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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821676/brief-novel-visual-experience-fundamentally-changes-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#1
Shuo Li, Laijian Wang, Xiaoxiu Tie, Kazuhiro Sohya, Xian Lin, Alfredo Kirkwood, Bin Jiang
Long-term potentiation (LTP) has been known to be a mechanism by which experience modifies synaptic responses in the neocortex. Visual deprivation in the form of dark exposure or dark rearing from birth enhances NMDAR-dependent LTP in layer 2/3 of visual cortex, a process often termed metaplasticity, which may involve changes in NMDAR subunit composition and function. However, the effects of re-exposure to light after dark rearing from birth on LTP induction have not been explored. Here, we showed that the light exposure after dark rearing revealed a novel NMDAR independent form of LTP in the layer 2/3 pyramidal cells in visual cortex of mice of both sexes which is dependent on mGluR5 activation and is associated with intracellular Ca2+ rise, CaMKII activity, PKC activity and intact protein synthesis...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817805/ltp-at-hilar-mossy-cell-dentate-granule-cell-synapses-modulates-dentate-gyrus-output-by-increasing-excitation-inhibition-balance
#2
Yuki Hashimotodani, Kaoutsar Nasrallah, Kyle R Jensen, Andrés E Chávez, Daniel Carrera, Pablo E Castillo
Excitatory hilar mossy cells (MCs) in the dentate gyrus receive inputs from dentate granule cells (GCs) and project back to GCs locally, contralaterally, and along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus, thereby establishing an associative positive-feedback loop and connecting functionally diverse hippocampal areas. MCs also synapse with GABAergic interneurons that mediate feed-forward inhibition onto GCs. Surprisingly, although these circuits have been implicated in both memory formation (e.g., pattern separation) and temporal lobe epilepsy, little is known about activity-dependent plasticity of their synaptic connections...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815522/ceramide-transport-from-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-to-the-trans-golgi-region-at-organelle-membrane-contact-sites
#3
Kentaro Hanada
Lipids are the major constituents of all cell membranes and play dynamic roles in organelle structure and function. Although the spontaneous transfer of lipids between different membranes rarely occurs, lipids are appropriately transported between different organelles for their metabolism and to exert their functions in living cells. Proteins that have the biochemical capability to catalyze the intermembrane transfer of lipids are called lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). All organisms possess many types of LTPs...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814546/mglu7-potentiation-rescues-cognitive-social-and-respiratory-phenotypes-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#4
Rocco G Gogliotti, Rebecca K Senter, Nicole M Fisher, Jeffrey Adams, Rocio Zamorano, Adam G Walker, Anna L Blobaum, Darren W Engers, Corey R Hopkin, J Scott Daniels, Carrie K Jones, Craig W Lindsley, Zixiu Xiang, P Jeffrey Conn, Colleen M Niswender
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. The cognitive impairments seen in mouse models of RTT correlate with deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGlu7) is the predominant mGlu receptor expressed presynaptically at SC-CA1 synapses in adult mice, and its activation on GABAergic interneurons is necessary for induction of LTP. We demonstrate that pathogenic mutations in MECP2 reduce mGlu7 protein expression in brain tissue from RTT patients and in MECP2-deficient mouse models...
