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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213516/rapid-regulation-of-sialidase-activity-in-response-to-neural-activity-and-sialic-acid-removal-during-memory-processing-in-rat-hippocampus
#1
Akira Minami, Yuko Meguro, Sayaka Ishibashi, Ami Ishii, Mako Shiratori, Saki Sai, Yuuki Horii, Hirotaka Shimizu, Hokuto Fukumoto, Sumika Shinba, Risa Taguchi, Tadanobu Takahashi, Tadamune Otsubo, Kiyoshi Ikeda, Takashi Suzuki
Sialidase cleaves sialic acids on the extracellular cell surface as well as inside the cell, and is necessary for normal long-term potentiation (LTP) at MF-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses and for hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Here, we investigated in detail the role of sialidase in memory processing. Sialidase activity measured with 4MU-Neu5Ac or X-Neu5Ac and FRV LB was increased by high K(+)-induced membrane depolarization. Sialidase activity was also increased by chemical LTP induction with forskolin and activation of BDNF signaling, non-NMDARs or NMDARs...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211543/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-physiology-of-low-nanomolar-concentrations-of-zn-2-in-artificial-cerebrospinal-fluid
#2
Haruna Tamano, Ryusuke Nishio, Yukina Shakushi, Miku Sasaki, Yuta Koike, Misa Osawa, Atsushi Takeda
Artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), i.e., brain extracellular medium, which includes Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), but not other divalent cations such as Zn(2+), has been used for in vitro and in vivo experiments. The present study deals with the physiological significance of extracellular Zn(2+) in ACSF. Spontaneous presynaptic activity is suppressed in the stratum lucidum of brain slices from young rats bathed in ACSF containing 10 nM ZnCl2, indicating that extracellular Zn(2+) modifies hippocampal presynaptic activity...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207852/tetraspanin-6-a-novel-regulator-of-hippocampal-synaptic-transmission-and-long-term-plasticity
#3
Isabel H Salas, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh, Amaia M Arranz, Francesc X Guix, Rudi D'Hooge, José A Esteban, Bart De Strooper, Carlos G Dotti
Tetraspanins (Tspan) are transmembrane proteins with important scaffold and signalling functions. Deletions of Tetraspanin 6 (Tspan6) gene, a member of the tetraspanin family, have been reported in patients with Epilepsy Female-restricted with Mental Retardation (EFMR). Interestingly, mutations in Tspan7, highly homologous to Tspan6, are associated with X-linked intellectual disability, suggesting that these two proteins are important for cognition. Considering recent evidences showing that Tspan7 plays a key role in synapse development and AMPAR trafficking, we initiated the study of Tspan6 in synaptic function using a Tspan6 knock out mouse model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207780/analyzing-pepsin-degradation-assay-conditions-used-for-allergenicity-assessments-to-ensure-that-pepsin-susceptible-and-pepsin-resistant-dietary-proteins-are-distinguishable
#4
Rong Wang, Thomas C Edrington, S Bradley Storrs, Kathleen S Crowley, Jason M Ward, Thomas C Lee, Zi L Liu, Bin Li, Kevin C Glenn
The susceptibility of a dietary protein to proteolytic degradation by digestive enzymes, such as gastric pepsin, provides information on the likelihood of systemic exposure to a structurally intact and biologically active macromolecule, thus informing on the safety of proteins for human and animal consumption. Therefore, the purpose of standardized in vitro degradation studies that are performed during protein safety assessments is to distinguish whether proteins of interest are susceptible or resistant to pepsin degradation via a study design that enables study-to-study comparison...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205565/entorhinal-cortex-dysfunction-can-be-rescued-by-inhibition-of-microglial-rage-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#5
Chiara Criscuolo, Veronica Fontebasso, Silvia Middei, Martina Stazi, Martine Ammassari-Teule, Shirley ShiDu Yan, Nicola Origlia
The Entorhinal cortex (EC) has been implicated in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, spreading of neuronal dysfunction within the EC-Hippocampal network has been suggested. We have investigated the time course of EC dysfunction in the AD mouse model carrying human mutation of amyloid precursor protein (mhAPP) expressing human Aβ. We found that in mhAPP mice plasticity impairment is first observed in EC superficial layer and further affected with time. A selective impairment of LTP was observed in layer II horizontal connections of EC slices from 2 month old mhAPP mice, whereas at later stage of neurodegeneration (6 month) basal synaptic transmission and LTD were also affected...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203201/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cortex-needs-to-understand-all-the-players
#6
REVIEW
Claire N J Meunier, Pascal Chameau, Philippe M Fossier
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in cognitive tasks such as working memory, decision making, risk assessment and regulation of attention. These functions performed by the PFC are supposed to rely on rhythmic electrical activity generated by neuronal network oscillations determined by a precise balance between excitation and inhibition balance (E/I balance) resulting from the coordinated activities of recurrent excitation and feedback and feedforward inhibition. Functional alterations in PFC functions have been associated with cognitive deficits in several pathologies such as major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203145/bidirectional-hebbian-plasticity-induced-by-low-frequency-stimulation-in-basal-dendrites-of-rat-barrel-cortex-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons
