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Benoît Silvestre de Ferron, Catherine Vilpoux, Myriam Kervern, Alexandre Robert, Johan Antol, Mickael Naassila, Olivier Pierrefiche
Low to moderate perinatal ethanol exposure (PEE) may have disastrous consequences for the central nervous system resulting notably in permanent cognitive deficits. Learning and memory are mediated in the hippocampus by long-term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), two forms of synaptic plasticity. PEE decreases LTP but also abnormally facilitates LTD (Kervern et al. ) through a presently unknown mechanism. We studied in rat hippocampus slice, the involvement of the chloride co-transporters NKCC1 and KCC2, in the role of GABAA inhibitions in facilitated LTD after moderate PEE...
October 25, 2016: Addiction Biology
S Moriguchi, T Ishizuka, Y Yabuki, N Shioda, Y Sasaki, H Tagashira, H Yawo, J Z Yeh, H Sakagami, T Narahashi, K Fukunaga
Here, we report a novel target of the drug memantine, ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels, potentially relevant to memory improvement. We confirmed that memantine antagonizes memory impairment in Alzheimer's model APP23 mice. Memantine increased CaMKII activity in the APP23 mouse hippocampus, and memantine-induced enhancement of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and CaMKII activity was totally abolished by treatment with pinacidil, a specific opener of KATP channels. Memantine also inhibited Kir6.1 and Kir6...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Cathy Joanna Jensen, Frauke Demol, Romy Bauwens, Ron Kooijman, Ann Massie, Agnès Villers, Laurence Ris, Jacques De Keyser
In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the astrocytic adrenergic signalling enhances glycogenolysis which provides energy to be transported to nearby cells and in the form of lactate. This energy source is important for motor and cognitive functioning. While it is suspected that the β2-adrenergic receptor on astrocytes might contribute to this energy balance, it has not yet been shown conclusively in vivo. Inducible astrocyte specific β2-adrenergic receptor knock-out mice were generated by crossing homozygous β2-adrenergic receptor floxed mice (Adrb2flox) and mice with heterozygous tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase-expression driven by the astrocyte specific L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter promoter (GLAST-CreERT2)...
2016: PloS One
Gabrieli Bernardi, Magali Kemmerich, Lucila C Ribeiro, Martha B Adaime, Renato Zanella, Osmar D Prestes
An effective method has been developed and validated for the determination of residues of 55 pesticides in tobacco. The proposed sample preparation method is based on acetonitrile extraction, low-temperature precipitation (LTP) and dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up. Gas chromatography and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography analysis, both coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS and UHPLC-MS/MS), were used for determination. LTP is easy to perform and was crucial to obtain a clean extract...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
W Xia, C D Mørch, D Matre, O K Andersen
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore conditioned pain modulation (CPM) effect on long-term potentiation (LTP)-like pain amplification induced by cutaneous 10-Hz conditioning electrical stimulation (CES). METHODS: Conditioned pain modulation was induced by cold pressor conditioning stimulus (CPCS) (4 °C) which was applied immediately before CES in the active session. In the control session, water with a temperature of 32 °C was used. Twenty subjects participated in two sessions in a randomized crossover design with at least 1-week interval...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Angela Privat-Maldonado, Deborah O'Connell, Emma Welch, Roddy Vann, Marjan W van der Woude
Low temperature plasmas (LTPs) generate a cocktail of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) with bactericidal activity. The RNOS however are spatially unevenly distributed in the plasma. Here we test the hypothesis that this distribution will affect the mechanisms underpinning plasma bactericidal activity focussing on the level of DNA damage in situ. For the first time, a quantitative, single cell approach was applied to assess the level of DNA damage in bacteria as a function of the radial distance from the centre of the plasma jet...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Robyn M Amos-Kroohs, Laurie L Davenport, Nina Atanasova, Zuhair I Abdulla, Matthew R Skelton, Charles V Vorhees, Michael T Williams
Manganese (Mn) is an essential element but neurotoxic at higher exposure levels. The effects of Mn overexposure (MnOE) on hippocampal and striatal-dependent learning and memory in rats were tested in combination with iron deficiency (FeD) and developmental stress that often co-occur with MnOE. Moderate FeD affects up to 15% of U.S. children and developmental stress is common in lower socio-economic areas where MnOE occurs. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and their litters were housed in cages with or without (barren cage (BAR)) standard bedding from embryonic day (E)7 to postnatal day (P)28...