August 16, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813484/d-cycloserine-improves-synaptic-transmission-in-an-animal-mode-of-rett-syndrome
#5
Elisa S Na, Héctor De Jesús-Cortés, Arlene Martinez-Rivera, Zeeba D Kabir, Jieqi Wang, Vijayashree Ramesh, Yasemin Onder, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha, Lisa M Monteggia, Andrew A Pieper
Rett syndrome (RTT), a leading cause of intellectual disability in girls, is predominantly caused by mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2. Disruption of Mecp2 in mice recapitulates major features of RTT, including neurobehavioral abnormalities, which can be reversed by re-expression of normal Mecp2. Thus, there is reason to believe that RTT could be amenable to therapeutic intervention throughout the lifespan of patients after the onset of symptoms. A common feature underlying neuropsychiatric disorders, including RTT, is altered synaptic function in the brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807674/phenylglycine-analogs-are-inhibitors-of-the-neutral-amino-acid-transporters-asct1-and-asct2-and-enhance-nmda-receptor-mediated-ltp-in-rat-visual-cortex-slices
#6
Alan C Foster, Natalie Rangel-Diaz, Ursula Staubli, Jia-Ying Yang, Mahmud Penjwini, Veena Viswanath, Yong-Xin Li
The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) co-agonist d-serine is a substrate for the neutral amino acid transporters ASCT1 (SLC1A4) and ASCT2 (SLC1A5). We identified l-phenylglycine (PG) and its analogs as inhibitors of ASCT1 and ASCT2. PG analogs were shown to be non-substrate inhibitors of ASCT1 and ASCT2 with a range of activities relative to other amino acid transport systems, including sodium-dependent glutamate transporters, the sodium-independent d-serine transporter asc-1 and system L. L-4-chloroPG was the most potent and selective ASCT1/2 inhibitor identified...
August 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807671/selective-inhibition-of-extra-synaptic-%C3%AE-5-gabaa-receptors-by-s44819-a-new-therapeutic-agent
#7
Lori-An Etherington, Balázs Mihalik, Adrienn Pálvölgyi, István Ling, Katalin Pallagi, Szabolcs Kertész, Péter Varga, Ben G Gunn, Adam R Brown, Matthew R Livesey, Olivia Monteiro, Delia Belelli, József Barkóczy, Michael Spedding, István Gacsályi, Ferenc A Antoni, Jeremy J Lambert
In the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) GABAA receptors (GABAARs) mediate neuronal inhibition and are important therapeutic targets. GABAARs are composed of 5 subunits, drawn from 19 proteins, underpinning expression of 20-30 GABAAR subtypes. In the CNS these isoforms are heterogeneously expressed and exhibit distinct physiological and pharmacological properties. We report the discovery of S44819, a novel tricyclic oxazolo-2,3-benzodiazepine-derivative, that selectively inhibits α5-subunit-containing GABAARs (α5-GABAARs)...
August 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806918/systemic-lps-resulted-in-a-transient-hippocampus-malfunction-but-a-prolonged-corpus-callosum-injury
#8
Jie Zhang, Aiyuan Li, Zongbin Song
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on function of hippocampus and corpus callosum (CC) in adult rats. METHODS: Adult rats with mature white matter tract were divided into systemic LPS and saline injection groups. Animal were euthanized following 3 daily injections (day 3) and 3-day after cessation of injections (day 6). At both time points, hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP) and CC compound action potentials (CAP) were recorded, beta amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) level in CC tissue was measured by Western blot, and microglia activation was examined by immunostaining and proportional area analysis...
August 14, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804609/therapeutic-effects-of-ellagic-acid-on-memory-hippocampus-electrophysiology-deficits-and-elevated-tnf-%C3%AE-level-in-brain-due-to-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Shahram Mashhadizadeh, Yaghoub Farbood, Mahin Dianat, Ali Khodadadi, Alireza Sarkaki
