic synapse alterations affecting learning and memory processes...
December 4, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203394/percutaneous-microwave-versus-radiofrequency-ablation-of-colorectal-liver%C3%A2-metastases-ablation-with-clear-margins-a0-provides-the-best-local-tumor%C3%A2-control
#8
Waleed Shady, Elena N Petre, Kinh Gian Do, Mithat Gonen, Hooman Yarmohammadi, Karen T Brown, Nancy E Kemeny, Michael D'Angelica, Peter T Kingham, Stephen B Solomon, Constantinos T Sofocleous
PURPOSE: To identify and compare predictors of local tumor progression (LTP)-free survival (LTPFS) after radiofrequency (RF) ablation and microwave (MW) ablation of colorectal liver metastases (CLMs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective review of CLMs ablated from November 2009 to April 2015 (110 patients). Margins were measured on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) 6 weeks after ablation. Clinical and technical predictors of LTPFS were assessed using a competing risk model adjusted for clustering...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202853/increased-pkm%C3%AE-activity-impedes-lateral-movement-of-glua2-containing-ampa-receptors
#9
Nam-Kyung Yu, Heesoo Uhm, Jaehoon Shim, Jun-Hyeok Choi, Sangsu Bae, Todd Charlton Sacktor, Sungchul Hohng, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ), a constitutively active, atypical protein kinase C isoform, maintains a high level of expression in the brain after the induction of learning and long-term potentiation (LTP). Further, its overexpression enhances long-term memory and LTP. Thus, multiple lines of evidence suggest a significant role for persistently elevated PKMζ levels in long-term memory. The molecular mechanisms of how synaptic properties are regulated by the increase in PKMζ, however, are still largely unknown...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199234/the-seed-of-zizyphus-jujuba-var-spinosa-attenuates-alzheimer-s-disease-associated-hippocampal-synaptic-deficits-through-bdnf-trkb-signaling
#10
Huiyoung Kwon, In Ho Jung, Ji Hyun Yi, Jae Hoon Kim, Jung Hoon Park, Seungheon Lee, Ji Wook Jung, Young Choon Lee, Jong Hoon Ryu, Dong Hyun Kim
Ziziphus jujuba is a plant, which bears fruits and seeds that are used for medicinal purposes in Traditional oriental medicine. The seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (EZJ) has been also traditionally used for psychiatric disorders in Chinese and Korean medicines. Recent findings have indicated that EZJ improves memory impairment, a common symptom of various neurological diseases. However, the effects of EZJ on amyloid β (Aβ) toxicity, which is a main cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD), remain to be elucidated...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199135/deficits-in-synaptic-function-occur-at-medial-perforant-path-granule-cell-synapses-prior-to-schaffer-collateral-ca1-pyramidal-cell-synapses-in-the-novel-tgf344-alzheimer-s-disease-rat-model
#11
Lindsey A Smith, Lori L McMahon
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology begins decades prior to onset of clinical symptoms, and the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus are among the first and most extensively impacted brain regions. The TgF344-AD rat model, which more fully recapitulates human AD pathology in an age-dependent manner, is a next generation preclinical rodent model for understanding pathophysiological processes underlying the earliest stages of AD (Cohen et al., 2013). Whether synaptic alterations occur in hippocampus prior to reported learning and memory deficit is not known...
November 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197324/altered-phosphorylation-electrophysiology-and-behavior-on-attenuation-of-pde4b-action-in-hippocampus
#12
Susan L Campbell, Thomas van Groen, Inga Kadish, Lisa High Mitchell Smoot, Graeme B Bolger
BACKGROUND: PDE4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases regulate 3', 5' cAMP abundance in the CNS and thereby regulate PKA activity and phosphorylation of CREB, which has been implicated in learning and memory, depression and other functions. The PDE4 isoform PDE4B1 also interacts with the DISC1 protein, implicated in neural development and behavioral disorders. The cellular functions of PDE4B1 have been investigated extensively, but its function(s) in the intact organism remained unexplored...