October 15, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Tiernan Thomas O'Malley, William M Wittbold, Sara Linse, Dominic M Walsh
Extracts of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain that contain what appear to be SDS-stable amyloid β-protein (Aβ) dimers potently block LTP and impair memory consolidation. Brain-derived dimers can be physically separated from Aβ monomer, consist primarily of Aβ42 and resist denaturation by powerful chaotropic agents. In nature, covalently cross-linked Aβ dimers could be generated in only one of two different ways - either by the formation of a dityrosine (DiY) or an isopeptide ε-(γ-glutamyl)-lysine (Q-K) bond...
October 17, 2016: Biochemistry
Beatrice Vignoli, Giulia Battistini, Riccardo Melani, Robert Blum, Spartaco Santi, Nicoletta Berardi, Marco Canossa
Glial cells respond to neuronal activation and release neuroactive molecules (termed "gliotransmitters") that can affect synaptic activity and modulate plasticity. In this study, we used molecular genetic tools, ultra-structural microscopy, and electrophysiology to assess the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on cortical gliotransmission in vivo. We find that glial cells recycle BDNF that was previously secreted by neurons as pro-neurotrophin following long-term potentiation (LTP)-inducing electrical stimulation...
October 12, 2016: Neuron
Katarzyna Lebida, Jerzy W Mozrzymas
Experience and learning in adult primary somatosensory cortex are known to affect neuronal circuits by modifying both excitatory and inhibitory transmission. Synaptic plasticity phenomena provide a key substrate for cognitive processes, but precise description of the cellular and molecular correlates of learning is hampered by multiplicity of these mechanisms in various projections and in different types of neurons. Herein, we investigated the impact of associative learning on neuronal plasticity in distinct types of postsynaptic neurons by checking the impact of classical conditioning (pairing whisker stroking with tail shock) on the spike timing-dependent plasticity (t-LTP and t-LTD) in the layer IV to II/III vertical pathway of the mouse barrel cortex...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Emily White, Cristina Pinar, Crystal Bostrom, Alicia Meconi, Brian Ross Christie
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is becoming recognized as a significant concern in modern society. In particular, juveniles are being increasingly seen as a vulnerable time period for mTBI, as this is the final developmental period for the brain and typically involves robust synaptic reorganization and axonal myelination. Another issue that is being hotly debated is whether mTBI differentially impacts the male and female brain. To examine the impact of mTBI in the juvenile brain, we measured hippocampal synaptic plasticity using a closed-head mTBI model in male and female Long-Evans rats (25-28 days of age) at either one hour, one day, seven days, or 28 days post-injury...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Paul Strecker, Susann Ludewig, Marco Rust, Tabea A Mundinger, Andreas Görlich, Elisa G Krächan, Christina Mehrfeld, Joachim Herz, Martin Korte, Suzanne Y Guénette, Stefan Kins
The FE65 adaptor proteins (FE65, FE65L1 and FE65L2) bind proteins that function in diverse cellular pathways and are essential for specific biological processes. Mice lacking both FE65 and FE65L1 exhibit ectopic neuronal positioning in the cortex and muscle weakness. p97FE65-KO mice, expressing a shorter FE65 isoform able to bind amyloid precursor protein family members (APP, APLP1, APLP2), develop defective long-term potentiation (LTP) and aged mice display spatial learning and memory deficits that are absent from young mice...