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive defects such as learning and memory impairment are amongst the most repetitious sequelae after sever and moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). It was suggested that ellagic acid (EA), an innate phenol product, display neuroprotective properties against oxidative and inflammatory damages after brain injury. The object of the current study was therapeutic properties of EA on blood-brain barrier (BBB) interruption and elevated content of TNF-α in brain tissue followed by neurologic aftereffects, cognitive and brain electrophysiology deficits as outcomes of diffuse TBI in rat...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790916/in-vivo-sub-chronic-treatment-with-dichlorvos-in-young-rats-promotes-synaptic-plasticity-and-learning-by-a-mechanism-that-involves-acylpeptide-hydrolase-instead-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibition-correlation-with-endogenous-%C3%AE-amyloid-levels
#10
Gonzalo García-Rojo, Fernando Gámiz, Estíbaliz Ampuero, Daniel Rojas-Espina, Rodrigo Sandoval, Carlos Rozas, Bernardo Morales, Ursula Wyneken, Floria Pancetti
Acylpeptide hydrolase (APEH) is a serine hydrolase that displays two catalytic activities, acting both as an exopeptidase toward short N-acylated peptides and as an endopeptidase toward oxidized peptides or proteins. It has been demonstrated that this enzyme can degrade monomers, dimers, and trimers of the Aβ1-40 peptide in the conditioned media of neuroblastoma cells. In a previous report, we showed that the specific inhibition of this enzyme by the organophosphate molecule dichlorvos (DDVP) triggers an enhancement of long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal slices...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790172/postsynaptic-density-95-psd-95-serine-561-phosphorylation-regulates-a-conformational-switch-and-bidirectional-dendritic-spine-structural-plasticity
#11
Qian Wu, Miao Sun, Laura P Bernard, Huaye Zhang
PSD-95 is a major synaptic scaffolding protein that plays a key role in bidirectional synaptic plasticity, which is a process important for learning and memory. It is known that PSD-95 shows increased dynamics upon induction of plasticity. Yet the underlying structural and functional changes in PSD-95 that mediate its role in plasticity remain unclear. Here we show that phosphorylation of PSD-95 at Ser561 in its GK domain, which is mediated by the partitioning defective 1 (Par1) kinases, regulates a conformational switch and is important for bidirectional plasticity...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789837/investigating-the-amyloid-beta-enhancing-effect-of-cgmp-in-neuro2a-cells
#12
Elisa Calcagno, Francesca Caudano, Mario Passalacqua, Maria A Pronzato, Ernesto Fedele, Roberta Ricciarelli
Long-term potentiation (LTP) and the process of memory formation require activation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathways. Notably, recent evidence indicated that both cyclic nucleotides boost the production of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides. In particular, cAMP was shown to favor hippocampal LTP by stimulating the synthesis of the amyloid precursor protein APP, whereas cGMP was found to enhance LTP and to improve memory by increasing Aβ levels without affecting the expression of APP...
August 5, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782968/the-longevity-of-statistical-learning-when-infant-memory-decays-isolated-words-come-to-the-rescue
#13
Ferhat Karaman, Jessica F Hay
Research over the past 2 decades has demonstrated that infants are equipped with remarkable computational abilities that allow them to find words in continuous speech. Infants can encode information about the transitional probability (TP) between syllables to segment words from artificial and natural languages. As previous research has tested infants immediately after familiarization, infants' ability to retain sequential statistics beyond the immediate familiarization context remains unknown. Here, we examine infants' memory for statistically defined words 10 min after familiarization with an Italian corpus...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780786/-effects-of-subchronic-aluminum-exposure-on-long-term-potentiation-and-activities-of-ras-and-extracellular-regulated-protein-kinases-in-rats
#14
J Song, Z Y Li, L Zhang, Q Niu
Objective: To study the effects of subchronic aluminum exposure on LTP and activities of RAS and ERK in rats in vivo. Methods: 24 Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group、low-dose group、medium-dose group and high-dose group, and received saline (control group) or Al (mal) (3) (15 μmol、kg、30 μmol、kg or 45 μmol/kg) via intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) for 8 weeks, respectively. The fEPSP in CA1 region were recorded by field potentiation technique in vivo and the hippocampal activities of RAS and ERK were examined by ELISA...