#7
Andrea Díez-García, Natali Barros-Zulaica, Ángel Núñez, Washington Buño, David Fernández de Sevilla
According to Hebb's original hypothesis (Hebb, 1949), synapses are reinforced when presynaptic activity triggers postsynaptic firing, resulting in long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic efficacy. Long-term depression (LTD) is a use-dependent decrease in synaptic strength that is thought to be due to synaptic input causing a weak postsynaptic effect. Although the mechanisms that mediate long-term synaptic plasticity have been investigated for at least three decades not all question have as yet been answered...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202907/calpain-1-deletion-impairs-mglur-dependent-ltd-and-fear-memory-extinction
#8
Guoqi Zhu, Victor Briz, Jeff Seinfeld, Yan Liu, Xiaoning Bi, Michel Baudry
Recent studies indicate that calpain-1 is required for the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) elicited by theta-burst stimulation in field CA1 of hippocampus. Here we determined the contribution of calpain-1 in another type of synaptic plasticity, the long-term depression (LTD) elicited by activation of type-I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR-LTD). mGluR-LTD was associated with calpain-1 activation following T-type calcium channel opening, and resulted in the truncation of a regulatory subunit of PP2A, B56α...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199019/the-role-of-drebrin-in-neurons
#9
REVIEW
Tomoaki Shirao, Kenji Hanamura, Noriko Koganezawa, Yuta Ishizuka, Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Yuko Sekino
Drebrin is an actin-binding protein that changes the helical pitch of actin filaments (F-actin), and drebrin-decorated F-actin shows slow treadmilling and decreased rate of depolymerization. Moreover, the characteristic morphology of drebrin-decorated F-actin enables it to respond differently to the same signals from other actin cytoskeletons. Drebrin consists of two major isoforms, drebrin E and drebrin A. In the developing brain, drebrin E appears in migrating neurons and accumulates in the growth cones of axons and dendrites...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192396/metabotropic-action-of-postsynaptic-kainate-receptors-triggers-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation
#10
Milos M Petrovic, Silvia Viana da Silva, James P Clement, Ladislav Vyklicky, Christophe Mulle, Inmaculada M González-González, Jeremy M Henley
Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat hippocampus is the most extensively studied cellular model for learning and memory. Induction of classical LTP involves an NMDA-receptor- and calcium-dependent increase in functional synaptic AMPA receptors, mediated by enhanced recycling of internalized AMPA receptors back to the postsynaptic membrane. Here we report a physiologically relevant NMDA-receptor-independent mechanism that drives increased AMPA receptor recycling and LTP. This pathway requires the metabotropic action of kainate receptors and activation of G protein, protein kinase C and phospholipase C...
February 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190707/safety-and-efficacy-of-percutaneous-microwave-hepatic-ablation-near-the-heart
#11
George A Carberry, Amanda R Smolock, Mircea Cristescu, Shane A Wells, Timothy J Ziemlewicz, Meghan G Lubner, J Louis Hinshaw, Christopher L Brace, Fred T Lee
PURPOSE: To evaluate safety and efficacy of percutaneous hepatic microwave (MW) ablation performed near the heart. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study reviewed 118 consecutive peripheral (ablation zone margins within 5 mm of liver capsule) percutaneous MW hepatic ablations performed between June 2010 and August 2015. Ablation zones of 27 tumors (22.8%) extended to ≤ 5 mm from myocardium, and these ablations comprised the study group; the remaining ablations formed the control group...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188627/dose-dependency-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-implications-for-neuroplasticity-induction-in-health-and-disease
#12
Mitchell R Goldsworthy, Brenton Hordacre
There has been a rapid growth in the use of non-invasive brain stimulation to induce neuroplasticity and modulate human brain function over the past decade. An example of this is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which involves the application of weak electrical currents between at least two electrodes placed over the scalp. When applied to the primary motor cortex (M1), tDCS can induce lasting polarity-dependent changes in excitability, with facilitation following anodal stimulation and suppression following cathodal...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188425/microwave-ablation-for-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-that-met-up-to-seven-criteria-feasibility-local-efficacy-and-long-term-outcomes
#13
Yun Xu, Qiang Shen, Pei Liu, Zhongqi Xu, Panpan Wu, Zhenghua Lu, Yi Chen, Bin Huang, Guojun Qian
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, local efficacy and long-term outcomes of microwave (MW) ablation for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that met up-to-seven criteria. METHODS: Between January 2007 and January 2012, 142 HCC patients with 294 nodules, which conformed to up-to-seven criteria, were enrolled into this retrospective study. All patients were followed up for more than 3 years after receiving MW ablation. Technical success, complications, local tumour progression (LTP) and distant recurrence (DR) were monitored...