May 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chiaki Itami, Fumitaka Kimura
Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) has been demonstrated in a variety of neural circuits. Recent studies reveal that it plays a fundamental role in the formation and remodeling of neuronal circuits. We show here an interaction of two distinct forms of STDP in the mouse barrel cortex causing concurrent, plastic changes, potentially a novel mechanism underlying network remodeling. We previously demonstrated that during the second postnatal week, when layer four (L4) cells are forming synapses onto L2/3 cells, L4-L2/3 synapses exhibit STDP with only long-term potentiation (t-LTP)...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Hannah Twarkowski, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
Neuromodulation by means of the catecholaminergic system is a key component of motivation-driven learning and behaviorally modulated hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In particular, dopamine acting on D1/D5 receptors and noradrenaline acting on beta-adrenergic receptors exert a very potent regulation of forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity that last for very long-periods of time (>24 h), and occur in conjunction with novel spatial learning. Antagonism of these receptors not only prevents long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), but prevents the memory of the spatial event that, under normal circumstances, leads to the perpetuation of these plasticity forms...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Nienke A V Derks, Harm J Krugers, Casper C Hoogenraad, Marian Joëls, R Angela Sarabdjitsingh
INTRODUCTION: Early life stress (ELS) increases the risk for developing psychopathology in adulthood. When these effects occur is largely unknown. We here studied at which time during development ELS affects hippocampal synaptic plasticity, from early life to adulthood, in a rodent ELS model. Moreover, we investigated whether the sensitivity of synaptic plasticity to the stress-hormone corticosterone is altered by exposure to ELS. MATERIALS & METHODS: Male and female Wistar rats were exposed to maternal deprivation (MD) for 24h on postnatal day (P)3 or left undisturbed with their mother (control)...
2016: PloS One
Hardy Hagena, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
Although the mossy fiber (MF) synapses of the hippocampal CA3 region display quite distinct properties in terms of the molecular mechanisms that underlie synaptic plasticity, they nonetheless exhibit persistent (>24 h) synaptic plasticity that is akin to that observed at the Schaffer collateral (SCH)-CA1 and perforant path (PP)-dentate gyrus (DG) synapses of freely behaving rats. In addition, they also respond to novel spatial learning with very enduring forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD)...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Daniel P Radin, Sheng Zhong, Richard Purcell, Arnold Lippa
Memory loss observed as a consequence of aging is paralleled by a down-regulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) that mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission. Activation of these receptors enhances long-term potentiation (LTP), a neuronal process demonstrated to be crucial for memory storage and thought to be a cellular substrate of learning and memory. In the present studies, we determined that LTP was reduced in aged rats when compared to young rats and that acute treatment with CX1846, a novel AMPAR positive allosteric modulator, fifteen minutes prior to tetanic stimulation completely reversed the significant deficit in LTP observed in aged rats...
October 6, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Marc Napoleone, Ania Z Kielar, Rebecca Hibbert, Sameh Saif, Benjamin Y M Kwan
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate patterns of local tumor progression (LTP) after radiofrequency ablation (RF ablation) of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) and to highlight the percentage of LTP not attributable to lesion size or RF ablation procedure-related factors (heat sink or insufficient ablation margin). METHODS: CRCLM treated by RF ablation at a single tertiary care center from 2004-2012, with a minimum of six months of post-procedure follow-up, were included in this retrospective study...
October 3, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
Dainan Zhang, Baozhe Jin, Tomas Ondrejcak, Michael J Rowan
Aggregated amyloid ß-protein (Aß) is pathognomonic of Alzheimer's disease and certain assemblies of Aß are synaptotoxic. Excess glutamate or diminished glutathione reserve are both implicated in mediating or modulating Aß-induced disruption of synaptic plasticity. The system xc- antiporter promotes Na(+) -independent exchange of cystine with glutamate thereby providing a major source of extracellular glutamate and intracellular glutathione concentrations. Here we probed the ability of two drugs with opposite effects on system xc-, the inhibitor sulfasalazine and facilitator N-acetylcysteine, to modulate the ability of Aß1-42 to inhibit long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 area of the anaesthetized rat...
October 4, 2016: Hippocampus
Fatemeh S Mojabi, Atoossa Fahimi, Shahrzad Moghadam, Sarah Moghadam, M Windy McNerneny, Ravikumar Ponnusamy, Alexander Kleschevnikov, William C Mobley, Ahmad Salehi
It has been suggested that increased GABAergic innervation in the hippocampus plays a significant role in cognitive dysfunction in Down syndrome (DS). Bolstering this notion, are studies linking hyper-innervation of the dentate gyrus (DG) by GABAergic terminals to failure in LTP induction in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Here, we used extensive morphometrical methods to assess the status of GABAergic interneurons in the DG of young and old Ts65Dn mice and their 2N controls. We detected an age-dependent increase in GABAergic innervation of dentate granule cells (DGCs) in Ts65Dn mice...
October 4, 2016: Hippocampus
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