May 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780515/the-concordance-between-component-tests-and-clinical-history-in-british-adults-with-suspected-pollen-food-syndrome-to-peanut-and-hazelnut
#15
Sarah C Beck, Aarnoud P Huissoon, Donna Collins, Alex G Richter, Mamidipudi T Krishna
BACKGROUND: Mild oropharyngeal symptoms to peanut/hazelnut occur in ~30% of patients with pollen-food syndrome (PFS). Component tests are considered a useful adjunct to the diagnosis and may help differentiate PFS from those at a risk of anaphylaxis due to storage protein/lipid transfer protein (LTP) sensitisation. AIMS: To assess concordance between component tests and clinical history in suspected PFS to peanut/hazelnut in a specialist clinic. METHODS: Adult patients were classified into PFS (group 1, n=69) and PFS with mild systemic symptoms (group 2, n=45) based on clinical history...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774210/evaluation-of-microwave-ablation-of-liver-malignancy-with-enabled-constant-spatial-energy-control-to-achieve-a-predictable-spherical-ablation-zone
#16
Thomas J Vogl, Lajos M Basten, Nour-Eldin A Nour-Eldin, Benjamin Kaltenbach, Boris Bodelle, Julian L Wichmann, Hanns Ackermann, Nagy N N Naguib
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical performance of a new microwave ablation (MWA) system with enabled constant spatial energy control (ECSEC) to achieve spherical ablation zones in the treatment of liver malignancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, 56 hepatic tumours in 48 patients (23 men, 25 women; mean age: 59.6 years) were treated using a new high-frequency MWA-system with ECSEC. Parameters evaluated were technical success, technical efficacy, tumour diameter, tumour and ablation volume, complication rate, 90-day mortality, local tumour progression (LTP) at the 12-month follow-up, ablative margin and ablation zone sphericity...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769765/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-ameliorates-hippocampal-synaptic-impairment-after-transient-global-ischemia
#17
Mingyang Deng, Han Xiao, Hainan Zhang, Hongling Peng, Huan Yuan, Yunxiao Xu, Guangsen Zhang, Zhiping Hu
Recent studies have found that administration of stem cells or extracellular vehicles (EVs) derived from stem cells exert neuroprotective effects after transient global ischemia. However, the underlying mechanisms of this effect remain unclear, especially at the level of synaptic functions. In this study, we compared the suppressive effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) upregulation by EVs derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC-EV), adipose tissue MSC (AdMSC-EV) and serum (serum-EV). Then we examined whether BMSC-EVs could restore functional integrity of synaptic transmission and plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767193/decreased-hippocampal-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-impaired-cognitive-function-by-hypoglossal-nerve-transection-in-rats
#18
Doyun Kim, Sena Chung, Seung-Hyun Lee, Se-Young Choi, Soung-Min Kim, JaeHyung Koo, Jong-Ho Lee, Jeong Won Jahng
The hypoglossal nerve controls tongue movements, and damages of it result in difficulty in mastication and food intake. Mastication has been reported to maintain hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. This study was conducted to examine the effect of tongue motor loss on the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function and its underlying mechanism. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to the initial training of Morris water maze task before or after the bilateral transection of hypoglossal nerves (Hx). When the initial training was given before the surgery, the target quadrant dwelling time during the probe test performed at a week after the surgery was significantly reduced in Hx rats relative to sham-operated controls...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765333/selective-phosphorylation-of-ampa-receptor-contributes-to-the-network-of-long-term-potentiation-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#19
Qian Song, Hong-Wei Zheng, Xu-Hui Li, Richard L Huganir, Thomas Kuner, Min Zhuo, Tao Chen
Phosphorylation of AMPA receptor GluA1 plays important roles in synaptic potentiation. Most previous studies have been carried out in the hippocampus, while the roles of GluA1 phosphorylation in the cortex remain unknown. Here we investigated the involvement of phosphorylation of GluA1 in the LTP in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) using mice with GluA1 knock-in mutation at the PKA phosphorylation site serine 845 (s845A) or CaMKII/PKC phosphorylation site serine 831 (s831A). The network LTP which is constructed by multiple recording of LTP at different location within the ACC was also investigated...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753266/evolution-of-structural-and-electrical-properties-of-oxygen-deficient-vo2-under-low-temperature-heating-process
#20
Jiasong Zhang, Zhengjing Zhao, Jingbo Li, Haibo Jin, Fida Rehman, Pengwan Chen, Yijie Jiang, Chunxu Chen, Maosheng Cao, Yongjie Zhao
Structural stability and functional performances of vanadium dioxide (VO2) are strongly influenced by oxygen vacancies. However, the mechanism of metal-insulator transition (MIT) influenced by defects is still under debate. Here, we study the evolution of structure and electrical property of oxygen-deficient VO2 by a low temperature annealing process (LTP) based on a truss-structured VO2 nanonet. The oxygenation process of the oxygen-deficient VO2 is greatly prolonged, which enables us to probe the gradual change of properties of the oxygen-deficient VO2...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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