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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684531/rapamycin-relieves-anxious-emotion-and-synaptic-plasticity-deficits-induced-by-hindlimb-unloading-in-mice
#1
Baohui Zhai, Xueliang Shang, Jingxuan Fu, Fangjuan Li, Tao Zhang
This study examined whether increasing autophagy could improve cognitive deficits in hindlimb unloaded (HU) mice, which was used as an animal model of synaptic plasticity impairment. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: control, HU and HU + rapamycin groups. Hindlimb unloading treatment was used to establish the animal model for 2 weeks. Rapamycin was intraperitoneally injected at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day along with hindlimb unloading procedure. The open field test and the elevated plus maze test showed that rapamycin considerably prevented the level of anxiety and increased exploratory behaviour in HU mice...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679680/ns6740-an-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-silent-agonist-disrupts-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#2
Roger L Papke, Can Peng, Ashok Kumar, Clare Stokes
Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus was previously shown to be enhanced by nicotine, an effect dependent on both homomeric α7 and heteromeric α2β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). In our experiments, bath-applied nicotine produced no significant enhancement of LTP. The α7 nAChR silent agonist NS6740, a weak activator of α7 nAChR ion channels but an effective modulator of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, decreased LTP and, additionally, produced a substantial reduction in the baseline synaptic function prior to the high frequency stimulation used to induce LTP...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679296/methylmercury-reduces-synaptic-transmission-and-neuronal-excitability-in-rat-hippocampal-slices
#3
J Gutiérrez, A M Baraibar, E Albiñana, P Velasco, J M Solís, J M Hernández-Guijo
In a previous study, we pointed out that the neurotoxic action evoked by methylmercury (MeHg), a potent environmental pollutant responsible for fatal food poisoning, is associated with alterations of cellular excitability by irreversible blockade of sodium and calcium currents. Here, we investigated the MeHg effects on synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity using extracellular field recording in CA1 area of rat hippocampal slices. MeHg caused a fast and drastic depression of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 25...
April 21, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678774/glial-cells-modulate-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-in-morphine-dependent-rats
#4
Azadeh Elahi-Mahani, Soomaayeh Heysieattalab, Narges Hosseinmardi, Mahyar Janahmadi, Fatemeh Sadat Seyedaghamiri, Habibeh Khoshbouei
Drugs of abuse mediate adaptive mechanisms leading to alterations in the synaptic plasticity that has been shown to underlie addictive behaviors. Glial cells play a critical role in modulation of synaptic strength and are potentially involved in drug addiction. Chronic administration of morphine has been shown to increase glial cell activation; therefore, it is possible that altered neuroplasticity induced by drugs of abuse is in part mediated by the activity of glial cells. We investigated the effect of hippocampal glial inhibition on synaptic plasticity in morphine treated rats...
April 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678443/high-frequency-stimulation-of-the-infralimbic-cortex-following-behavioral-suppression-of-ptsd-like-symptoms-prevents-symptom-relapse-in-mice
#5
Yassine Bentefour, Mohamed Bennis, René Garcia, Saadia Ba-M'hamed
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated, in mice, that antidepressant treatment can prevent relapse of PTSD-like behaviors (avoidance, hyperarousal, and anxiety) through increased activation in the infralimbic cortex (IL) of the medial prefrontal cortex. OBJECTIVE: Here, we examined whether direct high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the IL, provoking its heightened activation (i.e., long-term potentiation, LTP), would also prevent the return of PTSD-like symptoms...