December 2, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196604/camkii-regulates-the-de-palmitoylation-and-synaptic-removal-of-akap79-150-to-mediate-structural-ltd
#13
Kevin M Woolfrey, Heather O'Leary, Dayton J Goodell, Holly R Robertson, Eric A Horne, Steven J Coultrap, Mark L Dell'Acqua, K Ulrich Bayer
Both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) of excitatory synapse strength require the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and its autonomous activity generated by T286 autophosphorylation. Additionally, LTP and LTD are correlated with dendritic spine enlargement and shrinkage that are accompanied by the synaptic accumulation or removal, respectively, of the AMPA-receptor regulatory scaffold protein A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) 79/150. We show here that the spine shrinkage associated with LTD indeed requires synaptic AKAP79/150 removal, which in turn requires CaMKII activity...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196318/inactivation-of-nmda-receptors-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-during-cocaine-self-administration-prevents-glua1-up-regulation-but-with-paradoxical-increases-in-cocaine-seeking-behavior
#14
Daniel Guzman, Maria B Carreira, Allyson K Friedman, Megumi Adachi, Rachael L Neve, Lisa M Monteggia, Ming-Hu Han, Christopher W Cowan, David W Self
Cocaine self-administration increases expression of GluA1 subunits in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons that subsequently enhance the motivation for cocaine. This increase in GluA1 may be dependent on concomitant NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation during self-administration, similar to cocaine-induced LTP in the VTA. In this study, we used viral-mediated expression of a dominant negative GluN1 subunit (HSV-dnGluN1) in VTA neurons to study the effect of transient NMDAR inactivation on the GluA1 increases induced by chronic cocaine self-administration in male rats...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196146/a-non-synaptic-mechanism-of-complex-learning-modulation-of-intrinsic-neuronal-excitability
#15
Naveen Chandra, Edi Barkai
Training rats in a particularly difficult olfactory discrimination task initiates a period of accelerated learning of other odors, manifested as a dramatic increase in the rats' capacity to acquire memories for new odors once they have learned the first discrimination task, implying that rule learning has taken place. At the cellular level, pyramidal neurons in the piriform cortex, hippocampus and bsolateral amygdala of olfactory-discrimination trained rats show enhanced intrinsic neuronal excitability that lasts for several days after rule learning...
November 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191438/real-time-eeg-defined-excitability-states-determine-efficacy-of-tms-induced-plasticity-in-human-motor-cortex
#16
Christoph Zrenner, Debora Desideri, Paolo Belardinelli, Ulf Ziemann
BACKGROUND: Rapidly changing excitability states in an oscillating neuronal network can explain response variability to external stimulation, but if repetitive stimulation of always the same high- or low-excitability state results in long-term plasticity of opposite direction has never been explored in vivo. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Different phases of the endogenous sensorimotor μ-rhythm represent different states of corticospinal excitability, and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of always the same high- vs...
November 24, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189308/lactotripeptides-supplementations-alleviate-the-decrease-in-maximal-isometric-force-following-high-intensity-eccentric-exercise-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blinded-clinical-trial
#17
Kaname Tagawa, Song-Gyu Ra, Youngju Choi, Seiji Maeda
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether lactotripeptides (LTP) supplementations alleviate the decrease in the maximal isometric force (MIF), an indirect marker of muscle damage, following eccentric exercise (ECC). DESIGN: Twenty-two young men performed 50-ECC of the elbow flexors using an isokinetic dynamometer. The subjects were randomly assigned to either the placebo or LTP group, and were each given a 4.5 mg/day placebo or LTP three-time on the exercise day and the day after...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187215/criteria-for-identifying-the-molecular-basis-of-the-engram-camkii-pkmzeta
#18
REVIEW
John Lisman
The engram refers to the molecular changes by which a memory is stored in the brain. Substantial evidence suggests that memory involves learning-dependent changes at synapses, a process termed long-term potentiation (LTP). Thus, understanding the storages process that underlies LTP may provide insight into how the engram is stored. LTP involves induction, maintenance (storage), and expression sub-processes; special tests are required to specifically reveal properties of the storage process. The strongest of these is the Erasure test in which a transiently applied agent that attacks a putative storage molecule may lead to persistent erasure of previously induced LTP/memory...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186359/in-the-piriform-cortex-the-primary-impetus-for-information-encoding-through-synaptic-plasticity-is-provided-by-descending-rather-than-ascending-olfactory-inputs
#19
Christina Strauch, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
Information encoding by means of persistent changes in synaptic strength supports long-term information storage and memory in structures such as the hippocampus. In the piriform cortex (PC), that engages in the processing of associative memory, only short-term synaptic plasticity has been described to date, both in vitro and in anesthetized rodents in vivo. Whether the PC maintains changes in synaptic strength for longer periods of time is unknown: Such a property would indicate that it can serve as a repository for long-term memories...
November 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184500/camkii-requirement-for-in-vivo-insular-cortex-ltp-maintenance-and-cta-memory-persistence
#20
Yectivani Juárez-Muñoz, Laura E Ramos-Languren, Martha L Escobar
Calcium-calmodulin/dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays an essential role in LTP induction, but since it has the capacity to remain persistently activated even after the decay of external stimuli it has been proposed that it can also be necessary for LTP maintenance and therefore for memory persistence. It has been shown that basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (Bla) stimulation induces long-term potentiation (LTP) in the insular cortex (IC), a neocortical region implicated in the acquisition and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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