February 10, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188217/hebbian-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-at-the-cerebellar-input-stage
#14
M Sgritta, F Locatelli, T Soda, F Prestori, E D'Angelo
Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is a form of long-term synaptic plasticity exploiting the time relationship between postsynaptic action potentials (AP) and EPSPs. Surprisingly enough, very little was known about STDP in the cerebellum, although it is thought to play a critical role for learning appropriate timing of actions. We speculated that low-frequency oscillations observed in the granular layer may provide a reference for repetitive EPSP/AP phase coupling. Here we show that EPSP-spike pairing at 6Hz can optimally induce STDP at the mossy fiber - granule cell synapse in rats...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187508/the-role-of-adiponectin-receptors-in-the-regulation-of-synaptic-transmission-in-the-hippocampus
#15
Filippo Weisz, Sonia Piccinin, Dalila Mango, Richard Teke Ngomba, Nicola B Mercuri, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Robert Nisticò
In the last two decades adiponectin, member of the adipokines family, gained attention because of its unique antidiabetic effects. However, the presence in the brain of adiponectin receptors and adiponectin itself raised interest because of the possible association with neuropsychiatric diseases. Indeed, clinical studies found altered concentration of adiponectin both in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in seeveral pathologies including depression, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Moreover, recent preclinical studies also suggest its involvement in different physiological functions...
February 10, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187038/minocycline-prevents-the-impairment-of-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-in-the-septic-mouse
#16
Koji Hoshino, Mineji Hayakawa, Yuji Morimoto
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy is a major complication during sepsis, and an effective treatment remains unknown. Although minocycline (MINO) has neuroprotective effects and is an attractive candidate for treating sepsis-associated encephalopathy, the effect of MINO on synaptic plasticity during sepsis is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MINO on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) mouse model. We divided mice into 4 groups; (1) sham + vehicle, (2) sham + MINO (60 mg/kg, i...
February 9, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185983/prenatal-melamine-exposure-impairs-spatial-cognition-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-by-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-inhibition-of-glutamatergic-transmission-in-adolescent-offspring
#17
Lei An, Wei Sun
Our previous studies showed that prenatal melamine exposure (PME) could impair spatial cognition and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). More importantly, the synaptic dysfunction induced by PME was associated with the probability of presynaptic glutamate release. Considering the crucial role of the other form of synaptic plasticity, long-term depression (LTD), in some types of learning and memory process, the aim of present study was to investigate if the hippocampal LTD and cognitive flexibility were affected...
February 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185350/development-of-a-strategy-for-the-total-chemical-synthesis-of-an-allergenic-protein-the-peach-ltp-pru-p-3
#18
Sofie Buhler, Jaap H Akkerdaas, Thelma A Pertinhez, Ronald Van Ree, Arnaldo Dossena, Stefano Sforza, Tullia Tedeschi
The possibility to obtain allergenic proteins by means of total chemical synthesis would be a big step forward in the development of cures to food allergy and in the study of the mechanism of allergic reactions, because this would allow to achieve control at the molecular level over the structure of the product and to study its relationship with the allergenic activity in fine details. This is instead not possible by using allergens produced by extraction from natural sources or by recombinant DNA techniques...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182095/early-detection-of-tibial-cartilage-degradation-and-cancellous-bone-loss-in-an-ovariectomized-rat-model
#19
Yinong Wang, Zhiwei Liu, Qing Wang, Qianjin Feng, Wufan Chen
This study aimed to investigate degradation of the articular cartilage and loss of the cancellous bone in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model simulating early human menopausal stage. Fourteen health female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 7 per group): an OVX group that underwent bilateral ovariectomy to create an OVX model with low estrogen levels and a sham group in which only the periovarian fatty tissue was exteriorized. All the animals were sacrificed at 3 weeks after ovariectomy...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181190/distribution-of-alox15-in-the-rat-brain-and-its-role-in-prefrontal-cortical-resolvin-d1-formation-and-spatial-working-memory
#20
Suku-Maran Shalini, Christabel Fung-Yih Ho, Yee-Kong Ng, Jie-Xin Tong, Eng-Shi Ong, Deron R Herr, Gavin S Dawe, Wei-Yi Ong
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enriched in membrane phospholipids of the central nervous system (CNS) and has a role in aging and neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA is metabolized by the enzyme Alox15 to 17S-hydroxy-DHA, which is then converted to 7S-hydroperoxy,17S-hydroxy-DHA by a 5-lipoxygenase, and thence via epoxy intermediates to the anti-inflammatory molecule, resolvin D1 (RvD1 or 7S,8R,17S-trihydroxy-docosa-Z,9E,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-hexaenoic acid). In this study, we investigated the distribution and function of Alox15 in the CNS...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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