April 10, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674952/stability-and-function-of-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-depend-on-bcl11b-ctip2
#6
Elodie De Bruyckere, Ruth Simon, Sigrun Nestel, Bernd Heimrich, Dennis Kätzel, Alexei V Egorov, Pentao Liu, Nancy A Jenkins, Neal G Copeland, Herbert Schwegler, Andreas Draguhn, Stefan Britsch
Structural and functional plasticity of synapses are critical neuronal mechanisms underlying learning and memory. While activity-dependent regulation of synaptic strength has been extensively studied, much less is known about the transcriptional control of synapse maintenance and plasticity. Hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) synapses connect dentate granule cells to CA3 pyramidal neurons and are important for spatial memory formation and consolidation. The transcription factor Bcl11b/Ctip2 is expressed in dentate granule cells and required for postnatal hippocampal development...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674171/a-combinatorial-modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-rat-medial-amygdala-by-oxytocin-urocortin3-and-estrogen
#7
Linoy Mia Frankiensztajn, Rotem Gur-Pollack, Shlomo Wagner
The medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) plays a pivotal role in a variety of mammalian social behaviors. Specifically, activity of the hypothalamic pro-social neuropeptide oxytocin in the MeA was shown to be crucial for social recognition memory. The MeA is also a hub of neuroendocrine activity and expresses a large number of receptors of neuropeptides and hormones. These include oxytocin receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor type 2 (CRFR2). In a previous study we found that intracerebroventricular (ICV) oxytocin application to anesthetized rats promotes long-term depression (LTD) of the MeA response to electrical stimulation of its main sensory input, the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)...
April 11, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674089/biophysical-modeling-of-neural-plasticity-induced-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#8
REVIEW
Marcus T Wilson, Ben D Fulcher, Park K Fung, P A Robinson, Alex Fornito, Nigel C Rogasch
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used noninvasive brain stimulation method capable of inducing plastic reorganisation of cortical circuits in humans. Changes in neural activity following TMS are often attributed to synaptic plasticity via process of long-term potentiation and depression (LTP/LTD). However, the precise way in which synaptic processes such as LTP/LTD modulate the activity of large populations of neurons, as stimulated en masse by TMS, are unclear. The recent development of biophysical models, which incorporate the physiological properties of TMS-induced plasticity mathematically, provide an excellent framework for reconciling synaptic and macroscopic plasticity...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672979/interaction-of-ascaridole-carvacrol-and-caryophyllene-oxide-from-essential-oil-of-chenopodium-ambrosioides-l-with-mitochondria-in-leishmania-and-other-eukaryotes
#9
Lianet Monzote, Gerald Geroldinger, Matthias Tonner, Ramón Scull, Sritama De Sarkar, Sophie Bergmann, Markus Bacher, Katrin Staniek, Mitali Chatterjee, Thomas Rosenau, Lars Gille
The antileishmanial activity of the essential oil (EO) from Chenopodium ambrosioides L. has been demonstrated in vitro and in animal models, attributed to the major components of the EO. This study focused on the effects of the three major EO compounds carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide (Caryo), and the antileishmanial endoperoxide ascaridole (Asc) on mitochondrial functions in Leishmania tarentolae promastigotes (LtP). EO and Caryo were able to partially inhibit the leishmanial electron transport chain, whereas other components failed to demonstrate a direct immediate effect...
April 19, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670176/activity-dependent-modulation-of-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-via-pirb-and-endocannabinoids
#10
Maja Djurisic, Barbara K Brott, Nay L Saw, Mehrdad Shamloo, Carla J Shatz
The threshold for Hebbian synaptic plasticity in the CNS is modulated by prior synaptic activity. At adult CA3-CA1 synapses, endocannabinoids play a role in this process, but how activity engages and maintains this retrograde signaling system is not well understood. Here we show that conditional deletion of Paired Immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB) from pyramidal neurons in adult mouse hippocampus results in deficient LTD at CA3-CA1 synapses over a range of stimulation frequencies, accompanied by an increase in LTP...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669804/subclinical-hypothyroidism-in-pregnant-rats-impaired-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-by-promoting-p75ntr-signaling
#11
Fan Zhang, Jian Chen, Xinyue Lin, Shiqiao Peng, Xiaohui Yu, Zhongyan Shan, Weiping Teng
OBJECTIVE: Maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy can affect the neurodevelopment of their offspring. This study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) on spatial learning and memory, and its relationship with the apoptotic factors in cerebral cortex of the offspring. METHODS: Female adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=15 per group): control (CON) group, SCH group and overt hypothyroidism (OH) group...
April 18, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668384/cell-type-specific-plasticity-at-parallel-fiber-synapses-onto-purkinje-cells-in-the-posterior-caudal-lobe-of-the-mormyrid-fish-cerebellum
#12
Yueping Zhang, Gerhard Magnus, Victor Z Han
It has been demonstrated that there are two morphological subtypes of Purkinje cells (PCs) - fan-shaped Purkinje cells (fPCs) and multipolar Purkinje cells (mPCs) - in the posterior caudal lobe of the mormyrid fish cerebellum, but whether these cell types are also functionally distinct is unknown. Here, we have used electrophysiological and pharmacological tools in a slice preparation to demonstrate that pairing parallel fiber (PF) and climbing fiber (CF) inputs at a low frequency induces long-term depression (LTD) in fPCs, but long-term potentiation (LTP) in mPCs...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666996/comparison-of-t2-relaxation-values-in-subtalar-cartilage-between-patients-with-lateral-instability-of-the-ankle-joint-and-healthy-volunteers
#13
Hyun Su Kim, Young Cheol Yoon, Ki Sun Sung, Min-Ji Kim, Soohyun Ahn
PURPOSE: To evaluate the difference between T2 relaxation values of the subtalar cartilage in lateral ankle instability patients and healthy volunteers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This institutional review board-approved study included 27 preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of 26 patients who underwent Broström operations. Data of previously enrolled healthy volunteers (12 volunteers, 13 MRIs) were used as controls. Two radiologists independently measured T2 values in eight posterior subtalar joint cartilage compartments: central calcaneus anterior (CCA) and posterior (CCP), central talus anterior (CTA) and posterior (CTP), lateral calcaneus anterior (LCA) and posterior (LCP), and lateral talus anterior (LTA) and posterior (LTP)...
April 17, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665767/nano-cuo-impairs-spatial-cognition-associated-with-inhibiting-hippocampal-ltp-via-affecting-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-in-rats
#14
Xiaoliang Li, Wei Sun, Lei An
Manufactured metal nanoparticles and their applications are continuously expanding because of their unique characteristics while their increasing use may predispose to potential health problems. Several studies have reported the adverse effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-CuO) relative to ecotoxicity and cell toxicity, whereas little is known about the neurotoxicity of nano-CuO. The present study aimed to examine its effects on spatial cognition, hippocampal function, and the possible mechanisms. Male Wistar rats were used to establish an animal model, and nano-CuO was administered at a dose of 0...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663724/recognizing-drug-facilitated-crimes-detection-and-quantification-of-benzodiazepines-in-beverages-using-fast-liquid-liquid-extraction-with-low-temperature-partitioning-and-paper-spray-mass-spectrometry
#15
Camila de Paula, Marina Jurisch, Evandro Piccin, Rodinei Augusti
A novel methodology using liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning (LLE-LTP) and paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) was developed to identify and quantify benzodiazepines in beverages. Four types of alcoholic beverages usually consumed in parties and bars were spiked with five distinct benzodiazepines (diazepam, alprazolam, bromazepam, clonazepam and cloxazolam) simulating a drug facilitated crime occurrence. The direct PS-MS analysis of the spiked beverages revealed a remarkable matrix effect with an unclear detection of protonated benzodiazepines...
April 16, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662939/ltp-or-ltd-modeling-the-influence-of-stress-on-synaptic-plasticity
#16
Achim Peters, Cordula Reisch, Dirk Langemann
In cognitive memory, long-term potentiation (LTP) has been shown to occur when presynaptic and postsynaptic activities are highly correlated and glucocorticoid concentrations are in an optimal (i.e., low normal) range. In all other conditions, LTP is attenuated or even long-term depression (LTD) occurs. In this paper, we focus on NMDA receptor (NMDA-R)-dependent LTP and LTD, two processes involving various molecular mechanisms. To understand which of these mechanisms are indispensable for explaining the experimental evidence reported in the literature, we here propose a parsimonious model of NMDA-R-dependent synaptic plasticity...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661886/distinct-in-vivo-roles-of-secreted-app-ectodomain-variants-apps%C3%AE-and-apps%C3%AE-in-regulation-of-spine-density-synaptic-plasticity-and-cognition
#17
Max C Richter, Susann Ludewig, Alex Winschel, Tobias Abel, Charlotte Bold, Leonie R Salzburger, Susanne Klein, Kang Han, Sascha W Weyer, Ann-Kristina Fritz, Bodo Laube, David P Wolfer, Christian J Buchholz, Martin Korte, Ulrike C Müller
Increasing evidence suggests that synaptic functions of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is key to Alzheimer pathogenesis, may be carried out by its secreted ectodomain (APPs). The specific roles of APPsα and APPsβ fragments, generated by non-amyloidogenic or amyloidogenic APP processing, respectively, remain however unclear. Here, we expressed APPsα or APPsβ in the adult brain of conditional double knockout mice (cDKO) lacking APP and the related APLP2. APPsα efficiently rescued deficits in spine density, synaptic plasticity (LTP and PPF), and spatial reference memory of cDKO mice...
April 16, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660932/neuroprotective-effects-of-ferruginol-jatrophone-and-junicedric-acid-against-amyloid-%C3%AE-injury-in-hippocampal-neurons
#18
Juan M Zolezzi, Carolina B Lindsay, Felipe G Serrano, Roxana C Ureta, Cristina Theoduloz, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers have been recognized as early neurotoxic intermediates with a key role in the synaptic dysfunction observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ oligomers block hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and impair rodent spatial memory. Additionally, the presence of Aβ oligomers is associated with imbalanced intracellular calcium levels and apoptosis in neurons. In this context, we evaluated the effects of three diterpenes (ferruginol, jatrophone, and junicedric acid) that are found in medicinal plants and have several forms of biological activity...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660023/radiation-induces-age-dependent-deficits-in-cortical-synaptic-plasticity
#19
Die Zhang, Wei Zhou, Thanh Thai Lam, Connie Weng, Lawrence Bronk, Duo Ma, Qiang Wang, Joseph G Duman, Patrick M Dougherty, David R Grosshans
Background: Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction is a significant side effect of cranial irradiation for brain tumors. Clinically, pediatric patients are more vulnerable than adults. However, the underlying mechanisms of dysfunction, including reasons for age dependence, are still largely unknown. Previous studies have focused on the loss of hippocampal neuronal precursor cells and deficits in memory. However, survivors may also experience deficits in attention, executive function, or other non-hippocampal-dependent cognitive domains...
April 6, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653257/%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-reduce-the-threshold-for-induction-and-stabilization-of-ltp-and-enhance-its-magnitude-via-multiple-mechanisms-in-the-ventral-but-not-the-dorsal-hippocampus
#20
Vassilios Papaleonidopoulos, Costas Papatheodoropoulos
The hippocampus is a functionally heterogeneous structure with the cognitive and emotional signal processing ascribed to the dorsal (DH) and the ventral hippocampus (VH) respectively. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Noradrenaline is released in hippocampus during emotional arousal modulating synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation through activation of β adrenergic receptors (β-ARs). Using recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials from the CA1 field of adult rat hippocampal slices we demonstrate that long-term potentiation (LTP) induced either by theta-burst stimulation (TBS) that mimics a physiological firing pattern of hippocampal neurons or by high-frequency stimulation is remarkably more sensitive to β-AR activation in VH than in DH...
April 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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